Extracted MenSC (Menstrual blood-derived stem cells) from female menstrual blood. Added various exogenous factors in-vitro and simulated the female uterine environment to observe how to make MenSC differentiation into Endometrial epithelial cells by artificial induction. MenSCs
were divided into 4 groups: 2.5×10−5 mol/L E group, 1.613 nmol/L EGF group, 2.5×10−5 mol/L E+1.613 nmol/L EGF group, control Group (only MenSCs); the relevant indicators of the experiment includes cell staining and Western Blot to detect CK and
VIM protein content; RT-PCR to detect CK-19 mRNA and VIM mRNA. The cell staining results showed that E+EGF group had significant differentiation in 7 days and 14 days. CK-19mRNA of E+EGF group was significantly higher than other groups, and the EGF group expression was obviously higher than
that of E group, and VIMmRNA expression is opposite to that. The protein expression had the similar performance. MenSC can differentiate into endometrial epithelial cells after induced by E and EFG; and the co-culture of E and EFG can achieve better differentiation, which proves their work
together in MenSC differentiate towards endometrial epithelial cells.
To see if HHV-6 may be a cause of infertility, researchers looked at 18 men and 10 women who had unexplained critical fertility and had at least one prior pregnancy. HHV-6 DNA was discovered in both infertile and fertile peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (12 and 14%, respectively); endometrial epithelial cells from 4/10 (40%) infertile women were positive for HHV-6 DNA; this viral DNA was not found in the endometrium of fertile women. When endometrial epithelial cells were cultivated, they produced viral early and late proteins, suggesting the existence of an infectious virus. Endometrial HHV-6 infection creates an aberrant NK cell and cytokine profile, resulting in a uterine domain that is not favorable to conception, according to the findings. To corroborate the findings, studies of extra fertile and barren women should be done. Semen samples were taken from 18 guys who visited the Government General Hospital Guntur’s infertility department because they were having reproductive issues with their partners. Herpes virus DNA has been discovered in the sperm of symptomatic fertile and infertile male patients on rare instances. Furthermore, researchers must investigate the role of viral diseases in male infertility.
Successful implantation is dependent on coordination between maternal endometrium and embryo, and the role of EVs in the required cross-talk cell-to-cell has been recently established. In this regard, it has been reported that EVs secreted by the maternal endometrium can be internalized by human trophoblastic cells transferring their contents and enhancing their adhesive and invasive capacity. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate three EV isolation methods on human endometrial epithelial cells in culture and to describe the proteomic content of EVs secreted by pHEECs from fertile women.
Ishikawa cells and pHEECs were in vitro cultured and hormonally treated; subsequently, conditioned medium was collected and EVs isolated. Ishikawa cells were used for the comparison of EVs isolation methods ultracentrifugation, ExoQuick-TC and Norgen Cell Culture Media Exosome Purification Kit (n = 3 replicates/isolation method). pHEECs were isolated from endometrial biopsies (n = 8/replicate; 3 replicates) collected from healthy oocyte donors with confirmed fertility, and protein content of EVs isolated by the most efficient methodology was analysed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. EV concentration and size were analyzed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, EV morphology visualized by transmission electron microscopy and protein marker expression was determined by Western blotting.
Ultracentrifugation was the most efficient methodology for EV isolation from medium of endometrial epithelial cells. EVs secreted by pHEECs and isolated by ultracentrifugation were heterogeneous in size and expressed EV protein markers HSP70, TSG101, CD9, and CD81. Proteomic analysis identified 218 proteins contained in these EVs enriched in biological processes involved in embryo implantation, including cell adhesion, differentiation, communication, migration, extracellular matrix organization, vasculature development, and reproductive processes. From these proteins, 82 were selected based on their functional relevance in implantation success as possible implantation biomarkers.
EV protein cargos are implicated in biological processes related to endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, and early embryo development, supporting the concept of a communication system between the embryo and the maternal endometrium via EVs. Identified proteins may define new biomarkers of endometrial receptivity and implantation success.
Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in various reproductive diseases and can induce autophagy and apoptosis, which determine the different fates of cells. However, the sequence and the switch mechanism between autophagy and apoptosis are unclear. Here, we reported that chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced OS (decreased T-AOC, T-SOD, CAT and GSH-Px and increased MDA) and then disturbed the endocrine environment of sows during early pregnancy, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. Meanwhile, after CRS, the KEAP1/NRF2 pathway was inhibited and attenuated the antioxidative ability to cause OS of the endometrium. The norepinephrine (NE) triggered β2-AR to activate the FOXO1/NF-κB pathway, which induced endometrial inflammation. CRS induced the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway and caused MAP1LC3-II accumulation, SQSTM1/p62 degradation, and autophagosome formation to initiate autophagy. Furthermore, in vitro, a cellular OS model was established by adding hydrogen peroxide into cells. Low OS maintained the viability of endometrial epithelial cells by triggering autophagy, while high OS induced cell death by initiating caspase-dependent apoptosis. Autophagy preceded the occurrence of apoptosis, which depended on the subcellular localization of FOXO1. In the low OS group, FOXO1 was exported from the nucleus to be modified into Ac-FOXO1 and bound to ATG7 in the cytoplasm, which promoted autophagy to protect cells. In the high OS group, FOXO1 located in the nucleus to promote transcription of proapoptotic proteins and then induce apoptosis. Here, FOXO1, as a redox sensor switch, regulated the transformation of cell autophagy and apoptosis. In summary, the posttranslational modification of FOXO1 may become the target of OS treatment.
Blastocyst implantation involves multiple interactions with numerous molecules expressed in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) during the implantation window; however, there is limited information regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the crosstalk. In blastocysts, fibronectin plays a major role in the adhesion of various types of cells by binding to extracellular matrix proteins via the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif. In EECs, RGD-recognizing integrins are important bridging receptors for fibronectin, whereas the non-RGD binding of fibronectin includes interactions with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)/cluster of differentiation (CD) 26. Fibronectin may also bind to aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13, and in the endometrium, these peptidases are present in plasma membranes and lysosomal membranes. Blastocyst implantation is accompanied by lysosome exocytosis, which transports various peptidases and nutrients into the endometrial cavity to facilitate blastocyst implantation. Both DPPIV and APN are released into the uterine cavity via shedding of microvesicles (MVs) from EECs. Recently, extracellular vesicles derived from endometrial cells have been proposed to act on trophectoderm cells to promote implantation. MVs are also secreted from embryonal stem cells and may play an active role in implantation. Thus, crosstalk between the blastocyst and endometrium via extracellular vesicles is a new insight into the fundamental molecular basis of blastocyst implantation.
AbstractEmbryo implantation is a key step in establishing pregnancy and a major limiting factor in IVF. Implantation requires a receptive endometrium but the mechanisms governing receptivity are not well understood. We have recently discovered that podocalyxin (PCX or PODXL) is a key negative regulator of human endometrial receptivity. PCX is expressed in all endometrial epithelial cells in the non-receptive endometrium but selectively down-regulated in the luminal epithelium at receptivity. We have further demonstrated that this down-regulation is essential for implantation because PCX inhibits embryo attachment and penetration. However, how PCX confers this role is unknown. In this study, through RNAseq analysis of Ishikawa cell line stably overexpressing PCX, we discovered that PCX suppresses expression of genes controlling cell adhesion and communication, but increases those governing epithelial barrier functions, especially the adherens and tight junctions. Moreover, PCX suppresses multiple factors such as LIF and signaling pathways including Wnt and calcium signaling that support receptivity but stimulates anti-implantation genes such as LEFTY2. Functional studies confirmed that PCX promotes epithelial barrier functions by increasing key epithelial junction proteins such as E-cadherin and claudin 4. PCX thus promotes an anti-adhesive and impermeable epithelium while impedes pro-implantation factors to negatively control endometrial receptivity for implantation.
AbstractMucosal integrity in the endometrium is essential for immune protection. Since breaches or injury to the epithelial barrier exposes underlying tissue and is hypothesized to increase infection risk, we determined whether endogenous progesterone or three exogenous progestins (medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), norethindrone (NET), and levonorgestrel (LNG)) used by women as contraceptives interfere with wound closure of endometrial epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro. Progesterone and LNG had no inhibitory effect on wound closure by either epithelial cells or fibroblasts. MPA significantly impaired wound closure in both cell types and delayed the reestablishment of transepithelial resistance by epithelial cells. In contrast to MPA, NET selectively decreased wound closure by stromal fibroblasts but not epithelial cells. Following epithelial injury, MPA but not LNG or NET, blocked the injury-induced upregulation of HBD2, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial implicated in wound healing, but had no effect on the secretion of RANTES, CCL20 and SDF-1α. This study demonstrates that, unlike progesterone and LNG, MPA and NET may interfere with wound closure following injury in the endometrium, potentially conferring a higher risk of pathogen transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating progestins for their impact on wound repair at mucosal surfaces.