scholarly journals The Influence of Hyaluronic Acid Adjunctive Therapy of Periodontitis on Salivary Markers of Oxidative Stress: Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Iwona Olszewska-Czyz ◽  
Kristina Kralik ◽  
Marin Tota ◽  
Jelena Prpic

Periodontitis is a common oral disease affecting the tooth-supporting tissues. Bacteria have been long viewed as the main causative factor in its development; however, many investigations have proved that aberrant immune and inflammatory response and the resulting misbalance between the damage caused by reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant capacity of tissues may be an underlying factor in disease progression that reduces healing potential. The objective of the current trial is to assess the outcomes of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA) to standard non-surgical periodontal therapy (NST) on some major oxidative stress markers in saliva. HA-based gel designed for dental application was used and the measurements were taken after 3 months. HA adjunctive therapy had a significantly greater increase in markers with antioxidant properties as well as total antioxidant capacity compared to standard NST alone. Furthermore, clinically measured levels of gingival inflammation (bleeding on probing-BOP) and periodontal destruction (clinical attachment loss-CAL) were significantly correlated with these markers, and the correlation was negative. This investigation demonstrates that HA may indeed express antioxidant properties and improve the antioxidant capacity of periodontal tissues, thus improving the prognosis for the teeth and the results of periodontal therapy. Further investigations will be necessary to determine the duration of these effects over time.

2020 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Paulina Górska ◽  
Ilona Górna ◽  
Juliusz Przysławski

Purpose This study aims to analyze the antioxidant properties of the Mediterranean diet and describe methods that are used in clinical studies to assess its role in reducing oxidative stress. Design/methodology/approach The review presents the results of interventional and observational clinical trials aimed at assessing the influence of the Mediterranean diet on the level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, as well as the total blood antioxidant capacity. Findings The Mediterranean diet as a varied diet can be a better way to provide antioxidants to the body than supplements. Individual compounds administered in an isolated form can give the opposite effect to the expected, stimulating oxidative stress. The administration of antioxidants in the form of supplements instead of a varied diet is also associated with a lack of synergism of action. In studies on the importance of the Mediterranean diet in the reduction of oxidative stress, single markers are used to measure oxidative damage, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants and the concentration of individual non-enzymatic antioxidants. At the same time, the need to find markers that would assess the level of oxidative stress and the body’s antioxidant capacity more comprehensively is emphasized. Practical implications It should be taken into account that differences between in vivo and in vitro results may result from the fact of various factors, including genetic, smoking, intestinal microflora or diet composition. It is also necessary to answer the question about which marker or set of markers could in the most comprehensive way to assess the level of oxidative stress and the body’s antioxidant capacity. Originality/value The literature review shows not only the source of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. This paper also presents a critical approach to markers that allow the assessment of the antioxidant properties of the diet.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Mansoureh Togha ◽  
Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi ◽  
Zeinab Ghorbani ◽  
Amir Ghaemi ◽  
Pegah Rafiee

Abstract Background In recent years, the role of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in migraine pathogenesis has achieved considerable interest; however, to date findings are equivocal. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of oxidative stress in episodic and chronic migraineurs (EM and CM patients) and controls. Methods Forty-four patients with EM, 27 individuals with CM and 19 age-sex-matched controls were enrolled. After collecting data on demographic and headache characteristics, blood samples were collected and analyzed to detect serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO)); total antioxidant capacity using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay; and antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1)). Results Serum levels of CAT and SOD were significantly lower in the CM group than the EM group and controls. However, serum GPx-1 levels of the CM patients were slightly higher than the EM patients and controls (P-value≤0.001). CM patients had lower mean TEAC values than EM patients and controls. In addition, serum levels of NO and MDA were significantly elevated among subjects with CM compared to EM and control individuals (P-value≤0.001). Pearson correlation analysis revealed negative correlations between the number of days of having headaches per month and serum concentrations of the two antioxidant enzymes CAT (r = − 0.60, P-value< 0.001) and SOD (r = − 0.50, P-value< 0.001) as well as TEAC values (r = − 0.61, P-value< 0.001); however, there were positive correlations between headache days and serum GPx-1 levels (r = 0.46, P-value< 0.001), NO (r = 0.62, P-value< 0.001), and MDA (r = 0.64, P-value< 0.001). Conclusion Present findings highlighted that chronic migraineurs had lower total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and higher oxidative stress than episodic migraineurs and control individuals. Although more studies are needed to confirm these data, applying novel prophylactic medications or dietary supplements with antioxidant properties could be promising in migraine therapy.

