Journal of Clinical Nephrology
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Published By Heighten Science Publications Corporation

2576-9529

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 107-111
Author(s):  
Chaker Hanen ◽  
Jarraya Faiçal ◽  
Toumi Salma ◽  
Kammoun Khawla ◽  
Mahfoudh Hichem ◽  
...  

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health issue which is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Systemic inflammation exists during chronic renal failure. Recent researches have highlighted the pivotal role of inflammation between renal and cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study is to determine the inflammatory profile of the patient suffering from chronic kidney disease and the influence of hemodialysis on this profile. Methods: We carried out a cross sectional study on 93 patients in the Nephrology Department at Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax, South of Tunisia. Among those patients, 72 patients underwent hemodialysis and 21 patients had chronic kidney disease at stage 3. Clinical data and antecedents were collected. Biological samples were taken after informing the patients and taking their consent. Biological data consisted in lipid profile, albumin rate, hemoglobin rate, uric acid concentration and the usual markers of inflammation noting sedimentation rate, C - reactive protein and orosomucoid. Results: Hemodialysis group of the 72 patients had mean hemodialysis vintage of 54.6 ± 43 months. The inflammatory profile was worse in hemodialysis patients compared to chronic kidney disease patients. Both sedimentation rate, C - reactive protein and orosomucoid were higher in hemodialysis group than in chronic kidney disease group with 71 ± 35.3 mm vs. 42.1 ± 15.5 mm (p < 0.05); 14.6 ± 28.7 mg/l vs. 6.7 ± 8 mg/l (p = 0.02); 1.3 ± 0.7g/l vs. 0.9 ± 0.4 g/l (p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: Inflammation increases in dialysis patient. It deserves the nephrologist’s consideration in order to minimize its harmful effects. The monitoring of inflammation markers must be integrated into the nephrologist’s medical practice.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 088-094
Author(s):  
Massimetti Carlo ◽  
Bellasi Antonio ◽  
Feriozzi Sandro

Aim: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is an often underestimated cause of anemia in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pharmacological correction of SHPT on anemia and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) need. Methods: For the purpose of this retrospective pre-post observational study, we selected 55 HD patients, receiving HD at one single center, in the period from January 2005 to December 2020. The follow-up (F-U) lasted 12 months. The selection criteria were parathormone (PTH) levels > 300 pg/ mL, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels < 11 g/dL, despite treatment with ESAs. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used when appropriate. In the light of exploratory nature of the study, the limited sample size and in consideration of the pre-post-design, no further adjustment for potential confounders is performed. Results: The hemoglobin levels throughout the study were correlated to serum PTH (r = -.257, p < 0.01). At the end of the F-U, in the 40 patients whose PTH levels decreased ≥ 30% (responders group) Hb levels increased from 10.3 ± 0.5 g/dL to 12.2 ± 1.1 g/dL (p < 0.001), and ESAs doses decreased from 141 ± 101 IU/kg/b.w./week to 94 ± 76 IU/kg/b.w./week (p < 0.05). On the contrary, in the non-responders group Hb levels did not change 10.3 ± 0.5 gr/dL at baseline and 10.1 ± 1.1 gr/dL at F-U (P = NS), and the mean doses of ESAs increased from 144 ± 75 IU/kg/b.w./week to 218 ± 145 IU/kg/b.w./week (P = NS). Conclusion: Adequate control of SHPT is associated with concomitant improvement of anemia and decrease in ESAs need. Future endeavors are required to confirm these preliminary results.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 081-083
Author(s):  
Diab Anas ◽  
Pellegrino Beth ◽  
Neuman Michelle M ◽  
Diab Kareem

Hypercalcemia in End Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis, is a frustrating complication for both medical staff and patients, and it may lead to vascular calcification, Calciphylaxis, and even aggravating cardiovascular disease, even in the absence of risk factors which can lead to early death [1], and correcting Hypercalcemia even in the absence of hyperphosphatemia is out most important to improve co-morbid conditions and reduce mortality, most common causes in end stage renal disease, includes high calcium dialysis bath, high dietary intake of Calcium rich food, exogenous intake of calcium products, or excessive intake of Vitamin D, underlying Sarcoidosis, rare causes need to be explored in resistant cases, including Vitamin A toxicosis, as being presented in this case.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 084-087
Author(s):  
Rice Christopher ◽  
Kosuru Vatsalya ◽  
White John Jason ◽  
Beek Christine Van ◽  
Elam Rachel ◽  
...  

