Treatment Compliance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi Lu ◽  
Hao Su ◽  
Jianzhong Zhang ◽  
Yutao Wang ◽  
Hongjun Li

Background: Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a member of methylxanthine chemicals and a type of non-selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, which has been used in male infertility treatment to improve sperm quality and erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment. Mutually tight associations existed between ED and male infertility. Using PTX might kill two birds with one stone by improving sperm quality and erectile function in infertile men with ED.Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched by October 2021. Based on available evidence from observational studies and randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), we conducted a systematic review to summarize the efficacy and safety of PTX in treating ED and male infertility. The protocol of the article was registered and updated in PROSPERO (CRD42021291396).Results: From 202 records, eight studies (7 RCTs) evaluating the role of PTX in ED and three studies (2 RCTs) assessing the efficacy of PTX in male infertility were included in the systematic review. Three studies (100.00%) and two studies (100.00%) reported the beneficial role of PTX in improving sperm progressive motility and normal sperm morphology rate, respectively. In contrast, only one study (33.33%) indicated the favorable role of PTX in enhancing sperm concentration. As for ED, three (60.00%) studies supported the treatment role of PTX alone in ED, and two studies (66.67%) favored the combination use of PTX and selective PDE5Is compared with selective PDE5Is alone. Safety analysis showed that PTX was a well-tolerated drug in ED and male infertility treatment.Conclusion: Given the association between ED and male infertility and satisfying findings from available evidence, PTX administration for the simultaneous treatment of poor sperm quality and mild ED in infertile men will highly enhance the treatment compliance. However, the finding should be treated carefully until validated by further studies.

John Robert C. Rilveria

AbstractThis study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design in understanding the secondary system of therapeutic alliance from the perspectives of parents and caregivers of children with autism. In the quantitative phase, data from the accomplished questionnaires of 124 parent–caregiver dyads were collected and analyzed. Four factors extracted from the literature: treatment attitude, treatment compliance, level of stress, and perceived autism severity were examined as possible predictors of parent–therapist alliance, caregiver–therapist alliance, and parent–caregiver alliance. In the qualitative phase, eight parent–caregiver dyads (who both scored high in their alliance with therapist, alliance with each other, treatment attitude, treatment compliance, and level of stress) were interviewed to probe on their experiences of alliance-building, parenting, and caregiving. The integration of both quantitative and qualitative data led to the formulation of a conceptual framework that explains how the factors influence the secondary system of therapeutic alliance. These findings emphasize that tapping into the personal experiences of parents and caregivers can help in identifying what they value in a working, therapeutic relationship. Moreover, communication, skills training, and feedback among therapists, parents, and caregivers are essential to enhance positive attitude toward treatment, promote compliance to treatment recommendations, and address sources of personal stress. Nevertheless, this study calls for future studies to build into the factors associated with the systemic therapeutic alliance and to implement intervention programs that may target issues relating to attitude toward treatment, compliance to treatment, and experience of parental and caregiver stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Emanuele Garzia ◽  
Valentina Galiano ◽  
Giovanni Marfia ◽  
Stefania Navone ◽  
Enzo Grossi ◽  

Abstract Background Moving from the correlation between insulin-resistance and PCOS, metformin has been administered in some PCOS women improving ovulatory and metabolic functions and decreasing androgen levels. Inconsistency and unpredictability of response to metformin limit its extensive use. Aim of this study was to identify reliable predictors of response to metformin therapy for weight loss and reduction in plasma androgen levels using ANNs (artificial neural networks). Methods One hundred eight consecutive women with PCOS (ESHRE/ASRM 2003 Rotterdam criteria) treated with metformin 1500 mg/day, at inclusion and every 6 months underwent to a complete clinical, endocrine/metabolic assessment and ultrasonographic evaluation. Therapy outcomes were BMI reduction (≥1 kg/m2) in overweight/obese and free-androgen-index (FAI) decrease (≥1%) in hyperandrogenemic women. Semantic connectivity maps (SCMs) were obtained through Auto-CM, a fourth generation ANN, to compare patients’ baseline clinical features to the treatment outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the major predictor in drop-out patients and the associated risk. Results At 6 months 54 out of 103 (52,4%) obese patients showed BMI reduction and 45 out of 89 (50,6%) hyperandrogenemic women showed FAI decrease. The further response rates at 12 months were 30,6 and 47%, respectively. SCMs showed a clear polarization for both the outcomes with elevated accuracy. Treatment responsiveness resulted strictly related to oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia at baseline. In addition, lower serum testosterone levels at baseline were found to be the major predictor of treatment discontinuation. Conclusions In women with PCOS, menstrual pattern imbalance and ovarian androgens excess are the best predictors of metformin response. They may pave the way for a rethinking of the criteria for evaluating hyperandrogenism in order to better define the large population included in the diagnosis of PCOS. Baseline plasma testosterone level can serve as a sensitive marker to predict treatment compliance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Fhabián S. Carrión-Nessi ◽  
María V. Marcano-Rojas ◽  
Sinibaldo R. Romero Arocha ◽  
Daniela L. Mendoza Millán ◽  
David A. Forero-Peña ◽  