Nutrients ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1774
Christian Bleilevens ◽  
Benedict M. Doorschodt ◽  
Tamara Fechter ◽  
Tim Grzanna ◽  
Alexander Theißen ◽  

Systemic and localized ischemia and reperfusion injury remain clinically relevant issues after organ transplantation and contribute to organ dysfunctions, among which acute kidney injury is one of the most common. An in vitro test-circuit for normothermic perfusion of porcine kidneys after warm ischemia was used to investigate the antioxidant properties of vitamin C during reperfusion. Vitamin C is known to enhance microcirculation, reduce endothelial permeability, prevent apoptosis, and reduce inflammatory reactions. Based on current evidence about the pleiotropic effects of vitamin C, we hypothesize that the antioxidant properties of vitamin C might provide organ-protection and improve the kidney graft function in this model of ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: 10 porcine kidneys from 5 Landrace pigs were perfused in vitro for 6 h. For each experiment, both kidneys of one animal were perfused simultaneously with a 1:1 mixture of autologous blood and modified Ringer’s solution at 38 °C and 75 mmHg continuous perfusion pressure. One kidney was treated with a 500 mg bolus injection of vitamin C into the perfusate, followed by continuous infusion of 60 mg/h vitamin C. In the control test circuit, an equal volume of Ringer’s solution was administered as a placebo. Perfusate samples were withdrawn at distinct points in time during 6 h of perfusion for blood gas analyses as well as measurement of serum chemistry, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. Hemodynamic parameters and urine excretion were monitored continuously. Histological samples were analyzed to detect tubular- and glomerular-injury. Results: vitamin C administration to the perfusate significantly reduced oxidative stress (49.8 ± 16.2 vs. 118.6 ± 23.1 mV; p = 0.002) after 6 h perfusion, and increased the antioxidant capacity, leading to red blood cell protection and increased hemoglobin concentrations (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 3.9 ± 0.6 g/dL; p = 0.02) in contrast to placebo treatment. Kidney function was not different between the groups (creatinine clearance vit C: 2.5 ± 2.1 vs. placebo: 0.5 ± 0.2 mL/min/100 g; p = 0.9). Hypernatremia (187.8 ± 4.7 vs. 176.4 ± 5.7 mmol/L; p = 0.03), and a lower, but not significant decreased fractional sodium excretion (7.9 ± 2 vs. 27.7 ± 15.3%; p = 0.2) were observed in the vitamin C group. Histological analysis did not show differences in tubular- and glomerular injury between the groups. Conclusion: Vitamin C treatment increased the antioxidant capacity of in vitro perfused kidney grafts, reduced oxidative stress, preserved red blood cells as oxygen carrier in the perfusate, but did not improve clinically relevant parameters like kidney function or attenuate kidney damage. Nevertheless, due to its antioxidative properties vitamin C might be a beneficial supplement to clinical kidney graft perfusion protocols.

2018 ◽  
Vol 2018 ◽  
pp. 1-8 ◽  
Kang Xu ◽  
Gang Liu ◽  
Chenxing Fu

The placenta plays a vital role in fetal development during pregnancy. Dysfunction of the placenta can be caused by oxidative stress and can lead to abnormal fetal development. Preventing oxidative stress of the placenta is thus an important measure to ensure positive birth outcomes. Research shows that tryptophan and its metabolites can efficiently clean free radicals (including the reactive oxygen species and activated chlorine). Consequently, tryptophan and its metabolites are suggested to act as potent antioxidants in the placenta. However, the mechanism of these antioxidant properties in the placenta is still unknown. In this review, we summarize research on the antioxidant properties of tryptophan, tryptophan metabolites, and metabolic enzymes. Two predicted mechanisms of tryptophan’s antioxidant properties are discussed. (1) Tryptophan could activate the phosphorylation of p62 after the activation of mTORC1; phosphorylated p62 then uncouples the interaction between Nrf2 and Keap1, and activated Nrf2 enters the nucleus to induce expressions of antioxidant proteins, thus improving cellular antioxidation. (2) 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid, a tryptophan kynurenine pathway metabolite, changes conformation of Keap1, inducing the dissociation of Nrf2 and Keap1, activating Nrf2 to enter the nucleus and induce expressions of antioxidant proteins (such as HO-1), thereby enhancing cellular antioxidant capacity. These mechanisms may enrich the theory of how to apply tryptophan as an antioxidant during pregnancy, providing technical support for its use in regulating the pregnancy’s redox status and enriching our understanding of amino acids’ nutritional value.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1491
Iwona Olszewska-Czyz ◽  
Kristina Kralik ◽  
Jelena Prpic

