Polar Lipid
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Pei Lin ◽  
Zheng-Fei Yan ◽  
MooChang Kook ◽  
Chang-Tian Li ◽  
Tae-Hoo Yi

The genus Pleurotus is one of the most widely cultivated and edible mushrooms with various cultivators. Three molecular characteristics were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 132 tested samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed five clades for tested samples of the genus Pleurotus by the combined ITS and LSU sequences with strong bootstraps and Bayesian posterior probability supports. A total of 94 polymorphic fragments ranging from 10 to 100 bp were observed by using an intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The DNA fragment pattern showed that P. ostreatus cultivator (strain P9) was clearly distinguished from wild strain based on their clear banding profiles produced. DNA GC content of the genus Pleurotus varied from 55.6 mol% to 43.3 mol%. Their chemical composition was also determined, including sugar, amino acid, polar lipid, mycolic acid, quinone, and fatty acid, which presented some high homogeneity. Most of the tested samples contained mycolic acid; glucose and arabinose as the main sugars; aspartic acid, arginine, lysine, tyrosine, and alanine as the main amino acids; and C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, anteiso-C14:0, and summed feature 8 as the main fatty acids. In addition, their polar lipid profiles were investigated for the first time, which significantly varied among Pleurotus species. The genus Pleurotus contained menaquinone-6 as the sole respiratory quinone, which showed a significant difference with that of its closely related genera. These results of this study demonstrated that the combined method above could efficiently differentiate each Pleurotus species and thus be considered an efficient tool for surveying the genetic diversity of the genus Pleurotus.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Talat Bashir Ahmed ◽  
Merete Eggesbø ◽  
Rachel Criswell ◽  
Olaf Uhl ◽  
Hans Demmelmair ◽  

Human milk lipids are essential for infant health. However, little is known about the relationship between total milk fatty acid (FA) composition and polar lipid species composition. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the relationship between the FA and polar lipid species composition in human milk, with a focus on differences between milk with higher or lower milk fat content. From the Norwegian Human Milk Study (HUMIS, 2002–2009), a subset of 664 milk samples were analyzed for FA and polar lipid composition. Milk samples did not differ in major FA, phosphatidylcholine, or sphingomyelin species percentages between the highest and lowest quartiles of total FA concentration. However, milk in the highest FA quartile had a lower phospholipid-to-total-FA ratio and a lower sphingomyelin-to-phosphatidylcholine ratio than the lowest quartile. The only FAs associated with total phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin were behenic and tridecanoic acids, respectively. Milk FA and phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin species containing these FAs showed modest correlations. Associations of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids with percentages of phosphatidylcholine species carrying these FAs support the conclusion that the availability of these FAs limits the synthesis of phospholipid species containing them.

Diversity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 670
Sanaullah Tareen ◽  
Chandra Risdian ◽  
Mathias Müsken ◽  
Joachim Wink

A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, lemon-yellow-colored, and non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium designated strain NZ-12BT was isolated in February 2021 from a sponge species (Crateromorpha) collected at the southern Kermadec Ridge, Pacific Ocean, New Zealand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene-based analyses indicated that strain NZ-12BT shared 98.58%, 96.44%, 96.23%, and 94.78% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Alteriqipengyuania lutimaris S-5T, Qipengyuania pelagi UST081027-248T, Qipengyuania citreus RE35F/1T, and Alteriqipengyuania halimionae CPA5T, respectively. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10(Q-10). The polar lipid profile of NZ-12BT was composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl-N-methyl-ethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown polar lipid, three unknown phospholipids, and three unknown glycolipids. The major fatty acids of strain NZ-12BT were C18:1ω12t, C16:0, C17:1ω6c, and C14:02-OH. Carotenoids were present. Genome mining analysis revealed a biosynthetic gene cluster encoding for the terpene biosynthesis. Pairwise ANI and dDDH values of strain NZ-12BT and closely related phylogenetic neighbors were below the threshold values of 95% and 70%, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 65.4 mol% (by genome). Based on data obtained by a polyphasic approach, type strain NZ-12BT (=DSM 112810T = NCCB 100841T) represents a novel species of the genus Alteriqipengyuania, for which the name Alteriqipengyuania abyssalis sp. nov. is proposed.

