androgen levels
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Emanuele Garzia ◽  
Valentina Galiano ◽  
Giovanni Marfia ◽  
Stefania Navone ◽  
Enzo Grossi ◽  

Abstract Background Moving from the correlation between insulin-resistance and PCOS, metformin has been administered in some PCOS women improving ovulatory and metabolic functions and decreasing androgen levels. Inconsistency and unpredictability of response to metformin limit its extensive use. Aim of this study was to identify reliable predictors of response to metformin therapy for weight loss and reduction in plasma androgen levels using ANNs (artificial neural networks). Methods One hundred eight consecutive women with PCOS (ESHRE/ASRM 2003 Rotterdam criteria) treated with metformin 1500 mg/day, at inclusion and every 6 months underwent to a complete clinical, endocrine/metabolic assessment and ultrasonographic evaluation. Therapy outcomes were BMI reduction (≥1 kg/m2) in overweight/obese and free-androgen-index (FAI) decrease (≥1%) in hyperandrogenemic women. Semantic connectivity maps (SCMs) were obtained through Auto-CM, a fourth generation ANN, to compare patients’ baseline clinical features to the treatment outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the major predictor in drop-out patients and the associated risk. Results At 6 months 54 out of 103 (52,4%) obese patients showed BMI reduction and 45 out of 89 (50,6%) hyperandrogenemic women showed FAI decrease. The further response rates at 12 months were 30,6 and 47%, respectively. SCMs showed a clear polarization for both the outcomes with elevated accuracy. Treatment responsiveness resulted strictly related to oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia at baseline. In addition, lower serum testosterone levels at baseline were found to be the major predictor of treatment discontinuation. Conclusions In women with PCOS, menstrual pattern imbalance and ovarian androgens excess are the best predictors of metformin response. They may pave the way for a rethinking of the criteria for evaluating hyperandrogenism in order to better define the large population included in the diagnosis of PCOS. Baseline plasma testosterone level can serve as a sensitive marker to predict treatment compliance.

Obesity Facts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Isabel Viola Wagner ◽  
Iuliia Savchuk ◽  
Lena Sahlin ◽  
Alexandra Kulle ◽  
Nora Klöting ◽  

Introduction: Obesity in women is often associated with hyperandrogenism but the role of adipose tissue (AT) in androgen synthesis remains unclear. Therefore, we studied whether AT could be a source of androgens promoting hyperandrogenism. Methods: Subcutaneous and visceral AT was collected from lean and obese women. Androgen levels were evaluated in serum, AT and cell culture supernatant. Gene and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes were determined. Results: Obese subjects had elevated serum androgen levels, which reduced after weight loss. Androgens were measurable in AT and in cell culture supernatants of adipocytes. Steroids were higher in AT from obese women, with the highest difference for testosterone in visceral AT (+7.9 fold, p=0.032). Steroidogenic enzymes were expressed in human AT with depot-specific differences. Obese women showed a significantly higher expression of genes of the backdoor pathway and of CYP19 in visceral AT. Conclusion: The whole steroidogenic machinery of the classical and backdoor pathways of steroidogenesis, and the capacity for androgen biosynthesis, were found in both AT depots and cultured adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesize that AT is a de novo site of androgen production and the backdoor pathway of steroidogenesis might be a new pathomechanism for hyperandrogenism in women with obesity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (8) ◽  
pp. 646-650
I.V. Pankiv

Background. Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D is involved in many functions of the reproductive system. Considering the potential link between vitamin D and human fertility, authors performed this review summarizing current literature on vitamin D and possible mechanisms explaining the link of vitamin D with androgen metabolism in men. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview on the effects of vitamin D on androgen metabolism in men. Methods. Author performed a systematic literature search in PubMed for relevant English language publications published from January 2011 until September 2021. Results. The vitamin D receptor and vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes are found in reproductive tissues. In men, vitamin D status has been associated with androgen levels and hypogonadism. Further, there is some evidence for a favorable effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone concentrations, although others failed to show a significant effect on testosterone levels. Vitamin D might play an important role in androgen metabolism. Existing evidence from available trials evaluating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on androgen levels in men is insufficient to recommend measurement of 25(OH)D levels or vitamin D supplementation in hypogonadal men. We cannot exclude vitamin D effects on androgen levels in men with low TT levels or in men with severe vitamin D deficiency. This question remains to be answered in future investigations. Conclusions. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse fertility outcomes including hypogonadism, but the evidence is insufficient to establish causality. High-quality trials are needed to further evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on androgen levels in men.