Abstract Background We have here assessed the impact of demographic, clinical, and treatment compliance characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Venezuelan patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have used a disease-specific questionnaire, the Lupus Quality of Life (LupusQoL), validated in our patient population, to measure HRQoL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 patients with SLE from outpatient clinics. Patients completed a form with demographic, clinical, and treatment compliance data, and the LupusQoL questionnaire. HRQoL was classified as better or worse according to previously established cut-off points for this patient population. Spearman’s r test was used to determine the correlations between age, years of education, disease duration, SLEDAI, and SLICC-DI with the eight domains of the LupusQoL. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare the HRQoL between the two groups of patients according to treatment compliance. Binomial logistic regression using the backward stepwise selection method was performed to identify the risk factors associated with each of the eight domains of the LupusQoL among patients with inactive (SLEDAI < 4) and active (SLEDAI ≥ 4) SLE. Results HRQoL of our patients was classified as better in all domains of the LupusQoL. Age correlated negatively with all domains of the LupusQoL, except with “burden to others”, and disease activity correlated negatively with all domains of the LupusQoL, except with “intimate relationships” and “burden to others” (p < 0.05). Patients who fully complied with indicated treatment had higher scores in “physical health” domain compared to patients who did not comply with at least one of the prescribed medications (p < 0.05). In patients with active SLE, a risk factor associated with worse “planning” and “intimate relationships” was advanced age, while having had SLE flare-ups in the previous six months was a risk factor associated with worse “physical health” (p < 0.05). Conclusion Age and disease activity were negatively correlated with almost all domains of the LupusQoL, and treatment compliance was associated with higher score in the “physical health” domain. Disease control and treatment compliance should be the main goals for a better HRQoL in our patients with SLE.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 220
Hiromu Mori ◽  
Shuichi Tanoue ◽  
Ryo Takaji ◽  
Shinya Ueda ◽  
Mika Okahara ◽  

(1) Background: Pretreatment by Rad51-inhibitory substances such as gemcitabine followed by arterial chemotherapy using antineoplastic agents causing DNA crosslink might be more beneficial for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancers than conventional treatments. The efficacy of arterial administration of DNA crosslinking agents with pretreatment of intravenous low-dose gemcitabine for patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (LAPC or MPC) is evaluated. (2) Methods: A single-arm, single-center, institutional review board-approved prospective study was conducted between 2005 and 2015. Forty-five patients (23 LAPC, 22 MPC) were included. Patients received a weekly low dose of gemcitabine intravenously for three weeks followed by arterial administration of mitomycin C and epirubicin hydrochloride at tumor-supplying arteries on the fifth or sixth week. This treatment course was repeated at 1.5-to-2-month intervals. Overall survival (OS), local progression-free survival (LPFS), and therapeutic response were evaluated. LAPC or MPC were divided according to treatment compliance, excellent or poor (1 or 2), to subgroups L1, L2, M1, and M2. (3) Results: OS of LAPC and MPC were 23 months and 13 months, respectively. The OS of LAPC with excellent treatment compliance (subgroup L1, 10 patients) was 33 months with 31 months of LPFS, and four patients (40%) had a complete response (CR). The OS of the L1 subgroup was significantly longer than those of other subgroups L2, M1, and M2, which were 17 months, 17 months, and 8 months, respectively. As Grade 3 adverse effects, severe bone marrow suppression, interstitial pneumonitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome were observed in six (13.0%), three (6.5%), and three (6.5%) patients, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Arterial DNA crosslinking with the systemic restraint of homologous recombination repair can be a new treatment option for LAPC.