Biophysica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 474-486
Varsha P. Daswani ◽  
Umme Ayesa ◽  
Parkson Lee-Gau Chong

Liposomes have many advantages as therapeutic capsules over free drugs such as small molecule drugs and nucleic acids. Cholesterol is commonly used as a membrane stabilizing agent in liposomal drugs (e.g., mRNA-lipid nanoparticle COVID-19 vaccines). However, due to the vulnerability of cholesterol to oxidation and the etiological role of cholesterol in many disorders, it is desirable to find an alternative means to stabilize liposomal membranes for drug delivery. In this study, we demonstrated that the polar lipid fraction E (PLFE), which contains exclusively bipolar tetraether macrocyclic lipids, isolated from the thermoacidophilic archaeon S. acidocaldarius can greatly stabilize the liposomal formulation of the anti-vascular drug, combretastatin A4 disodium phosphate (CA4P). Stability was assessed by determining the leakage rate constant k of entrapped CA4P fluorometrically. We found that, at 37 °C, PLFE decreases the k value monotonically from 1.54 × 10−2 s−1 for 100% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes to 3.4 × 10−5 s−1 for 100% PLFE archaeosomes, a change of k by two orders of magnitude. The changes in k of CA4P leakage are correlated well with the changes in liposomal CA4P’s cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We further showed that the reduction in spontaneous leakage of entrapped CA4P by PLFE can be attributed to the increased membrane surface charge and the increased membrane order and packing tightness in liposomes, as reflected by the zeta potential (−6.83 to −41.1 mV from 0 to 100 mol% PLFE) and diphenylhexatriene (DPH) fluorescence polarization (0.13 to 0.4 from 0 to 100 mol% PLFE) measurements. Moreover, we showed that PLFE slows down CA4P leakage more than cholesterol in POPC liposomes. These results together suggest that PLFE lipids can serve as an effective stabilizing agent for liposomal drugs and could potentially be useful for the optimization of liposomal CA4P for cancer treatment.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (11) ◽  
pp. 593
Tânia Melo ◽  
Ana R. P. Figueiredo ◽  
Elisabete da Costa ◽  
Daniela Couto ◽  
Joana Silva ◽  

Nannochloropsis oceanica can accumulate lipids and is a good source of polar lipids, which are emerging as new value-added compounds with high commercial value for the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Some applications may limit the extraction solvents, such as food applications that require safe food-grade solvents, such as ethanol. However, the effect of using ethanol as an extraction solvent on the quality of the extracted polar lipidome, compared to other more traditional methods, is not yet well established. In this study, the polar lipid profile of N. oceanica extracts was obtained using different solvents, including chloroform/methanol (CM), dichloromethane/methanol (DM), dichloromethane/ethanol (DE), and ethanol (E), and evaluated by modern lipidomic methods using LC-MS/MS. Ultrasonic bath (E + USB)- and ultrasonic probe (E + USP)-assisted methodologies were implemented to increase the lipid extraction yields using ethanol. The polar lipid signature and antioxidant activity of DM, E + USB, and E + USP resemble conventional CM, demonstrating a similar extraction efficiency, while the DE and ethanol extracts were significantly different. Our results showed the impact of different extraction solvents in the polar lipid composition of the final extracts and demonstrated the feasibility of E + USB and E + USP as safe and food-grade sources of polar lipids, with the potential for high-added-value biotechnological applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 311-318
Thu Hue Pham ◽  
Van Tuyen Anh Nguyen Nguyen ◽  
Yen Kieu Thi Hoang ◽  
Nguyen Nguyen ◽  
Hai Nam Hoang ◽  

This study studied the content and composition of the total lipid, lipid classes and fatty acids in 13 brown seaweed Sargassum species collected from Con Dao and Van Phong, Vietnam. The total lipid has a low content and varies among species from 0.10–1.70% of the fresh weight. From 13 species, seven lipid classes including polar lipid (Pol), free fatty acids (FFA), sterol (ST), hydrocarbon and wax (HW), triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG), and monoalkydiacylglycerol (MADG). Using the GC-FID technique, we have identified 29 fatty acids classified into 3 groups of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids with an average content of 44.93%, 24.57% and 27.44%, respectively. Among those, many value fatty acids have been detected with high content such as C18:3n-3, C20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. The lipid of 13 brown seaweed Sargassum species also fully contains omega-3,6,9 fatty acids with the content of 9.28%, 16.28% and 16.63%, respectively.

Bone Reports ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 101132
Parkpoom Siriarchavatana ◽  
Marlena C. Kruger ◽  
Matthew R. Miller ◽  
Hong Tian ◽  
Frances M. Wolber

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