recursive least squares
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Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 237
Ionuț-Dorinel Fîciu ◽  
Cristian-Lucian Stanciu ◽  
Camelia Elisei-Iliescu ◽  
Cristian Anghel

The recently proposed tensor-based recursive least-squares dichotomous coordinate descent algorithm, namely RLS-DCD-T, was designed for the identification of multilinear forms. In this context, a high-dimensional system identification problem can be efficiently addressed (gaining in terms of both performance and complexity), based on tensor decomposition and modeling. In this paper, following the framework of the RLS-DCD-T, we propose a regularized version of this algorithm, where the regularization terms are incorporated within the cost functions. Furthermore, the optimal regularization parameters are derived, aiming to attenuate the effects of the system noise. Simulation results support the performance features of the proposed algorithm, especially in terms of its robustness in noisy environments.

D. Govind Rao ◽  
N. S. Murthy ◽  
A. Vengadarajan

This paper deals with the design and implementation of a digital beam former architecture which is developed for 4/8/12/16 element phased array radar. This technique employs a very high performance FPGA to handle large no of parallel complex arithmetic operations including digital down conversion and filtering. A 3MHz echo signal riding on an IF carrier of 60 MHz is under sampled at 50 MHz and down converted digitally to bring the spectrum to echo signal baseband. After suitable decimation filtering, the I and Q channels are multiplied with Recursive Least Squares based optimized complex weights to form partial beams. The prototype architecture employs techniques of pipelining and parallelism to generate multiple beams simultaneously from a 16 element array within 1 μsec. This can be extended to several number of arrays. The critical components employed in this design are eight 16 bit 125 MS/s ADCs and a very high performance state of the art Xilinx FPGA device Virtex-5 FX 130T having several on-chip resources and 150 MHz clock generators.

Tolgay Kara ◽  
Sawsan Abokoos

The current applications in electromechanical energy conversion demand highly accurate speed and position control. For this purpose, a better understanding of the motion characteristics and dynamic behavior of electromechanical systems including nonlinear effects is needed. In this paper, a suitable model of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor rotating in two directions is developed for identification purposes. Model is parameterized and identified via simulation and using real experimental data. Linear and nonlinear models for the system are built for identification, and the effective nonlinearities in the system, which are Coulomb friction and dead zone, are integrated into the nonlinear model. A Weiner- Hammerstein nonlinear system description is used for identification of the model. MATLAB is selected as the investigating tool, and a simulation model is used to observe the error between the simulated and estimated outputs. Identification of the linear and nonlinear system models using experimental data is performed using the least squares (LS) and recursive least squares (RLS) methods. Performance of the model and identification method with the real time experiments are presented numerically and graphically, revealing the advantages of the proposed nonlinear identification approach.

Zejiang Wang ◽  
Xingyu Zhou ◽  
Heran Shen ◽  
Junmin Wang

Abstract Modeling driver steering behavior plays an ever-important role in nowadays automotive dynamics and control applications. Especially, understanding individuals' steering characteristics enables the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to adapt to particular drivers, which provides enhanced protection while mitigating human-machine conflict. Driver-adaptive ADAS requires identifying the parameters inside a driver steering model in real-time to account for driving characteristics variations caused by weather, lighting, road, or driver physiological conditions. Usually, Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and Kalman Filter (KF) are employed to update the driver steering model parameters online. However, because of their asymptotical nature, the convergence speed of the identified parameters could be slow. In contrast, this paper adopts a purely algebraic perspective to identify parameters of a driver steering model, which can achieve parameter identification within a short period. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we first apply synthetic driver steering data from simulation to show its superior performance over an RLS identifier in identifying constant model parameters, including feedback steering gain, feedforward steering gain, preview time, and first-order neuromuscular lag. Then, we utilize real measurement data from human subject driving simulator experiments to illustrate how the time-varying feedback and feedforward steering gains can be updated online via the algebraic method.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 181
Chang-Qing Du ◽  
Jian-Bo Shao ◽  
Dong-Mei Wu ◽  
Zhong Ren ◽  
Zhong-Yi Wu ◽  

The accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) is of great significance to energy management and safety in electric vehicles. To achieve a good trade-off between real-time capability and estimation accuracy, a collaborative estimation algorithm for SOC and SOH is presented based on the Thevenin equivalent circuit model, which combines the recursive least squares method with a forgetting factor and the extended Kalman filter. First, the parameter identification accuracy is studied under a dynamic stress test (DST) and the federal urban driving schedule (FUDS) test at different ambient temperatures (0 °C, 25 °C, and 45 °C). Secondly, the FUDS test is used to verify the SOC estimation accuracy. Thirdly, two batteries with different aging degrees are used to validate the proposed SOH estimation algorithm. Subsequently, the accuracy of the SOC estimation algorithm is studied, considering the influence of updating the SOH. The proposed SOC estimation algorithm can achieve good performance at different ambient temperatures (0 °C, 25 °C, and 45 °C), with a maximum error of less than 2.3%. The maximum error for the SOH is less than 4.3% for two aged batteries at 25 °C, and it can be reduced to 1.4% after optimization. Furthermore, calibrating the capacity as the SOH changes can effectively improve the SOC estimation accuracy over the whole battery life.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 171
Mohammed J. Khafaji ◽  
Maciej Krasicki

A recently developed adaptive channel equalizer driven by a so-called Uni-Cycle Genetic Algorithm (UCGA) is examined in the paper. The authors consider different initialization strategies of the iterative process and compare UCGA against the reference Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) performance and convergence rate of an adaptive channel equalizer. The results display a reasonable performance gain of UCGA over RLS for most of wireless channel models studied in the paper. Additionally, UCGA is capable of boosting the equalizer convergence. Thus, it can be considered a promising candidate for the future adaptive wireless channel equalizer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Onder Tutsoy ◽  
Mahmud Yusuf Tanrikulu