Background: Relapsing polychondritis is a rare systemic disease characterized by recurrent inflammation, and often destruction, of cartilaginous tissues. Renal manifestations are rare. Membranous nephropathy complicating relapsing polychondritis has been reported only once previously, and there is no standardized treatment for membranous nephropathy associated with relapsing polychondritis. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic renal disease presented with 9 months of progressive dyspnea on exertion and 5 months of erythema, pain, and collapse of auricular cartilage. Imaging studies confirmed active inflammation of laryngeal, auricular, and costal cartilage and he was diagnosed with relapsing polychondritis. Patient had longstanding proteinuria and renal biopsy demonstrated membranous nephropathy. Patient initially showed renal and respiratory improvement with etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor, treatment. However, subsequent disease and treatment-related complications led to a progressive overall clinical decline and patient died approximately 1 year following relapsing polychondritis diagnosis. Conclusion: Membranous nephropathy may rarely complicate relapsing polychondritis. In our case, both the cartilaginous inflammation and the renal disease improved after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade, however complications of existing airway disease led to recurrent hospitalizations and eventually death.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 077-080
Author(s):  
Tamzaourte Mouna ◽  
Zajjari Yassir ◽  
Berrag Sanae ◽  
Adioui Tarik ◽  
Aourarh Aziz ◽  
...  

The introduction of a new class of drugs known as direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents represents a revolution in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the general population, as these regimens are associated with higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates and fewer side effects. However, for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease suffering from HVC infection, treatment options including DAA remain limited. The aim of this study is to report our experience on Sofosbuvir (SOF) based regimen in the treatment of HCV in hemodialysis patients. In this observational study, we included all patients with chronic HCV infection on hemodialysis who were treated with SOF in our Hospital between April 2016 and March 2018. All patients were treated with a combination of 400 mg of SOF three times a week after hemodialysis and of 60 mg of Daclatasvir daily for a total of 12 to 24 weeks. A total of 20 hemodialysis patients were included in this study. 12 were females and the mean age was 52.1 ± 15.5 years. 11 patients were infected with HCV genotypes 1b. All patients achieved SVR. Clinical and biological tolerance was very good for all patients and none of them had to discontinue treatment because of side effects or developed hepatobiliary and cardiac toxicity. Two patients reported fatigue and another patient reported headaches. However, these symptoms were spontaneously resolved after the end of the treatment. In Morocco, despite the absence of new DAA combination treatment regimens which are not renally eliminated, our study concludes that SOF based treatment without Ribavirin or Peginterferon was effective and safe with minimal side effects. However, larger studies are still needed in order to validate these results.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 067-076
Author(s):  
Faizan Mohammed K ◽  
McCracken Courtney ◽  
Lieberman Kenneth ◽  
Leong Traci ◽  
Benfield Mark R

Objective: We set up a U.S. registry to examine prescription patterns and patient outcomes of repository corticotropin injection (Acthar® Gel) for childhood nephrotic syndrome. Methods: 18 participating U.S. pediatric centers performed retrospective review and prospective observation of patients < 21 years old with nephrotic syndrome treated with Acthar Gel. We captured baseline characteristics, drug regimen and duration, and disease response following treatment. Results: 46 patients, enrolled from 2015 to 2020 were included. 27 (58.7%) were male. 18 patients (39.1%) had a diagnosis of minimal change followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 16 patients (34.7%). Median age at start of treatment was 12.5 years (IQR 8.5-17.4) compared to 5.3 years at diagnosis (IQR 2.7-10.5 years). 52% were resistant to corticosteroids. The most common Acthar Gel regimen was 80IU twice a week with a median duration of 199 days (IQR 88-365). Among 37 patients with active disease, 18 (49%) were able to achieve partial or complete remission, though all patients that had a positive response were on other immunosuppressants concomitantly. Conclusion: We report the findings of the largest registry cohort of pediatric patients in the U.S. treated with Acthar Gel for clinically challenging cases of nephrotic syndrome. Acthar Gel was successful in inducing remission in approximately half of the patients with active disease at time of treatment. No predictors of response with respect to demographic data, age at start of Acthar Gel therapy, etiology of nephrotic syndrome, presence or absence of comorbidities, or steroid responsiveness was noted.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 061-066
Author(s):  
Daza Lopez José Lucas ◽  
Galindo John F ◽  
Villaquiran Mónica R ◽  
Valenzuela Emilio D ◽  
Cardenas Andres ◽  
...  

