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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
Fanglin Zhang ◽  
Philip M. Orton

Low-lying Coastal Landfill Neighborhoods (CLaNs) often have a large aspect ratio, defined here as the coastline length divided by neighborhood width, due to the common practice of reclaiming fringing wetlands along tidal waterways. Flood risk reduction for CLaNs frequently involves elevated barriers, in the form of berms, seawalls, or levees, which reduce risk but cannot completely eliminate residual risk (e.g., due to overtopping during extreme events). Managed retreat is an alternative approach for flood risk reduction, the general idea of which is to strategically ban development in hazard zones, relocate structures, and/or abandon land. This study aims at exploring the tradeoffs between elevated barriers and managed retreat in terms of both CLaN aspect ratio and storm climate, for both short-term and long-term risk reduction with sea-level rise. Hydrodynamic flood modeling of an idealized CLaN protected by different adaptation plans is used to simulate flood conditions and mortality for a range of storm surge amplitudes for both the present-day and under different sea-level rise scenarios. Results show that for a berm and a case of managed retreat of an equal cost, retreat becomes more beneficial than the berm in terms of mortality risk reduction for neighborhoods with a larger aspect ratio. The study also shows that berms are generally less effective for reducing mortality in regions with less common but higher intensity storms. This study reveals the potential of idealized modeling to provide fundamental insights on the physical factors influencing the efficacy of different adaptation strategies for mortality risk reduction.

Надка Николова ◽  

The proposed text discusses part of the work of Stoyan and Hristo Karaminkovi „Диплография или какъ ся дрьжять търговскы книгы“ (1850), entitled „Book of letters”. Karaminkovi's linguistic idiom is presented in detail. It is established that the language norms cannot be fully compared with the language norms in texts published before 1850, which were their models: Bogorov's grammar, the language of their teacher B. Petkov and the language of N. Gerov in „Conclusion from Physics“. The general idea of the written idiom of „Book of Letters” is a deliberately sought symbiosis between tradition and spoken language, a conscious and smooth transition from linguistic antiquity to spoken language. All this is explained by the desire of Karaminkovi brothers to write for the general audience („въвъ всеобщо употрѣбленiе“), which phrase from the introductory part of „Diplography“ is indicative of the meaning of the linguistic means – they are as they are in the usage of the majority of the language community.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. 3498-3500
Sana Iqbal ◽  
Rabia Hanif ◽  
Fatima Ali ◽  
Manya Tahir ◽  
Rafia Minhas ◽  

Netiquettes are general rules and customs governing social and professional interactions that are considered acceptable. Objectives: To explore Teachers' perceptions of netiquette practices by undergraduate dental students during online classes in COVID-19 pandemic. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional Study. Methodology: Research was conducted in two leading private dental colleges of twin cities. Convenience sampling was done to obtain data. A self-constructed questionnaire comprising of open and close ended questions was disseminated to the dental faculty of both colleges through What’s App groups. Statistical analysis: SPSS software, v 21 analyzed data. Results: Responses from ninety-seven participants showed that students exhibited a casual attitude in online classes and showed lack of interest and motivation. Issues like absenteeism, distraction during classes and use of unfair means during exams were prevalent. Teachers were of the opinion that students should be guided properly on how to attend online classes and provided with constructive feedback. Faculty had a general idea about "netiquettes., however, there was a significant lack of formal knowledge regarding netiquette rules and standards. On account of this, most of the participants reported the lack of institutional guidelines for netiquette standards and practices. Therefore, a need for documented netiquettes policy in educational institutes was suggested. Conclusion: We concluded that accrediting bodies and medical institutions should formulate a policy of netiquette practices. Implementation of netiquette practices in the undergraduate curriculum is the need of time. Key Words: Netiquette Practices, Undergraduate Students, E-learning and Online Teaching.