Abstract Background There have been several destructive pandemic diseases in the human history. Since these pandemic diseases spread through human-to-human infection, a number of non-pharmacological policies has been enforced until an effective vaccine has been developed. In addition, even though a vaccine has been developed, due to the challenges in the production and distribution of the vaccine, the authorities have to optimize the vaccination policies based on the priorities. Considering all these facts, a comprehensive but simple parametric model enriched with the pharmacological and non-pharmacological policies has been proposed in this study to analyse and predict the future pandemic casualties. Method This paper develops a priority and age specific vaccination policy and modifies the non-pharmacological policies including the curfews, lockdowns, and restrictions. These policies are incorporated with the susceptible, suspicious, infected, hospitalized, intensive care, intubated, recovered, and death sub-models. The resulting model is parameterizable by the available data where a recursive least squares algorithm with the inequality constraints optimizes the unknown parameters. The inequality constraints ensure that the structural requirements are satisfied and the parameter weights are distributed proportionally. Results The results exhibit a distinctive third peak in the casualties occurring in 40 days and confirm that the intensive care, intubated, and death casualties converge to zero faster than the susceptible, suspicious, and infected casualties with the priority and age specific vaccination policy. The model also estimates that removing the curfews on the weekends and holidays cause more casualties than lifting the restrictions on the people with the chronic diseases and age over 65. Conclusion Sophisticated parametric models equipped with the pharmacological and non-pharmacological policies can predict the future pandemic casualties for various cases.

О. Sotnik ◽  
S. Marchenko ◽  
О. Hulesha ◽  
О. Syanov

Modern electronics systems are high-speed, compact and require the use of energy-efficient digital electronics devices (DED’s) such as microcontrollers, programmable logic integrated circuits (FPGA’s), digital signal processors. Application of  the  DED’s  is a hardware implementation of high - performance digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms based on the target architecture of the electronic device. In order to accellarate of the design process in the  direct hardware implementation of  DSP algorithms, simulation models are created to enable optimizing the design process at the stage of a creation of the  programming part for FPGA. The paper presents the results of a study of the adaptive filter (AF) model based on the recursive least squares method (RLS). According to the analysis of time and frequency parameters of the AF model has been conducted  during  simulation it was found that the qualitative filtering process starting from the 24th order and further increasing the AF order does not significantly improve signal filtering, but only increases the required hardware resources. In process of the verification of the proposed simulation model, the AF-based noise reduction system has been modeled and the  THD  level of 7.103 % was obtained for the built-in AF unit, which is more than one and a half times higher than the proposed AF unit 4.323 %, which confirmed the efficiency of the developed AF unit. Thus, during the study, the optimal order of AF has been determined, which will allow more efficient use of FPGA resources during the hardware implementation of AF. In accordance with the results of the study, the correctness and efficiency of the created hardware-oriented simulation model has been proved, as well as the hardware-oriented structure of the adaptive RLS filter for future implementation on FPGA nas been shown.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11797
Dongdong Ge ◽  
Zhendong Zhang ◽  
Xiangdong Kong ◽  
Zhiping Wan

The accurate state of charge (SoC) online estimation for lithium-ion batteries is a primary concern for predicting the remaining range in electric vehicles. The Sigma points Kalman Filter is an emerging SoC filtering technology. Firstly, the charge and discharge tests of the battery were carried out using the interval static method to obtain the accurate calibration of the SoC-OCV (open circuit voltage) relationship curve. Secondly, the recursive least squares method (RLS) was combined with the dynamic stress test (DST) to identify the parameters of the second-order equivalent circuit model (ECM) and establish a non-linear state-space model of the lithium-ion battery. Thirdly, based on proportional correction sampling and symmetric sampling Sigma points, an SoC estimation method combining unscented transformation and Stirling interpolation center difference was designed. Finally, a semi-physical simulation platform was built. The Federal Urban Driving Schedule and US06 Highway Driving Schedule operating conditions were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method in the presence of initial SoC errors and compare with the EKF (extended Kalman filter), UKF (unscented Kalman filter) and CDKF (central difference Kalman filter) algorithms. The results showed that the new algorithm could ensure an SoC error within 2% under the two working conditions and quickly converge to the reference value when the initial SoC value was inaccurate, effectively improving the initial error correction ability.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1525
Chengsi Huang ◽  
Hongcheng Li

Due to the excellent advantages of high speed, high precision, and driving force, piezoelectric actuators nanopositioning systems have been widely used in various micro/nanomachining fields. However, the inherent resonance dynamic of the nanopositioning system generated by the flexure-hinge greatly deteriorates the positioning performance and limits the closed-loop bandwidth. Even worse, the notch filter for eliminating the effect of resonance does not work due to the varying resonant frequency resulting from the external disturbance or mass load. To this end, an adaptive notch filter for piezo-actuated nanopositioning system via position and online estimate dual-mode (POEDM) has been proposed in this paper, which can estimate the varying resonant frequency in real-time and suppress the resonance to improve the closed-loop bandwidth. First, a novel variable forgetting factor recursive least squares (VFF-RLS) algorithm for estimating resonant frequency online is presented, which is robust to the noise and provides the performances of both fast tracking and stability. Then, a POEDM method is proposed to achieve the online identification of the resonant frequency in the presence of noise and disturbance. Finally, a series of validation simulations are carried out, and the results indicate that, the frequency of input signal and the bandwidth have been achieved up to 12.5% and 87.5% of the first resonant frequency, respectively.

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