International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health
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Published By Nepal Journals Online

2091-0878, 2091-0878
Updated Wednesday, 07 July 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 100-107
Author(s):  
Vivian Efua Senoo-Dogbey

Introduction: The prevalence of HBV among the Ghanaian population is high and also occupational exposures to blood and body fluids that could potentially result in HBV infection is also high among HCWs. However the distribution of serological markers of HBV infection among Health care workers remains largely unknown. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of HBV serological markers among the Ghanaian HCWs. Methods: A hospital based cross sectional survey involving 363 HCWs drawn from five health institutions selected through stratified random sampling procedure was undertaken. A structured pretested questionnaire was the research instrument that was utilized to collect data from health care workers who also gave 5mls of venous blood to be evaluated qualitatively for the presence of five serological markers of HBV. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure was subsequently undertaken to detect IgM HBcAb. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: The predominant HBV maker among the population was Anti-HBs; 57.4% (195/340) and the least was HBeAg; 1.5% (5/340).  One third (123/340) of the HCWs were naïve to HBV.  Lifetime exposure to HBV (Anti-HBc) prevalence was 8.2% (28/340) (95% CI= 5.0%-11).  Conclusions: Even though Anti-HBs is the predominant antibody marker identified among the population of HCWs evaluated, one third of the participants still remain susceptible to HBV infection. Protective measures need to be instituted to prevent new infections among HCWs who are currently naïve to the virus. Sanitary workers or orderlies need to be given special consideration in HBV prevention campaigns.  


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 108-115
Author(s):  
Sina Temesgen Tolera ◽  
Dechassa Adere Mengistu

Introduction: Food-borne diseases and occupational problems due to poor knowledge, attitude,s and practice towards safe food handling practices in developing countries are common. The purpose of the study was to determine occupational hazards exposure and to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice towards meat safety among abattoir workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 216 abattoir workers from December 1st to February 30th, 2018 in Hawassa city.  Systematic random sampling and semi-structured questionaries were used to collect data. Ethical approval for data collection was obtained from Hawassa University. Results:  The study indicated that the majority of them had fair knowledge (42.3%), positive attitude (43.8%), and fair practice (45.3%) towards food safety and compliance with abattoir law. The study also revealed the positive relationship between knowledge and attitude (p<0.01); knowledge and practice (p<0.001), attitude and practice (p<0.01).  The main three frequently reported occupational hazards were ergonomic hazard (19.7%), mechanical hazard (18.9%), and psychological hazard (16.7%). Conclusion: The study concluded that there was a poor level of knowledge, negative attitudes, and poor practices of abattoir workers towards meat handling, and compliance with the abattoir law. The study also found that occupational-related hazards most common in this work setting, which are persisting were needed to be improved, through training and occupational health and safety service.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 116-120
Author(s):  
Kinjal P Patel ◽  
Trupti Carval

Introduction: Usage of personal protective equipment, which includes N95 filtering face piece respirators (FFRs), was the major preventive measure for healthcare workers to control COVID-19 transmission. However, a global shortage of N95 FFRs was observed worldwide during initial phase of pandemic. Reusing mask was the only strategy and various decontamination methods were suggested. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the compliance rate of limited reuse and extended use policy implemented in hospital. Methods: Limited reuse and extended use policy of N95 FFRs was implemented for one month in lower risk areas. Compliance to policy was checked by questionnaires asked to 100 healthcare workers verbally and challenges faced by them were noted. Results: It was observed that overall compliance to policy was 80%. Major reasons of non-compliance were suffocation, followed by smell from mask and loosened strips. Conclusion: Limited reuse and extended use method was successfully used as a bridge until sufficient N95 FFRs were not available although effective decontamination method must be established in hospitals to prepare ourselves for the future pandemics.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 95-99
Author(s):  
N Sutharshan ◽  
MB Nufais ◽  
N Shrirajanie ◽  
MH Abdul Munaff ◽  
Gnanaselvam Kisokanth