2021 ◽  
pp. S145-S151

Recent molecular biology findings have shown that for the penetration of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus into host cells, a key role is played by protease serine 2, the activity of which is dependent on androgens. The important role of androgens is also evidenced by clinical observations that men in some age categories are infected by this novel coronavirus up to two times more frequently than women. In addition, men with androgenic alopecia tend to have more serious clinical courses, while men with androgen deprivation as a result of prostate cancer treatments tend to have milder courses. This is in line with the fact that preadolescent children are only rarely sickened with serious forms of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Even though these observations may be explained by other factors, many authors have hypothesized that lowered androgen levels and blocking their activity using anti-androgen medication may moderate the course of the viral infection in intermediately- to critically-affected cases. Clearly, it would be important for androgen deprivation to block not just gonadal androgens, but also adrenal androgens. On the other hand, low androgen levels are considered to be a risk factor for the course of SARS-CoV-2 infections, either because low androgen levels have a general effect on anabolic-catabolic equilibrium and energy metabolism, or because of the ability of testosterone to modify the immune system. It is not yet clear if infection with this novel coronavirus might induce hypogonadism, leading to undesirable side effects on male fertility.

2021 ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Yong Ban ◽  
Zhaolin Sun ◽  
Ye Tian ◽  
Guangheng Luo

Abstract Background: Currently, there are relatively few studies on the effects of changes in estrogen and androgen levels on prostatic MVD.This article aimed to study the changes of prostatic MVD in SD rats after castration under the effect of estrogen/androgen at different concentrations.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats aged 3-4 months were randomly divided into the control group, castration group, and different concentrations of estrogen/ androgen treatment after castration. Dihydrotestosterone(DHT) and estradiol(E) were administered daily by subcutaneous injection for one month. All the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after one month, and the serum DHT and E concentrations of the rats in each group were measured by ELISA assay. Prostate tissues specimens were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies against CD-34 and factor VIII for the MVD.Results: Compared with the control group, the MVD decreased significantly in the castration group (P<0.05). When the exogenous E concentration was constant, in general, the MVD of rats in all the groups increased with the increase of exogenous DHT concentration; Among them, compared with the castration group, the MVD increased significantly in the E0.05+DHT0.015 mg/kg group, E0.05+DHT0.05 mg/kg group, E0.05+DHT0.15 mg/kg group, E0.05+DHT0.5 mg/kg group, and E0.05+DHT1.5 mg/kg group (P<0.05). In addition, when the exogenous DHT concentration was constant, the MVD increased with the increase of exogenous E concentration in all the groups; Among them, compared with the control and castration group, the MVD increased significantly in the DHT0.15+E0.015 mg/kg group, DHT0.15+E0.15 mg/kg group, and DHT0.15+E0.5 mg/kg group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Androgens carried an important role in the regulation of prostatic MVD in SD rats, and the decrease of DHT concentration can induce a decrease in prostatic MVD. In contrast, prostatic MVD can be increased with the increase of DHT concentration. In addition, prostatic MVD can be increased gradually with the increase of estrogen concentration.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Susan F. Evans ◽  
M. Louise Hull ◽  
Mark R. Hutchinson ◽  
Paul E. Rolan