The biological activity of hyaluronic acid (HA) has been well-researched during the past decades; however, there are few randomized, controlled trials of its clinical effects in periodontal therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronic acid on the principal parameters of periodontal healing. A specific, commercially available formulation designed and registered for professional dental application, composed of 16 mg/mL of cross-linked and 2 mg/mL of non-cross-linked HA, was used as an adjunctive to non-surgical periodontal therapy, and clinical parameters were evaluated after 3 months. The addition of HA to periodontal therapy demonstrated more favorable clinical results regarding reduction in inflammation, measured by bleeding on probing (−6% compared to the control group) and gain in periodontal attachment (1 mm more than control group), while it had no effect on probing depth reduction. No side effects were reported. Our study demonstrated that HA is a safe and easy-to-use biological agent; due to its wide array of properties, it may significantly improve the results of periodontal therapy. However, more long-term studies are needed to investigate whether these favorable effects remain over time.

2008 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 601-616 ◽  
John C. Quindry ◽  
Steven R. McAnulty ◽  
Matthew B. Hudson ◽  
Peter Hosick ◽  
Charles Dumke ◽  

Previous research indicates that ultramarathon exercise can result in blood oxidative stress. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the efficacy of oral supplementation with quercetin, a naturally occurring compound with known antioxidant properties, as a potential countermeasure against blood oxidative stress during an ultramarathon competition. In double-blind fashion, 63 participants received either oral quercetin (250 mg, 4×/day; 1,000 mg/day total) or quercetin-free supplements 3 weeks before and during the 160-km Western States Endurance Run. Blood drawn before and immediately after (quercetin finishers n = 18, quercetin-free finishers n = 21) the event was analyzed for changes in blood redox status and oxidative damage. Results show that quercetin supplementation did not affect race performance. In response to the ultramarathon challenge, aqueous-phase antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) was similarly elevated in athletes in both quercetin and quercetin-free treatments and likely reflects significant increases in plasma urate levels. Alternatively, trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity was not altered by exercise or quercetin. Accordingly, neither F2-isoprostances nor protein carbonyls were influenced by either exercise or quercetin supplementation. In the absence of postrace blood oxidative damage, these findings suggest that oral quercetin supplementation does not alter blood plasma lipid or aqueous-phase antioxidant capacity or oxidative damage during an ultramarathon challenge.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fangfang Zhao ◽  
Shen Yan ◽  
Mengliang Tian

Weaning causes the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species in the body, which could lead to oxidative stress. Polyphenols, for which blueberries are an important dietary source, are known for various health benefits including antioxidant properties. Here, we sought to elucidate the effects of blueberry polyphenol extracts (BPE) on intestinal antioxidant capacity and possible underlying mechanisms in weaned rats. Ninety-six rats were assigned to two groups and fed either a standard diet or a standard diet supplemented with BPE (200 mg/kg). The results showed that BPE supplementation increased (P &lt; 0.05) catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and decreased (P &lt; 0.05) interleukin-1 and interferon-γ contents in the jejunum and ileum. The abundances of mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal p70 S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 mRNA were elevated in the jejunum and ileum (P &lt; 0.05) after BPE supplementation. Additionally, BPE supplementation decreased (P &lt; 0.05) Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) gene transcription and enhanced (P &lt; 0.05) NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene transcription in the jejunum and ileum. According to our results, BPE-induced protective effects against oxidative stress appear through the promotion of the jejunal and ileal antioxidant defense system in weaned rats, which was associated with the Nrf2–Keap1 signaling pathway.