Introduction: Work-related stress has become a major concern among the nurses over the years. Nurses experience a high level of work-related stress when work demands exceed their ability to cope. The study aimed to assess the perceived work-related stress level and coping strategies among nurses working in Critical Care Units at a Base Hospital in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among all staff nurses (105) working in critical care units. Data were collected using a validated and pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. A Perceived Stress Scale developed by Cohen et al. (1983) and validated in Sri Lanka was used to assess the work-related stress, along with coping strategies. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS version 21. Results: Around 30% of nurses had higher level of perceived stress while 45% had moderate level of perceived stress. Nearly 81% of nurses stated that religious activities are used as a common coping strategy. In addition, 96% of them used ‘positive thinking’ while 70% of them used ‘time management’ as the main coping strategy. Conclusion: The prevalence of work-related perceived stress among critical care nurses was high. Further, nurses use various emotion focused coping strategies such as regular engagement in religious activities and positive thinking and problem focused coping strategies such as time management and talk with friends/loved ones to overcome the work-related stress.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-94
Author(s):  
Marina Vaidya Shrestha ◽  
Naresh Manandhar ◽  
Sunil Kumar Joshi

Introduction: The greater risk of burnout among healthcare professionals is likely to develop an adverse effect on their personal life and the patients’ care. The main aim of this study was to assess the levels of burnout experienced by healthcare workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to March 2021 among healthcare professionals working in different institutions. A convenient sampling technique was applied. An online questionnaire was developed using Google Forms. Results: The total burnout score among health professionals ranged from low (9.5%), moderate (89.5%) to high (1%). The burnout scores reported were of moderate level among doctors (89%) and nurses (92.2%). There was a negative correlation between burnout and compassion satisfaction (r = - 0.207: p<0.003). Healthcare professionals perceived burnout from time pressure (22.2%), followed by administrative work (20.1%) and dealing with patient’s relatives (13.5%). The identified effective way to minimize burnout was family support (29.1%), friends (21.2%), and their interest/hobbies (15.4%). Conclusion: Healthcare professionals in Nepal bear a moderate level of burnout. The main sources of burnout experienced by health workers were time pressure, administrative work, and dealing with patients’ relatives.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 100-107
Author(s):  
Manisha Joshi ◽  
Gita Dhakal Chalise ◽  
Sarala Shrestha

Background: Welding is a hazardous occupation where welders expose to a variety of work-related hazards. These hazards might cause occupational health problems. Safe working environment and utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) play a vital role in preventing problems and promoting their health, safety and wellbeing. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of occupational health problems, workplace environment and utilization of personal protective equipment among welders. Methodology: A descriptive cross- sectional study design was used.  Data was collected from 130 welders of 35 metal workshops in Banepa Municipality using semi-structured interview schedule in 2019. An observational checklist was used to collect information on the workplace environment of selected metal workshops. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20 and described by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The most prevalent problems experienced by welders were accidents and injuries (99.2%) and eye and ear problems (98.4%). The most available PPE in 35 metal workshops were protective goggles (100%) and insulated gloves (71.4%). Similarly, 90.6% welders always used safety goggles, 41% sometimes used facemasks and 65.4% never used helmets while working.  Only 25.6% workshops had first aid kits available with no expired products and 11.4% had kept fire extinguishers in easily accessible locations. Almost all (97.1%) workshops did not have safety guidelines for their workers. Conclusion: Welders who work in metal workshops experience different types of occupational health problems (OHP) and do not use all types of PPE for their protection. Hence, metal workshops should develop safety guidelines for their workers and strictly implement it to prevent OHP.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 72-79
Author(s):  
Shivani Bhattarai ◽  
Pabitra K.C. ◽  
Aruna Gyawali ◽  
Astha Lamichhane ◽  
Alina Giri ◽  
...  

Introduction: Urban firefighting is a challenge however very less is known about how the firefighters manage on addressing fire disasters when it occurs or what sort of health risks they generally face. The health risks in firefighting are abundant however very less is explored, in regard to the Nepalese context. This study thus aims to explore general characteristics and potential stress causing factors among urban firefighters of Kathmandu valley as Nepal lacks any such study. Methods: A qualitative study design with in-depth interview questions were used to interview 15 currently employed firefighters and the station in charge of Kathmandu valley and thematic analysis was done to derive results. The study was conducted in two phases, the first phase including the use of locally translated and validated DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety and Depression Scale) tool to identify potentially stress suffering firefighters while the second phase included use of in-depth interview (IDI) and key informant interview (KII) format to explore stress causing factors among firefighters. Results: The results showed that most firefighters were stressed due family separations, difficult PPEs, lack of human resource adequacies, income insufficiency, underwhelming response at active site and lack of health addressing programs in the station. The firefighters additionally mentioned stress due to recurring bluff calls and unmanaged traffic in the city. Conclusion: Despite the solvable problems, the station lacked standard operating guidelines, physical fitness and mental well-being programs, deemed essential for the occupation in general. Therefore, concerned authorities must prioritize the needs of urban fire station and firefighters.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 80-88
Author(s):  
Ali Johnson Onoja ◽  
Felix Olaniyi Sanni ◽  
Paul Olaiya Abiodun ◽  
John Shaibu ◽  
Sheila Iye Onoja ◽  
...  

