Nano-refrigerant is announced to become an excellent refrigerant, which often improves heat transfer efficiency in the cooling systems. Different materials can be applied to be suspended in traditional coolants in the same way as nanoparticles. In this comprehensive research, mathematical modeling was used to investigate the effect of suspended nanoparticles (Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and ZnO) on 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a. The thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, density and specific heat capacity of the nano-refrigerant in an evaporator pipe were investigated. Compared to conventional refrigerants, the maximum increase in thermal conductivity was achieved by Al2O3/R-134a (96.23%) at a volume concentration of 0.04. At the same time, all nano-refrigerant types presented the same viscosity enhancement of(45.89%) at the same conditions. These types of complex thermophysical properties have enhanced the heat transfer tendencies in the pipe. Finally, the nano-refrigerant could be a likely working fluid generally used in the cooling unit to improve high-temperature transfer characteristics and save energy use.
Thermophysical Properties of Building Materials are Considered to have high importance in predicting building thermal performance, calculating thermal loads inside building, and optimizing the use of a building and insulating materials. Due to the lack of measurements of local building materials properties, designers and air- conditioning engineers have no choice but to use the published foreign data, which probably leads to inaccurate predictions of thermal loads and may give a false thermal performance. At the same time, it leads to an over-designed capacity of air- conditioning systems that lead to increased energy consumption in the building. Thus, it is clear that it was important to conduct this research to evaluate the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of Iraqi building materials. The number of the local building materials were listed, and specimens were collected from their sites, factories, and suppliers such as bricks, stones, concrete products, gypsum, etc. Those samples were dimensioned to the specific size required when a measurement was conducted by the Hot Wire method. All measurements were carried out at room temperature. The relationship between thermal conductivity, density, moisture content, and pressure for a number of materials was Studied. A comparison between the measurements of the Iraqi building materials and results published in the ASHRAE, CIBS Guide, Australian Specifications, and Jordanian Specifications was made. However, the availability of such data is important for the climatic design of buildings, thermal load calculations for air- conditioning, and choosing the insulating materials.
Submerged Groynes are low profile linear structures that are generally located on the outside bank to form Groynes fields and prevent the erosion of stream banks by redirecting high-velocity flow away from the bank. This research was studied in detail through two major stages. The first stage of the study is based on laboratory experiments to measure the development of local scour around L-shape submerged Groyne with the time, and special attention is given to the effects of different hydraulic and geometric parameters on local scour. Also; maps were drawn showing contour lines that represented the bed levels for maximum scour depth after reaching the equilibrium case. The result showed that a decrease in the scour depth ratio due to the increasing submerged ratio, and the number of Groynes. While the scour hole geometry will increase with the Froude number, flow intensity, and the spacing between Groynes, the decreasing percentage in the scour hole was measured to be about (4.3) % and (4.4) % for decreasing the spacing between Groynes from (2Lg) to (1.5Lg). Besides, it was range about (11.1) % and (14.0) % when reducing the spacing from (1.5Lg) to (Lg) under the same value of maximum Froude number. The second stage of the study is based on experimental results. A new formula was developed by using statistical analysis and it was found that a good determination coefficient.
The future wireless communication requires a reliable transmission at high data rates, so the transmission over frequency-selective fading Multiple-Input–Multiple-Output MIMO channels become interesting since the capacity of "MIMO" channels expressions enormous gains above that of their essential single-input–single-output "SISO" channels. This paper examines the performance of the Low Complexity Zero Forcing "LCZF" equalizer for both systems single-input–single-output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing" SISO-OFDM" and spatially multiplexed-Multiple-Input–Multiple-Output "SM-MIMO-OFDM" with different "QAM" modulations. It is exploring a new algorithm to improve the performance of the "BER", spectral efficiency, and power efficiency and to reduce the complexity of the "RF" communication system under the effect of the Additive White Gaussian Noise "AWGN" and multipath fading channel. It is also improves an efficient channel by developing a Low Complexity Zero Forcing "LCZF" equalizer for both "SISO-OFDM" and "SM-MIMO-OFDM" wireless Communication systems. This is done by proposing a new algorithm at the receiver side to covert the Linear Convolution in to Cyclic Convolution by adding Zero Padding "ZP" to the channel impulse response in such a way to be the same length to the transmitted signal in the time domain which is of length N, where N is the length of "IFFT".
Surface preparation of engineering materials is necessary for preventing corrosion and subsequent failure of materials in service. There are different methods of surface preparations that can affect engineering materials in different ways. This study investigated the effect of surface preparation on the corrosion behavior of zinc sprayed and unsprayed mild steel. Quantitative analysis and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to evaluate the immersed samples of different surface preparations. The results indicated that the least corrosion rate was observed for the uncoated sample prepared with CC1200 grit paper at 0.041 mpy and successive samples in the order of CC220 grit paper at 0.047 mpy < P60 grit paper at 0.052 mpy < filing at 0.064 mpy and grinding at 0.074 mpy after 42-days of immersion. The prepared samples that were further coated with zinc spray demonstrated a similar trend. The sample prepared with CC1200 grit paper and further coated with zinc spray exhibited the lowest corrosion rate of 1.35 x 10-9 mpy. Potentiodynamic polarization results further suggested that the same behavior was observed in the quantitative analysis.