The intriguing relationship between androgens, endometriosis and chronic pain continues to unfold. Determining this relationship is of crucial importance to gynecologists managing people with these conditions, as common treatments dramatically alter her hormonal profiles, with both intended and unintended consequences. Although they may be present in the same individual, there is a recognized disconnect between pain or pain-related symptoms, and the presence or extent of endometriosis lesions. Reduced androgen levels provide a potential mechanism to link the development of endometriosis lesions and the presence of chronic pain. This research paper expands the presentation of our research at the World Endometriosis Congress in 2021, subsequently published in the Journal of Pain Research which demonstrated a strong inverse relationship between androgen levels and days per month of pelvic and period pain. Here we extend and further explore the evidence for a role for androgens in the etiology and management of dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain in women, both with and without endometriosis. We explore the potential for inflammation to induce low androgen levels and consider ways in which clinicians can optimize levels of androgens when treating women with these conditions. This article prompts the question: Is it estrogens that predispose people to a life of pain, or androgens that are protective?

2021 ◽  
Ying Liu ◽  
Yu-chen Xu ◽  
Yu-gui Cui ◽  
Shi-wen Jiang ◽  
Fei-yang Diao ◽  

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive and metabolic disorder characterized by high androgen levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperandrogenism on the hypothalamus, and subsequently on the food intake and obesity in females. Methods A dihydroxy testosterone (DHT)-induced rat model was established to recapitulate the hyperandrogenism features of PCOS patients. Body weight and food intake of the rats were recorded. The food intake of DHT-induced rats was restricted by pair feeding to exclude possible effects of weight gain on the hypothalamus. The expression levels of relevant proteins and mRNAs in the hypothalamus, primary hypothalamic neurons exposed to DHT were analyzed by Western blotting and RT-PCR respectively. The leptin levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured, and leptin was injected via the intracerebroventricular (ICV) route to test the leptin sensitivity of hypothalamus. Results The excessive pre-puberty androgen levels in the DHT-induced rats markedly elevated food intake prior to weight gain. Consistent with this, the expression of NPY and Agouti-related peptide (Agrp) mRNAs were up-regulated, which occurred prior to obesity and even with restricted food intake. In addition, the hypothalamic sensitivity to insulin and leptin was also impaired in the DHT-induced rats before obesity and with restricted food intake. DHT significantly reduced the leptin levels in the CSF, and ICV injection of leptin inhibited the DHT-induced increase in food intake. Conclusions Androgen excess increased food intake in rats and promoted obesity by down-regulating insulin and leptin signaling in the hypothalamus, most likely by suppressing leptin levels in the CSF.

Daniella Rastelli ◽  
Ariel Robinson ◽  
Valentina N. Lagomarsino ◽  
Lynley T. Matthews ◽  
Rafla Hassan ◽  


The objective of the review is to explain the pathogenesis, causes and various treatment involved in hirsutism. This article discusses the disease’s pathogenesis, causes and diagnosis. This review looks at the main significant type of hairs and clinical studies on the role of several lifestyle therapies in hirsutism development. This review examines the numerous methods that causes hirsutism in order to discover new medicaments. In addition, it covers the various type of hirsutism therapy. Hirsutism, is reported to have the strongest impact on patients’ health-related quality of life, following in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses, and infertility. To assess the types of hairs and pathogenesis, sign and symptoms, as well as causes of hirsutism. Moreover, we studied the management of hirsutism and how to treat this. At least six to nine months of therapy are required to produce improvement in hirsutism. We suggest testing for elevated androgen levels in women with moderate or severe hirsutism or hirsutism of any degree when it is sudden in onset, rapidly progressive, or associated with other abnormalities such as menstrual dysfunction, obesity, or macroclitoris. For women with patient-important hirsutism despite cosmetic measures, we suggest either pharmacological therapy or direct hair removal methods. For pharmacological therapy, we suggest oral contraceptives for the majority of women, adding an Antiandrogens after 6 mo if the response is suboptimal. We recommend against androgen antagonist monotherapy unless adequate contraception is used. We suggest against using insulin-lowering drugs. For women who choose hair removal therapy, we suggest laser/photo epilation.

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