Introduction: The major means of transmitting sexual-related diseases including HIV is through unprotected sexual activities. This study aimed to assess the impact of comprehensive HIV prevention interventions on the sexual behavior of oil and gas workers in Bonny Island, a rural community of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-quantitative study that employed a structured questionnaire among oil and gas workers aged 15 – 49 years in Bonny Island. The information collected from February to April 2012 (after a three year HIV prevention and control intervention programs) includes the socio-demographics; age, gender, education, occupation, marital status and data related to sexual behaviors. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 25.0. Results: There were 419 respondents each in baseline and post-intervention surveys. The rate of unprotected sex among respondents at baseline was 82.1% as compared to 20.3% after the intervention, odds ratio-18.02 (95% CI-12.76-25.45; P<0.0001). Sixty-one (14.6%) exchanged sex for gifts in the baseline and 12.4% in the post-intervention. At the baseline, 5.0% used condoms in the last sexual intercourse as compared to 26.0% in the post-intervention; odds ratio - 6.66 (95% CI-4.08-10.88; P<0.0001). Factors associated with condoms use include sex, age, education, duration in the community, marital status, and living with spouses (p<0.01). Conclusion: There was a significant positive impact of a comprehensive intervention programme on the sexual behavior of the workers in the rural community of Rivers State, Nigeria. However, regular interventions in rural communities towards the prevention of spread of STIs and HIV are needed in Nigeria.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 65-71
Author(s):  
Jaita Mondal Ghosh ◽  
Tapati Bhattacharjee

Introduction: Housewives perform various household works both inside and outside the home, which may cause domestic injuries and ill health. Domestic injuries are usually sustained due to exposure to various physical agents. The objectives of the current study were to find out the various physical agents, the prevalence of various types of domestic injuries & to find out the association between domestic injuries and selected physical agents.Methods: In this study 500 housewives aged more than 18 years from villages of Raipur, Chhattisgarh were selected by multistage stratified random sampling. Demographic information, the occurrence of domestic injuries, and the factors associated with injuries were collected by questionnaires, interviews, and observation technique. Collected data were analyzed by using SPSS 16 statistical package. Results: Results showed that the mean age of housewives was 39.27 (±12.07) years and the majority of them were between 22-35 years of age group. Data revealed that 59% of housewives had suffered from domestic injuries. Out of them, the majority were suffering from vision problems (45.1%) and headache (36%), 21% suffered from heat, 15% got cut and 14.8% had fire burn from home environment. Around 14% got eye irritation and 12.8% of housewives had experienced falls on the floor. A significant association was found between injuries and physical agents. Conclusion: The study concluded that housewives are exposed to various physical agents in their own homes, which contributes to the prevalence of various types of domestic injuries among them. Housewives themselves and family members have to be aware of those physical agents present in their home which silently affecting their health.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-64
Author(s):  
Ramón Ruiz Mejia ◽  
Juan David Villeda González ◽  
Antonio Méndez Durán

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has grown exponentially from the first reports from China in December 2019 to November 2020. Cases have been reported in more than 180 countries, totaling more than 61.8 million cases of COVID-19 throughout the world and more than 1.4 million deaths. Health personnel, being exposed to the care of COVID-19 patients with high viral load, have the risk of developing infections associated with health care, their high morbidity and mortality being of multifactorial origin. Given that the term Biosafety and Occupational Biosafety has been used internationally, this term does not have wide acceptance in the scientific community and in the case of Mexico it is not referred to and it is not defined in the Mexican legal framework or current regulations. Far from being handled and understood as an isolated concept, this term should be referred to as multiple concepts, being recommended in the workplace in Mexico not to use it, suggesting referring to the Safety and Health Regulations at Work, whose mandatory application will allow reducing healthcare-associated infections.


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