In this paper the effect of die angle, fluid pressure and axial force on loading paths were studied. In order to reduce the cost and time for the experimental work, ANSYS program is used for implementing the Finite Element Method (FEM), to get optimized loading paths to form a tube using double – cones shape die. Three double die angles θ (116˚ 126˚, 136˚), with three different values of tube outer diametres (40, 45, 50) mm were used. The tube length L_o and thickness t_o for all samples were 80 mm and 2 mm respectively.
The most important results and conclusions that have been reached that had the highest wall thinning percentage of 26.8% with less corner filling is at tube diameter 40 mm and cone angle of (116^°) at forming pressure of 43 MPa with axial feeding 10 mm. However, the lowest wall thinning percentage was 6.9% with best corner filling at diameter 50 mm and cone were angle of (136^°) and forming pressure of 30 MPa with axial feeding 4.5 mm. Two wrinkles constituted during the initial stages of forming the tube with initial diameter of 40 mm where the ratio d⁄(t=20) (thick-walled tubes) for all die angles, while only one wrinkle is formed at the center for tubes diameter 45 and 50 mm (thin-walled tubes) . The difference in the location and number of wrinkles at the first stage of formation depends on the loading paths that has been chosen for each process, which was at the diameter 45 and 50 mm towards thin-wall cylinder deformation mode was uniaxial tension. The maximum wall thinning percentage was at the bulge apex for tube diameter 40 mm. But, the maximum wall thinning for tubes of diameters 45 and 50 mm was found at the two sides of the bulge apex .
This paper deals with the study of drought in the Nineveh region usingthe Chinese Z index (CZI) for a time scale (1 month). Historical data wereused from 1981 to 2018 for Mosul, Sinjar, and Tal Afar stations. Thereturn period and probability event for the moderate drought werecalculated for each month separately. The results indicated that allstations experienced the highest drought intensity in March comparedwith the other months. The average probability of moderate droughtranged between 0-0.31 for all months, and the maximum severity of thedrought was found in December from 2004 to 2008 for all stations. Inaddition, the results showed that the region's climate during the studyperiod was within the mild drought and humidity (closest to normal).This paper is the first study using the Chinese Z-index (CZI) in the studyarea and the Iraq region
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique with non-fusible rotary welds. Heat is generated by the friction produced between the weld tool and the two opposite surfaces of the two welded parts and the tool works on mechanical mixing with the presence of heat, pressure, and heat generated, reaching approximately (80-90%) of the melting point of the metal to be welded. In this study, Al 1050 H14 aluminum with a thickness of (6mm) was used for the purpose of welding it by means of the friction stir welding process in a butt welding method to obtain similar welding joints. A set with a square stitching tool Made of alloy steel was used by using a milling machine, with fixed (rotational speed of 1008 rpm and linear velocity of 40mm / min), an inclination angle of (2o), and counterclockwise rotation. The efficiency of welded joints was evaluated through static mechanical tests. Tensile tests, microscopic hardness, and visual examination. The results for all welds showed that the mixing zone (NZ) consists of fine grains of equal axes compared to the base metal. When welding on one side and in one path, the microstructure of HAZ was similar to the base metal. TAMZ was a transition region between HAZ and NZ. As for welding on one side, with two paths and three paths, the structure turned into a fine crystalline structure. By increasing the number of paths per side, the welding efficiency of the welded sample increased as the best efficiency was from one side and three paths (76.215%). Through the results, the tensile strength increases with the increase in the number of paths, as the best tensile strength was obtained when conducting the welding process from one side and by three paths, which is (93.653 MPa). It is equivalent to 76.21% of the tensile strength of the base metal. The hardness value in the weld zone (NZ) is higher than the other two zones (HAZ, TMAZ) due to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization, which results in very fine and equiaxial crystals, but the hardness value in the weld zone remains less than the hardness value of the base metal.
This study was conducted to compare water surface profiles with standard ogeecrested spillways. Different methods were used, such as (experimental models,
numerical models, and design nomographs for the United States Army Corps of
Engineers, USACE). In accordance with the USACE specifications, three different
models were constructed from rigid foam and then installed in a testing flume. The
water surface profile has been recorded for these models with different design
heads. For modeling the experimental model configurations, a numerical model
based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique was used and is
developed to simulate the water surface profile of the flow over the ogee-crested
spillway. A 2D SPHysics open-source software has been used in this study, using
the SPH formulation to model fluid flow, developing the SPH boundary procedure
to handle open-boundary simulations, and modifying the open-source SPHysics
code for this purpose. The maximum absolute difference between the measured
and computed results of the water surface profile for all head ratios of (H/Hd), does
not exceed 4.63% at the crest region, the numerical results for the water surface
profile showed good agreement with the physical model results. The results
obtained experimentally and numerically by SPH are compared with the CFD
results in order to be more reassuring from the results. Additional comparisons
were made using interpolated data from USACE, Waterways Experiment Station
(WES), and design nomographs. The SPH technique is considered very promising
and effective for free surface flow applications.