2016 ◽  
Vol 2016 ◽  
pp. 1-12 ◽  
María Elena Soto ◽  
Alejandra Zuñiga-Muñoz ◽  
Verónica Guarner Lans ◽  
Erendira Janet Duran-Hernández ◽  
Israel Pérez-Torres

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is associated with progressive aortic dilatation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress that contribute to the early acute dissection of the vessel and can end up in rupture of the aorta and sudden death. Many studies have described that the organic acids fromHibiscus sabdariffaLinne (HSL) calyces increase cellular antioxidant capacity and decrease oxidative stress. Here we evaluate if the antioxidant properties of HSL infusion improve oxidative stress in MFS patients. Activities of extra cellular super oxide dismutase (ECSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and ascorbic acid were determined in plasma from MFS patients. Values before and after 3 months of the treatment with 2% HSL infusion were compared in control and MFS subjects. After treatment, there was a significant decrease in ECSOD (p=0.03), EGPx (p=0.04), GST (p=0.03), GSH (p=0.01), and TAC and ascorbic acid (p=0.02) but GSSG-R activity (p=0.04) and LPO (p=0.02) were increased in MFS patients in comparison to patients receiving the HSL treatment and C subjects. Therefore, the infusion of HSL calyces has antioxidant properties that allow an increase in antioxidant capacity of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, in the plasma of the MSF patients.

2008 ◽  
Vol 114 (10) ◽  
pp. 625-634 ◽  
Ramón Rodrigo ◽  
Hernán Prat ◽  
Walter Passalacqua ◽  
Julia Araya ◽  
Jean P. Bächler

Oxidative stress has been associated with mechanisms of EH (essential hypertension). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E are associated with a decrease in BP (blood pressure) in patients with EH. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 110 men with grade 1 EH (35–60 years of age without obesity, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus, non-smokers, not undergoing vigorous physical exercise, without the use of any medication and/or high consumption of fruit and vegetables). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either vitamins C+E [vitamin C (1 g/day) plus vitamin E (400 international units/day)] or placebo for 8 weeks. Measurements included 24 h ambulatory BP and blood analysis of oxidative-stress-related parameters in erythrocytes (GSH/GSSH ratio, antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde) and plasma [FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma)], and levels of 8-isoprostane, vitamins C and E were measured at baseline and after treatment. Following administration of vitamins C+E, patients with EH had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP and mean arterial BP and higher erythrocyte and serum antioxidant capacity compared with either placebo-treated patients with EH or the patients with EH at baseline prior to treatment. BP correlated positively with plasma 8-isoprostane levels and negatively with plasma FRAP levels in the vitamins C+E- and placebo-treated groups. In conclusion, the present study supports the view that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of EH, and that enhancement of antioxidant status by supplementation with vitamins C and E in patients with EH is associated with lower BP. This suggests intervention with antioxidants as an adjunct therapy for hypertension.

2013 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-23 ◽  
Tabita Benjamin ◽  
Abdul S Aziz ◽  
Madhav G Kalekar ◽  
Adinath N Suryakar ◽  
Milsee M Prakashan ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic periodontitis is the inflammatory disease of the periodontium; the tissue that surround and support the teeth. The aim of the study was to estimate and compare some biochemical oxidative stress markers in patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls and to assess the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on these parameters. Materials and methods Eighty-two chronic periodontitis patients and 120 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The periodontal status was evaluated using gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), papillary bleeding index (PBI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL). The biochemical parameters estimated were total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), antioxidant enzymes RBC-superoxide dismutase (RBC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin C, malondialdehyde (MDA) and Creactive protein (CRP) were also evaluated. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing; SRP) was performed on chronic periodontitis patients and a follow-up was done after 3 months. Results The study suggests that oxidative stress is induced in chronic periodontitis, as the levels of CRP, MDA and RBC-SOD were significantly higher (p < 0.001) and those of TAOC, GPx and vitamin C were significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to healthy controls at baseline. SRP therapy significantly improved the clinical and biochemical oxidative stress markers in periodontitis patients. Conclusion Chronic periodontitis patients show higher inflammatory manifestations and oxidative stress. SRP therapy helps in lowering inflammatory burden and improving systemic oxidant: Antioxidant imbalance. The SRP therapy may be a useful support in the control and prevention of various inflammatory diseases associated with periodontitis. How to cite this article Aziz AS, Kalekar MG, Benjamin T, Suryakar AN, Prakashan MM, Bijle MNA. Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Some Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Biochemical Study. World J Dent 2013;4(1):17-23.

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