2021 ◽  
pp. 23-35
Viktor Bogomolov ◽  
Valeriy Klimenko ◽  
Dmytro Leontiev ◽  
Andrii Frolov ◽  
Oleksandr Suhomlyn ◽  

Problem. For an hour, in the scientific-methodical recommendations of the ship-experts, it is installed in the scientific-technical literature of the day-to-day parameters of galvanizing of vantage, bug-capable transport equipment, so that it is inaccurate to introduce autotransport equipment for the eastern part to inaccurate zasob_v unique road transport suit. Goal. The value of the function of galvanizing large transport bridges on the basis of the coordinates of the position to the center of the heavy transport, realizable values, which are realized between the tires and the supporting surface, as well as the support for the rear axle of the transport bridges. Methodology. The approaches adopted in the work to solve this goal are based on the theoretical foundations of braking multi-axle vehicles, the scientific provisions of elastic deformations of pneumatic tires of automobile wheels, geometric and weight parameters of a wheeled vehicle. Results. The equations that allow to calculate the value of the braking coefficient of multi-axle vehicles based on the coordinates of the position of the center of gravity, the realized couplings between the tires and the bearing surface, as well as the load distribution between the respective front and rear axles of the vehicle. Rivnyannya is assigned, which allow the positioning of the coordinates to the center of the car of a multi-axle wheeled transport vehicle for both front and rear axles. The calculation schemes of the position of the coordinates of the center of mass for two-axle, three-axle and four-axle with different axle layout are presented in graphical form, which give a general idea of the mass distribution between the front and rear axles of the vehicle. Originality. Presented in a graphical view of the layout of the positioning of the coordinates to the center of the car for a two-axle, three-axle and one axle with a small layout of the bridges, which give a far-reaching display of the space between the front and rear axles of the transport vehicle. Practical value. The results can be recommended by the experts-auto technicians in the development of technical capabilities for the drivers of vantage transport means, uniqueness of the road-transport usability.

2021 ◽  
pp. 45-53
А. Т. Комзюк ◽  
Salmanova O. Yu.

The article defines the relationship between the principles of the rule of law and legality and their importance in the activities of the National Police of Ukraine. Indicated, that the principle of the rule of law is enshrined in the Constitution of Ukraine, and in relation to the National Police – also in the Law on it. Attention is drawn to the fact that the definition of the rule of law in the Constitution and the Law of Ukraine «On the National Police» is interpreted differently. Therefore, in a generalized form, the principle of the rule of law is proposed to be interpreted as the idea of the rule of law, which is embodied in the creation of appropriate laws, their proper implementation, prohibition of arbitrariness, human rights, non-discrimination and equality before the law. It was emphasized that it was expedient to define this principle as a general idea in the Law “On the National Police”, as its other components cannot always be fulfilled in the activity of the police. In particular, the authorities and police officers cannot question the compliance of the law with the ideas of social justice, freedom, equality, etc. Nor can they, in the performance of their tasks and functions, be guided by norms of morality, traditions, customs, etc., and not by formally defined norms of law (ie laws). It is in the light of such reservations that it is proposed to define this principle. The police must implement it through certain requirements – legality, prohibition of arbitrariness, respect for human rights, non-discrimination and equality before the law. Therefore, legality is of paramount importance in the activity of the police – the police act exclusively on the basis, within the powers and in the manner determined by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. In this regard, the proposals to improve the legal regulation of the rule of law and legality as principles of the National Police of Ukraine are substantiated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
Aleksandar Mijatović

(In)distinct Languages: Revisiting the Dualism of Literal and Literary Meaning in Roman Jakobson and Donald Davidson The paper traces the relationship between the literal and literary language that is found in structuralism and analytic philosophy. The paper’s gist provides a comparative account of Roman Jakobson’s and Donald Davidson’s notions of poetic language and their relation to the general idea of language as it is given in their work. In reconsidering Jakobson’s and Davidson’s arguments, I propose abandoning the dualistic hypotheses of the oppositions between literal and non-literal language, and between literal and literary language. I contend that the notions of first and literal meanings are necessary for other types of interpretation. The dualistic hypothesis requires the cascade model, which displays a bottom-top transition across hierarchically arranged levels of meanings. Instead, I outline the multilayered structure of language with two thresholds: mimetic and semiotic. Therefore, the cascade model should be replaced with the palimpsest model of concurring, merging, and blending layers of meanings. Języki (nie)odrębne. Jeszcze raz o dualizmie znaczeń, dosłownego i literackiego, u Romana Jakobsona i Donalda DavidsonaW artykule poddano analizie relacje między językiem dosłownym a językiem literackim, występujące w strukturalizmie i filozofii analitycznej. W rozważaniach istotna była konfrontacja koncepcji języka poetyckiego Romana Jakobsona i Donalda Davidsona oraz ich związku z ogólną ideą języka, jaką można znaleźć w ich pracach. Rozważając ponownie argumenty Jakobsona i Davidsona, autor proponuje porzucić dualistyczne hipotezy, zasadzające się na opozycji między językiem dosłownym a językiem niedosłownym oraz między językiem dosłownym a językiem literackim. Twierdzi, że pojęcia znaczenia pierwszego i dosłownego są niezbędne w innych typach interpretacji. Hipoteza dualistyczna wymaga modelu kaskadowego, który ukazuje przejście od dołu do góry przez hierarchicznie ułożone poziomy znaczeń. Zamiast tego autor zarysowuje wielowarstwową strukturę języka z dwoma poziomami: mimetycznym i semiotycznym i wskazuje na konieczność zastąpienia modelu kaskadowego palimpsestowym modelem współbieżności, łączenia i mieszania warstw znaczeniowych.

