scholarly journals Penetapan Kadar Total Flavonoid, Fenolat, dan Karotenoid, serta Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan dari Daun dan Kulit Batang Tanaman Kenitu (Chrysophyllum cainito L.)

2019 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 83-88
Author(s):  
Asep Roni ◽  
Laela Fitriani ◽  
Lia Marliani

Salah satu tanaman yang memiliki aktivitas antioksidan ialah kenitu (Chrysophyllum cainito L.) yang merupakan  famili sapotacea. Tanaman ini juga biasa digunakan masyarakat sebagai obat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menetapkan kadar flavonoid, fenol serta aktivitas antioksidan pada daun dan kulit batang kenitu. Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan metode refluks bertingkat menggunakan tiga pelarut yang berbeda kepolarannya yaitu pelarut n-heksan, etil asetat dan etanol 96%. Penetapan  kadar  flavonoid dan fenol dilakukan dengan menggunakan spektrofotometri UV-Visibel. Pengujian aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode peredaman radikal bebas DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryllhydrazil).  Hasil penetapan kadar menunjukkan kandungan flavonoid tertinggi terdapat pada ekstrak n-heksan daun (6,106 mg Qe/ 100 mg), kandungan fenol tertinggi terdapat pada ekstrak etanol daun (24,483 mg GAE / 100 mg ) dan kandungan karotenoid tertinggi terdapat pada ekstrak daun etil asetat (6,2386±0,0138 mg BE/100mg). Hasil pengujian aktivitas antioksidan menunjukkan ekstrak etanol daun kenitu memiliki aktivitas antioksidan paling kuat dengan nilai IC50  10,81 ppm.

Author(s):  
Mentham Ramesh ◽  
Chandu Babu Rao

The current investigation is intended to evaluate the content of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of stem and root of Grewia serrulata DC (HAESGS & HAERGS) and leaf and bark of Grewia Nervosa (Lour.) panigrahi (HAELGN & HAEBGN). Initially, all the extracts at different concentrations were estimated for their total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. The study was further extended for their antioxidant potential evaluation using various in vitro methods such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The total phenolic content (mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract) was high in HAELGN (170.82±0.19) and HAERGS (123.00±0.48) than HAESGS (111.2±0.26) and HAEBGN (119.60±0.23). The total flavonoid content (mg quercetin equivalent per gram) is greater in HAERGS (71.24±0.50) and HAESGS (65.68±0.27) than HAELGN (55.82±0.35) and HAEBGN (62.38±0.45). The IC50 values (µg/ml) of different plant extracts inferred that DPPH radical scavenging activity is greater in HAELGN (42.91±0.88) and HAEBGN (53.87±0.35) than HAESGS (126.73±1.20) and HAERGS (88.87±1.25). However, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity is more in HAERGS (135.41±1.19 & 88.00±1.42) and HAELGN (172.28±1.91 & 108.163±1.09) than HAESGS (237.3±1.65 & 110.074±0.87) and HAEBGN (204.7±1.04 & 125.54±1.07). The results of present comprehensive analysis demonstrated that both the plants Grewia serrulata DC and Grewia Nervosa (Lour.) panigrahi possess high phenolic, flavonoid contents and potential antioxidant activity, and could be used as a valid source of natural antioxidants and might be utilized for pharmacological screening of various therapeutic activities. Keywords: Grewia serrulata; Grewia Nervosa; Total Phenolic content; Total flavonoid content; Antioxidant potential


2019 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chem Int

Verbena officinalis Linn is a traditionally known medicinal plant which is used against a number of diseases including inflammatory conditions. In this study its antioxidant activity (reducing powers, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities), ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP), total flavonoid concentration and antimicrobial activities of 80%, 90%, 100% methanol and chloroform extracts of V. officinalis Linn root and 90% and100% methanol leaf extracts were determined. Its antioxidant activity increases with increase in amount of extract (10% to 40%v/v). Total flavonoid content (TFC) varied from 73.32±0.002 mgQE/100g of dry weight (90% methanol) to 42.39±0.032 mgQE/100g dry weight (chloroform), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), radical scavenging activity (%) was varied between 87.39% (90% methanol) to 45.57% (chloroform) while Ferric reducing antioxidant power was observed between 372.93±0.04 mgAAE/100 g extract (90% methanol) to 129.41±0.026 mgAAE/100 g chloroform in the root extract. The methanolic extract of the leaf showed less antioxidant activity than the methanolic extract of the root. Crude extracts of V. officinalis root showed various degree of antimicrobial activity towards drug resistance microbial pathogens. Growth inhibition tests against bacterial pathogens demonstrated concentration dependence. Moreover, gram positive bacteria were more susceptible to V. officinalis root extract when compared to gram negative bacteria. In general V. officinalis root and leave extracts possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.


