Cross-kink unpinning controls the medium- to high-temperature strength of body-centered cubic NbTiZr medium-entropy alloy

2022 ◽  
Vol 209 ◽  
pp. 114367
Rajeshwar R. Eleti ◽  
Nikita Stepanov ◽  
Nikita Yurchenko ◽  
Sergey Zherebtsov ◽  
Francesco Maresca
M.S. Grewal ◽  
S.A. Sastri ◽  
N.J. Grant

Currently there is a great interest in developing nickel base alloys with fine and uniform dispersion of stable oxide particles, for high temperature applications. It is well known that the high temperature strength and stability of an oxide dispersed alloy can be greatly improved by appropriate thermomechanical processing, but the mechanism of this strengthening effect is not well understood. This investigation was undertaken to study the dislocation substructures formed in beryllia dispersed nickel alloys as a function of cold work both with and without intermediate anneals. Two alloys, one Ni-lv/oBeo and other Ni-4.5Mo-30Co-2v/oBeo were investigated. The influence of the substructures produced by Thermo-Mechanical Processing (TMP) on the high temperature creep properties of these alloys was also evaluated.

B. J. Hockey

Ceramics, such as Al2O3 and SiC have numerous current and potential uses in applications where high temperature strength, hardness, and wear resistance are required often in corrosive environments. These materials are, however, highly anisotropic and brittle, so that their mechanical behavior is often unpredictable. The further development of these materials will require a better understanding of the basic mechanisms controlling deformation, wear, and fracture.The purpose of this talk is to describe applications of TEM to the study of the deformation, wear, and fracture of Al2O3. Similar studies are currently being conducted on SiC and the techniques involved should be applicable to a wide range of hard, brittle materials.

D. R. Clarke ◽  
G. Thomas

Grain boundaries have long held a special significance to ceramicists. In part, this has been because it has been impossible until now to actually observe the boundaries themselves. Just as important, however, is the fact that the grain boundaries and their environs have a determing influence on both the mechanisms by which powder compaction occurs during fabrication, and on the overall mechanical properties of the material. One area where the grain boundary plays a particularly important role is in the high temperature strength of hot-pressed ceramics. This is a subject of current interest as extensive efforts are being made to develop ceramics, such as silicon nitride alloys, for high temperature structural applications. In this presentation we describe how the techniques of lattice fringe imaging have made it possible to study the grain boundaries in a number of refractory ceramics, and illustrate some of the findings.

E. R. Kimmel ◽  
H. L. Anthony ◽  
W. Scheithauer

The strengthening effect at high temperature produced by a dispersed oxide phase in a metal matrix is seemingly dependent on at least two major contributors: oxide particle size and spatial distribution, and stability of the worked microstructure. These two are strongly interrelated. The stability of the microstructure is produced by polygonization of the worked structure forming low angle cell boundaries which become anchored by the dispersed oxide particles. The effect of the particles on strength is therefore twofold, in that they stabilize the worked microstructure and also hinder dislocation motion during loading.

Gareth Thomas

Silicon nitride and silicon nitride based-ceramics are now well known for their potential as hightemperature structural materials, e.g. in engines. However, as is the case for many ceramics, in order to produce a dense product, sintering additives are utilized which allow liquid-phase sintering to occur; but upon cooling from the sintering temperature residual intergranular phases are formed which can be deleterious to high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance, especially if these phases are nonviscous glasses. Many oxide sintering additives have been utilized in processing attempts world-wide to produce dense creep resistant components using Si3N4 but the problem of controlling intergranular phases requires an understanding of the glass forming and subsequent glass-crystalline transformations that can occur at the grain boundaries.