2021 ◽  
Faizatur Rohmi ◽  
Moses Glorino Rumambo Pandin

Abstract Compliance to treatment is one of the important and essential components of healing and schizophrenia patient’s quality of life. Treatment compliance can be improved by identifying internal and external factors from the patient. This review aims to identify Psychosocial, Internal and External Factors of Treatment Compliance of Schizophrenic Patients. The systematic research for articles begins by identifying research articles in four databases, from Scopus, Science Direct, Sage and Proquest in 2019 – 2021 using predetermined keywords. Articles were selected using PRISMA methode, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria that set out. Twenty-five articles analyzed in this lyteratur review were all quantitative studies. The results of the research review show that psychosocial, internal factors and external factors are components of supporting compliance to treatment for schizophrenic patients

Lency S. Kuriakose ◽  
Bhavani L. Nair ◽  
Prameeda P. Radha

Background: The prevalence of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is on the rise. Understanding the various outcomes of it is essential to face this challenge. The aim of the study was to understand the maternal outcomes of GDM in primigravida and to compare the maternal outcomes in primigravida with GDM and without GDM.Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at Sree Gokulam Medical College and Research Foundation, Venjaramood, Thiruvananthapuram, on 180 primigravida mothers,90 with and 90 without gestational diabetes. GDM was diagnosed with IADPSG criteria using 75 g Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).Results: A total of 180 primigravida with singleton gestation, 90 with GDM and 90 without GDM were followed from pregnancy to delivery after fulfilling criteria during study period. 65.6% GDM mothers had good compliance with Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and exercise.  88.8% of GDM mothers required induction of labour, 13.3% had pregnancy induced hypertension, 12.2% had vulvovaginal candidiasis and 10% had postpartum hemorrhage. Thus, women with GDM on MNT or MNT with insulin had a higher risk of adverse maternal outcomes but was comparable to normoglycemic mothers if they had good compliance to MNT or insulin.Conclusions: Women with GDM had a higher but comparable risk of adverse maternal outcomes as compared to normoglycemic pregnant mothers, if they strictly adhere to MNT with or without insulin reflecting the importance of good treatment compliance. 

Ghazal Aarabi ◽  
Carolin Walther ◽  
Kübra Bunte ◽  
Kristin Spinler ◽  
Elzbieta Buczak-Stec ◽  

Abstract Background Regular dental visits are essential for the prevention, early detection and treatment of worldwide highly prevalent oral diseases. Personality traits were previously associated with treatment compliance, medication adherence and regular doctor visits, however, the link between personality traits and regular dental visit attendance remains largely unexplored. Thus, the objective of this study is to clarify this link. Methods Data (wave 7) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) were used, focusing on Germany (n = 2822). Personality was assessed using the 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Regular dental visits were assessed. Multiple logistic regressions were used, adjusting for various covariates. Results Majority of the participants (84%) reported to attend regular dental visits during lifetime. Regularity of lifetime dental visit attendance was positively and significantly associated with increased extraversion [OR 1.13, 95% CI (1.01–1.26)], increased conscientiousness [OR 1.26, 95% CI (1.10–1.44)], and increased openness to experience [OR 1.12, 95% CI (1.01–1.26)]. However, there was a lack of association with agreeableness and neuroticism. Moreover, the outcome measure was positively associated with younger age, being female, born in Germany, being married, higher education, being retired (compared to being homemaker), whereas it was not associated with obesity or chronic diseases. Conclusions Identification of personality traits that are associated with regular dental visits can support prevention, screening and clinical management of oral diseases. Further research in this field may facilitate the development and increase the incorporation of individualized concepts to enhance patient compliance and attendance, and thus the provision of oral and dental care services.

Pinar Gokmirza Ozdemir ◽  
Velat Celik

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Several statements and position papers on the management of childhood asthma and allergies during the COVID-19 pandemic have been published of late. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of pediatricians and family physicians regarding the management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during the pandemic according to recently published updated guidelines. <b><i>Method:</i></b> We conducted an online survey among pediatricians and family physicians in Turkey, using a questionnaire designed to evaluate 4 items: (1) the relationship between COVID-19 infection risk and pediatric asthma/allergic rhinitis and medications used in treatment; (2) the follow-up and management of asthma/allergic rhinitis according to published updated recommendations; (3) pediatricians’ and family physicians’ observations and perceptions of treatment compliance and the attitudes of their pediatric asthma patients; and (4) pediatricians and family physicians’ attitudes to using telehealth in the follow-up and management of pediatric asthma patients during the pandemic. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 346 participants responded to the survey. The relationship between the risk of COVID-19 and asthma was known by less than 25% of the participants. More than 33% of family physicians and 20% of pediatricians were unaware that asthma medication does not lead to a susceptibility to COVID-19 infection; 55% of family physicians and 48% of pediatricians thought that patients showed better compliance with asthma controller medication; over 33% of pediatricians and approximately 50% of family physicians stated that they could not distinguish between an asthma attack and lung involvement in COVID-19 infection; of the respondents, over 75% stated that they prefer face-to-face visits with patients, even in situations that do not require a physical examination. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The overall knowledge and awareness of pediatricians and, especially, family physicians regarding the management of pediatric asthma/allergic rhinitis during the pandemic is not at a satisfactory level. There is an urgent need to inform them about updated recommendations appearing in recent guidelines published by allergy organizations.

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