2020 ◽  
pp. 80-84
Author(s):  
Vladimir Kurkin ◽  
Ilnur Shaykhutdinov ◽  
Olga Pravivtseva ◽  
Anna Kurkina ◽  
Maxim Egorov

In the Russian Federation, dietary supplements with hawthorn flowers (Crataegi flores) and berries (Crataegi fructus) are used as recommended supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We have conducted a study of the content of flavonoid amounts in popular dietary supplements containing hawthorn extracts. It has been found that total flavonoid content in medications is comparable to the therapeutic dosages in some cases.


2020 ◽  
pp. 53-61
Author(s):  
Nada Nabila Sari ◽  
S Suharyanto

Biji nangka kurang diminati oleh masyarakat sebagai bahan pangan. Biji nangka memiliki kandungan senyawa flavonoid yang dapat digunakan sebagai pengobatan. Tujuan peneliti adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama fermentasi terhadap kadar flavonoid total pada ekstrak tape biji nangka (Artocarpus heterophylla Lamk.) yang dilakukan dengan alat spektrofotometer UV-Vis. Manfaat dari penelitian untuk menambah wawasan di bidang farmasi khususnya tentang ilmu kimia amami mengenai pengaruh lama fermentasi terhadap kadar flavonoid total pada ekstrak tape biji nangka (Artocarpus heterophylla Lamk.). Metode ekstraksi yang digunakan adalah metode maserasi dengan mengunakan pelarut etanol 96%. Identifikasi kualitatif mengunakan uji Shinoda, uji NaOH 10%, uji H2SO4 (pekat). Hasil uji kualitatif menunjukan sampel positif mengandung flavonoid. Kesimpulan pada hasil penelitian penetapan kadar flavonoid total yang terkandung dalam ekstrak tape biji nangka pada hari ke-0 sebesar 2,9146±0,0245 mgQE/gram ekstrak, pada hari ke-1 sebesar 3,3050±0,0240 mgQE/gram ekstrak, pada hari ke-2 sebesar 3,6829±0,0244 mgQE/gram ekstrak, dan pada hari ke-3 sebesar 4,0488±0,0244 mgQE/gram ekstrak.  Jackfruit seeds are less interest by the community (people) as food.  Jackfruit seeds containing flavonoid compounds where it can be used as a treatment.  The aim of the researchers was to determine the effect of fermentation time on total flavonoid concentration  in jackfruit fermented seed extracts with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The benefits of research to add insight in the field of pharmacy especially about chemistry of amami regarding effect of fermentation time on total flavonoid levels in jackfruit seed “tape” extract (Artocarpus heterophylla Lamk.). Extraction method used is the maceration method using 96% ethanol solvent. Qualitative identification using the Shinoda test, 10% NaOH test, and H2SO4 (concentrated) test. Qualitative test results showed a positive sample containing flavonoids. Conclusions on the results of the experiment  are jackfruit seed "tape" extract on day-0 was 2.9146±0.0245  mgQE/gram extract, on day-1 was 3.3050±0.0240 mgQE/gram extract, on day-2 was 3.68293±0.0244 mgQE/gram and on day-3 was 4.0488±0.024 mgQE /gram extract. The longer fermentation, total flavonoid concentration interest.  


2019 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 317-326 ◽  
Author(s):  
Manaf AlMatar ◽  
Işıl Var ◽  
Begüm Kayar ◽  
Emel Eker ◽  
Ebru Kafkas ◽  
...  

Background: The global rise of multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis demands unconventional treatment to enhance the efficiency of current drugs. Punica granatum, which is known as pomegranate, is considered as a member of the Punicaceae family. Pomegranate, which is broadly documented for its activity against a wide spectrum of bacterial pathogens, deserves further scrutiny in this respect. Methods: Within this scope, this study investigated the effect of fresh pomegranate juice (FPJ) on the antibacterial activity of anti-tuberculosis drugs (Rifampin (R) and Isoniazid (INH)) against MDR-TB clinical isolates. The drug resistance profiles in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were determined by susceptibility test using BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Four concentrations of fresh pomegranate juice (FPJ) (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were evaluated in combination with R and INH at a dose range of (1.0 µg/ml) and (0.1 µg/ml), respectively against the MDR-TB isolates by the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Moreover, this study scrutinized individual phenolic compounds of FPJ by using highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanins content (TAC), and the antioxidant capacity were also assessed in FPJ. Results: Synergistic effects were observed between R and INH with FPJ against all tested strains. However, combination therapy of rifampin was more effective than isoniazid one. Therefore, the combination of R and FPJ has been used against (27) MDR-TB clinical isolates. 5% of FPJ plus R (1.0 µg/ml) were found to suppress the growth of one isolates for first group (INH and R resistant). However, 5% of FPJ demonstrated no synergistic impact with R for second (SM, R and INH resistant) and third group (INH, EMB, R and SM resistant). Moreover, 10% of FPJ and R (1.0 μg/ml) inhibited the bacterial growth of three isolates of first group and two isolates and one isolate for second and third group, respectively. Remarkably, 15% of FPJ plus R (1.0 µg/ml) appeared to inhibit the growth of MDR-TB isolates for all tested groups indicating a strong synergistic effect. Regarding H37RV, the complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was found to occur at 15% and 20% concentrations of FPJ only. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of FPJ ranged from (4% to13%) for first group and from (10% to15%) for second and third group. Thus, FPJ at 15% inhibited 100% of bacteria for all tested isolates (MIC100% =15%). Phenolic compounds identified in FPJ were gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringic, folic acid, pelargonidin, naringin+ellagic acid, naringenin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, myricetin, kaempferol, quercetin, cyanidin-3-glycoside, p-cummaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin. Total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and total anthocyanin (TA) content were 841.5 mg/L, 638.73 mg RE/L, and 47.43 mg/L, accordingly. Conclusion: Overall, FPJ displayed synergistic effect with R against MDR-TB clinical isolates due to its high content of polyphenol and antioxidant capability.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 1237
Author(s):  
Antonios Chrysargyris ◽  
Spyridon A. Petropoulos ◽  
Dejan Prvulovic ◽  
Nikolaos Tzortzakis