A. Garg ◽  
R. D. Noebe ◽  
R. Darolia

Small additions of Hf to NiAl produce a significant increase in the high-temperature strength of single crystals. Hf has a very limited solubility in NiAl and in the presence of Si, results in a high density of G-phase (Ni16Hf6Si7) cuboidal precipitates and some G-platelets in a NiAl matrix. These precipitates have a F.C.C structure and nucleate on {100}NiAl planes with almost perfect coherency and a cube-on-cube orientation-relationship (O.R.). However, G-phase is metastable and after prolonged aging at high temperature dissolves at the expense of a more stable Heusler (β'-Ni2AlHf) phase. In addition to these two phases, a third phase was shown to be present in a NiAl-0.3at. % Hf alloy, but was not previously identified (Fig. 4 of ref. 2 ). In this work, we report the morphology, crystal-structure, O.R., and stability of this unknown phase, which were determined using conventional and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Single crystals of NiAl containing 0.5at. % Hf were grown by a Bridgman technique. Chemical analysis indicated that these crystals also contained Si, which was not an intentional alloying addition but was picked up from the shell mold during directional solidification.

M. G. Burke ◽  
M. N. Gungor ◽  
M. A. Burke

Intermetallic matrix composites are candidates for ultrahigh temperature service when light weight and high temperature strength and stiffness are required. Recent efforts to produce intermetallic matrix composites have focused on the titanium aluminide (TiAl) system with various ceramic reinforcements. In order to optimize the composition and processing of these composites it is necessary to evaluate the range of structures that can be produced in these materials and to identify the characteristics of the optimum structures. Normally, TiAl materials are difficult to process and, thus, examination of a suitable range of structures would not be feasible. However, plasma processing offers a novel method for producing composites from difficult to process component materials. By melting one or more of the component materials in a plasma and controlling deposition onto a cooled substrate, a range of structures can be produced and the method is highly suited to examining experimental composite systems. Moreover, because plasma processing involves rapid melting and very rapid cooling can be induced in the deposited composite, it is expected that processing method can avoid some of the problems, such as interfacial degradation, that are associated with the relatively long time, high temperature exposures that are induced by conventional processing methods.

H. Kung ◽  
T. R. Jervis ◽  
J.-P. Hirvonen ◽  
M. Nastasi ◽  
T. E. Mitchell ◽  

MoSi2 is a potential matrix material for high temperature structural composites due to its high melting temperature and good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. The two major drawbacksfor structural applications are inadequate high temperature strength and poor low temperature ductility. The search for appropriate composite additions has been the focus of extensive investigations in recent years. The addition of SiC in a nanolayered configuration was shown to exhibit superior oxidation resistance and significant hardness increase through annealing at 500°C. One potential application of MoSi2- SiC multilayers is for high temperature coatings, where structural stability ofthe layering is of major concern. In this study, we have systematically investigated both the evolution of phases and the stability of layers by varying the heat treating conditions.Alternating layers of MoSi2 and SiC were synthesized by DC-magnetron and rf-diode sputtering respectively. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) was used to examine three distinct reactions in the specimens when exposed to different annealing conditions: crystallization and phase transformation of MoSi2, crystallization of SiC, and spheroidization of the layer structures.

Alloy Digest ◽  
1964 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  

Abstract Unitemp-HX is a nickel-base material recommended for high temperature applications. It has outstanding oxidation resistance at high temperatures under most operating conditions, and good high-temperature strength. This datasheet provides information on composition, physical properties, hardness, elasticity, and tensile properties as well as fracture toughness and creep. It also includes information on low and high temperature performance, and corrosion resistance as well as forming, heat treating, machining, joining, and surface treatment. Filing Code: Ni-91. Producer or source: Universal Cyclops Steel Corporation.

Alloy Digest ◽  
1977 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  

Abstract STOODY 4 is a cobalt-chromium-tungsten alloy with excellent high-temperature strength and excellent resistance to corrosion. This alloy derives its high-temperature strength from the high tungsten-to-carbon ratio which allows a large percentage of tungsten to remain in solid solution. This datasheet provides information on composition, physical properties, hardness, elasticity, tensile properties, and compressive strength. It also includes information on high temperature performance and corrosion resistance as well as heat treating, machining, and joining. Filing Code: Co-75. Producer or source: WRAP Division, Stoody Company.

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