Proglas ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (2) ◽  
Anastasiya Petrova

The article focuses on the semantics of the Bulgarian lexeme глух, examined on a wider Slavic, Balkan and Indo-European background. The emphasis is on the phenomenon of verbal synaesthesia, which allows the manifestation of the cross-modal character of many image schemes that gave rise to its semantic structure. The analysis is an opportunity to verify the established models of metaphorical projections from lower to higher modalities with respect to the Bulgarian lexeme глух. The relationship between perception and conceptual structure is being studied with particular interest in contemporary linguistics, so the study of the role of non-visual experience in structuring a semantic system in a language complements the general idea of linguistic synaesthesia and its role in all languages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 82-94
Wiktoria Saracyn

The main focus of this paper is an analysis of Novella XVII issued by Valentinian III, with the aim of giving a general idea on the religious policy of the Emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III. The edict titled De episcoporum ordinatione is a great example of a legislative act falling between ius sacrum and ius publicum. It shows a rather extraordinary imperial intervention provoked by a conflict between Pope Leo and Hilary, bishop of Arles. The latter was accused of various ignoble deeds which corresponded with some of the definitions of crime as described in Lex Iulia de Maiestate from the 1st century BC. Other deeds that Hilary was accused of, however, cannot really be understood as a public offence aimed at the Emperor or the State. Under the influence of Leo, Valentinian officially acknowledged the preeminence of the Church of Rome in the Western Empire, giving grounds for further emanation of the papal power.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Jinxia Zhu ◽  
Changgui Zhu ◽  
Sang-Bing Tsai

At present, a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation with information technology at its core are accelerating. At present, a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation with information technology at its core is accelerating. The challenge of new economy and new industry has put forward new requirements for the training of talents in China. The challenges of new economy and new industry have put forward new requirements for the cultivation of engineering talents in China. Based on corpus, this study constructed a model of intelligent English teaching assisted by virtual corpus. The traditional teaching of college English reading is based on, around, and for texts. Using DDL model, teachers can break the limitation of textbooks. On the basis of analyzing the general idea of the text, they can search out massive real corpus related to the general idea of the text by searching the core words in the text, so as to provide extensive reading resources for students in the maximum range. At the same time, teachers can rely on the corpus to design different types of teaching activities, realize student-centered task-based, inquiry-based, and autonomous learning and cultivate students’ critical thinking ability, practical ability, and cross-cultural communication ability. This model breaks the limitation of “classroom + textbook,” realizes student-centered task-based, exploratory, and autonomous learning, trains interdisciplinary new engineering talents needed by emerging industries and new economy in the future, and promotes the sustainable development of English teaching. Corpus-data-driven college English teaching mode breaks the limitation of “classroom + textbook,” changes the traditional college English teaching mode, and realizes student-centered task-oriented, inquiry-based, and autonomous learning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
D. Srinivasan ◽  
M. Meignanamoorthy ◽  
M. Ravichandran ◽  
V. Mohanavel ◽  
S. V. Alagarsamy ◽  

3D printing, also called additive manufacturing (AM), is a method of creating 3D solid parts from a digital document. By utilizing additive routes, the fabrication of 3D-printed objects can be made. These layers can be viewed as a gently cut level cross-area of the manifest object. 3D printing is somewhat in obstruction to subtractive manufacture, which is expelling/discharging out a touch of metal or plastic for the occurrence of a milling machine. 3D printing authorizes creating multifarious profiles employing fewer materials than conventional fabrication systems. This review article provides the general idea of 3D printing production techniques, materials used, and applications in the aircraft and automobile industry and biomedical fields.

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