Abiotic factors in nutrient solutions (NSs), such as salinity and high electrical conductivity (EC), may adversely alter plant growth and crop performance. However, there are medicinal/aromatic plants which can not only withstand these adverse conditions, but which can also increase their productivity or even enhance their quality in such conditions. As fresh water sources suitable for irrigation are becoming more and more limited, the use of low-quality water sources and hydroponic growing systems have been suggested as the main alternatives. Towards that direction, this study aims to evaluate the effect of high EC levels in NSs on geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.) and common verbena (Verbena officinallis L.) plants cultivated in a soilless (perlite) hydroponics system. Plants were irrigated with a full nutrient solution of EC 2.1 dS m−1 and pH 5.8 until they reached a uniform size. Then, three treatments were applied, namely: (a) a control treatment with an EC of 2.1 dS m−1 in the NS, (b) a high-salinity NS created by adding 75 mM of NaCl (EC under 8.5 dS m−1) and (c) a concentrated NS with an EC of 8.5 dS m−1. In pelargonium, high salinity decreased the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents; antioxidant capacity; N, K, Mg and P content; as well as chlorophyll fluorescence, compared to the control treatment. On the other hand, increased salinity levels increased the Na and Ca content and stomatal resistance. In common verbena, salinity decreased total phenolic content and chlorophyll fluorescence but increased total flavonoid content; antioxidants; leaf K, P, Na, Cu and Zn content; and stomatal resistance, compared to the control. In both species, high EC did not affect polyphenols, flavonoids or antioxidants, whereas it increased stomatal resistance and nutrient accumulation in the leaves, and decreased chlorophyll fluorescence compared to the control treatment. Damage indices, indicated by lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide production and the elevation of enzymes’ antioxidant activities, were evidenced in both saline- and high-EC-treated plants. In conclusion, despite having the same EC levels in the nutrient solution, it seems that ionic stress caused by high mineral concentrations in the nutrient solution had less severe effects on the tested plants than the relevant osmotic stress caused by high salinity due to the addition of NaCl in the nutrient solution.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 1773
Author(s):  
Patchima Sithisarn ◽  
Piyanuch Rojsanga ◽  
Pongtip Sithisarn

Oroxylum indicum extracts from the seeds collected from Lampang and Pattani provinces in Thailand, and young fruits and flowers exhibited in vitro display antioxidant and antibacterial activities against clinically isolated zoonotic bacteria including Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus suis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, β-hemolytic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The orange crystals and yellow precipitates were obtained from the preparation processes of the seed extracts. The orange-red crystals from the seeds collected from Lampang province exhibited strong in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging effects (EC50 value = 25.99 ± 3.30 μg/mL) and antibacterial effects on S. intermedius and β-hemolytic E. coli while the yellow precipitate from the same source exhibited only antioxidant activity. Quantitative analysis of phytochemicals in O. indicum samples by spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques showed that they contained different amounts of total phenolic, total flavonoid and three major flavones; baicalin, baicalein and chrysin contents. Young fruit extract, which contained low amounts of flavone contents, still promoted antibacterial effects against the tested bacteria with IC50 values lower than 1 mg/mL and MIC values between 4 to 10 mg/mL in S. intermedius, S. aureus and S suis while higher IC50 and MIC values against P. aeruginosa and β-hemolytic E. coli were found. From scanning electron microscopy, the extract of the young fruit of O. indicum promoted morphological changes in the bacterial cells by disrupting the bacterial cell walls, inducing leakage of the cellular content, and generating the abnormal accumulation of cells. The mechanism of action of the extract for this antibacterial effect may be the disruption of the cell membrane and abnormal cell aggregations. Regression analysis of the results suggests the correlation between total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Baicalin was found to have a high correlation with an inhibitory effect against β-hemolytic E. coli while three unidentified peaks, which could be flavones, showed high correlations with an inhibitory effect against S. intermedius, S. suis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.


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