Background and objectives: An arteriovenous fistula is considered to be an ideal vascular access for patients receiving hemodialysis, its main limitation is its high failure rate to achieve maturation and long-term functionality loss. Multiple strategies have attempted to identify patients at risk. Bioelectrical impedance has shown to be a valuable resource in the determination of the hydration status, and the measurement of the phase angle through this method has demonstrated to be a good indicator of the nutritional state and its related as a general marker of survival. The objective of this study is to analyze the role of plasma albumin and phase angle measured through bioelectrical impedance as tools useful for predicting failure of arteriovenous fistulas. Materials and methods: prospective observational study, including 104 patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis who underwent a native arteriovenous fistula during a period of 24 months. Analyzing its clinical characteristics, laboratory and phase angle through electrical bioimpedance, both univariate and multivariate analysis was performed both with logistic regression, furthermore calculation of coordinates and ROC curve to establish a better cut-off point. Results: of the variables that were analyzed only the phase angle measurement showed statistical significance OR 2.61 (1.6 – 4.4) p - value 0.001 for predicting arteriovenous fistula failure. In female patients with a phase angle value of 3.25 had a 90% sensibility and 53% specificity for male patients a value of 3.58 showed a sensibility of 84% and a specificity of 52% with ROC curve of 0.78. Conclusion: phase angle through bioimpedance is a useful parameter, helpful in predicting failure of native arteriovenous fistula, it is also an important tool for identifying patients at risk, in early stages prior to the construction of a vascular access.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 056-060
Author(s):  
Keita Niakhaleen ◽  
Faye Maria ◽  
Seck Sidy Mouhamed ◽  
Ndong Boucar ◽  
Faye Moustapha ◽  
...  

Introduction: Determination of dry weight is one of the daily goals to achieve in hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to validate the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in estimation of dry weight in a population of Senegalese chronic hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: A 9-week cross-sectional study was carried out at the hemodialysis unit of Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital. Adult patients with no previous hospital history were included. The total body water (TBW) was measured with a single frequency bioelectric impedance foot-to-foot analyzer, before and after six successive hemodialysis sessions. These results were compared with those from clinical measurements with the Watson equation using a Student’s t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: 264 measurements were made in 22 patients (46.6 years, 54.5% men, 92.3 months on dialysis, 62.7 kg mean dry weight). A significant reduction in weight (ΔWeight = 2.0 ± 1.1 kg; p < 0.0001) and in TBW measured by the BIA (ΔTBWBIA = 3.3 ± 1.0 liters; p < 0.0001)) or calculated by Watson’s equation (ΔTBWWatson = 0.5 ± 0.2 liter; p = 0.0001) was observed. There was a strong linear correlation and agreement between the 2 TBW measurements in pre-dialysis. In post-dialysis the concordance diagram indicated a bias = –2.2 and wide agreement limits. Conclusion: The BIA allows reproducible and reliable measurements and a fair estimate of the TBW in pre-dialysis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 034-041
Author(s):  
Ferreira Braga Fernanda Nogueira Holanda ◽  
das Chagas Medeiros Marta Maria ◽  
Viana Jr. Antônio Brazil ◽  
Maia Barros Levi Coelho ◽  
Pontes Marcelo Ximenes ◽  
...  

Background: Lupus Nephritis (LN) occurs in approximately half of all patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and it is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. Factors associated with poor renal outcome vary among studies, and researches coming from Brazil are scarce. Objectives: To identify the prognostic factors associated to the development of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in LN patients followed in a tertiary hospital. Design and Settings: We conducted a retrospective cohort study set in a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: We compiled a total of 214 LN patients diagnosed between 1983 and 2015. Data was collected from medical records and further analyzed using logistic regression. Results: LN prevalence was 53.9%. The cohort had a mean follow-up of 11.2 years (SD ± 7.2 years). At the end of follow-up, 93 of 197 patients (47.2%) had CKD, and 49 of 191 (25.6%) were on regular dialysis. The main factors associated for developing CKD after logistic regression analysis were the following predictors: hypertension (HR 2.80; 95% CI 1.30-6.01; p = 0.008), time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.009) and discontinuation of medications (HR 2.41; 95% CI 1.08-5.37; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Hypertension, discontinuation of medications, and time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN are independent variables associated with the development of CKD and ESDR in our study.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 042-046
Author(s):  
Yang Qilin ◽  
Huang Weichao ◽  
Zeng Xiaomei ◽  
Zheng Jiezhao ◽  
Chen Weixiao ◽  
...  

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Effective preventative and therapeutic treatments remain to be produced. We aim to determine the association between blood glucose and mortality in critical patients with AKI. Method: This cohort study included 18,703 patients with AKI. The exposure of interest was baseline blood glucose. The outcome was 30-day mortality. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and smooth curve fitting were adopted to assess the independent association between blood glucose and 30-day mortality. Results: We identified 18,703 consecutive individuals with AKI. The average age of the participants was 66.8 ± 16.0 years, and about 42.7% of them were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 16.9%. Through the multivariate COX regression model and smooth curve fitting, we observed that the correlation between blood glucose and 30-day mortality is nonlinear. An inflection point was found at about 5.93 mmol/L. On the left side of inflection point, the effect size was 0.81 (HR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.89, p < 0.001). On the right side of inflection point, the effect size was 1.02 (HR: 1.02,95% CI 1.01-1.03, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that, among patients with AKI, there was a nonlinearity relationship between blood glucose and mortality in patients with AKI. The optimal of blood glucose associated with the lowest risk of 30-day mortality was around 5.93 mmol/L.


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