veterinary services
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-81
Kacper Libera ◽  
Kacper Konieczny ◽  
Julia Grabska ◽  
Wiktoria Szopka ◽  
Agata Augustyniak ◽  

The aim of this paper is to review the most significant livestock-associated zoonoses. Human and animal health are intimately connected. This idea has been known for more than a century but now it has gained special importance because of the increasing threat from zoonoses. Zoonosis is defined as any infection naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. As the frequency and prevalence of zoonotic diseases increase worldwide, they become a real threat to public health. In addition, many of the newly discovered diseases have a zoonotic origin. Due to globalization and urbanization, some of these diseases have already spread all over the world, caused by the international flow of goods, people, and animals. However, special attention should be paid to farm animals since, apart from the direct contact, humans consume their products, such as meat, eggs, and milk. Therefore, zoonoses such as salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, tuberculosis, swine and avian influenza, Q fever, brucellosis, STEC infections, and listeriosis are crucial for both veterinary and human medicine. Consequently, in the suspicion of any zoonoses outbreak, the medical and veterinary services should closely cooperate to protect the public health.

2022 ◽  
George Giles ◽  
Emma Fishbourne ◽  
Robert Frank Smith ◽  
Helen Mary Higgins

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shawn Ting ◽  
Abrao Pereira ◽  
Steven Davis ◽  
Paulo Gabriel Vong da Silva ◽  
Amalia Alves ◽  

Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global health threat which is linked to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. This study was conducted to understand the knowledge and practices of smallholder pig farmers on antibiotic use and resistance in Timor-Leste. A cross-sectional study using a structured face-to-face interview was conducted in three municipalities. The interview was piloted and implemented in the local Tetun language. This study found that knowledge of antibiotics was very poor as only 12.7% (95% CI: 6.3–23.9) of farmers reported knowing what antibiotics were, and of these only one was able to correctly explain how an antibiotic worked. None of the farmers knew about antibiotic resistance and were able to explain the concept correctly. After the definition of antibiotic was explained to the farmer, only 3.6% (95% CI: 0.8–14.9) reported that their pigs had ever received antibiotics, and the majority of farmers whose pigs had not received antibiotics reported the lack of access to veterinary services. When used, antibiotics were only used for treatment with no reported use for disease prevention or growth promotion. None of the commonly used antibiotics were critically important antimicrobials. Compliance with withdrawal periods was not routinely followed. There is a need to improve access to government veterinary services for farmers in Timor-Leste, while addressing identified knowledge gaps on antibiotics and promoting prudent use practices. The findings from this study serve as baseline information to inform future interventions.

Lauren M. Seal ◽  
Sara B. Mullaney ◽  
Sheldon G. Waugh

Abstract OBJECTIVE To describe the presence of Leishmania infection within the animal population receiving care from US Army Veterinary Services. ANIMALS 629 canine, feline, and equine patients of US Army Veterinary Services from 2014 to 2017. PROCEDURES Personnel at the US Army Public Health Center ran a query within the Remote Online Veterinary Record system using previously validated search terms (eg, liesh, leish, and lesh) and returned data on any patient for which the master problem list included those terms. Next, a query was run to identify all leishmaniasis testing. Records identified by queries were reviewed manually, and data were collected on patient signalment, indication for and type of testing, location of testing, and previous locations or country of the patient. RESULTS Only dogs (n = 378), not cats or horses, had been tested for leishmaniasis, 54 (14.3%) of which tested positive for Leishmania infection. More specifically, 39 of 104 (37.5%) privately owned dogs tested positive, compared with 15 of 274 (5.6%) government-owned dogs. Overall, 186 dogs had no clinical signs, 12 (6.5%) of which tested positive. Forty-four of the 54 (81%) test-positive dogs were located in or had traveled to an endemic area. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of leishmaniasis in the various subpopulations of dogs suggested the need for additional prevalence studies. Many animals travel in and out of the US, and repeated introduction of Leishmania spp could lead to this vector-borne disease becoming endemic in the US animal and human populations. Consequently, US veterinarians need to ensure proper testing and follow-up to protect one health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-17
Jennie Jones

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ali Muhammad ◽  
Rida Bashir ◽  
Majid Mahmood ◽  
Muhammad Sohail Afzal ◽  
Sami Simsek ◽  

Ectoparasites, including lice, ticks, and mites, inhabit the host skin and depend on their host for sustenance, maturation, and multiplication. Among these, ticks are more prevalent in various regions of Pakistan because of favorable climatic conditions, lack of awareness of livestock keepers' regarding ectoparasite infestation rate, insufficient veterinary services, and inadequate control measures. Ectoparasitic infestation is a primary threat to cost-effective livestock production by damaging skin and transmitting multiple diseases between animals. This review aimed to determine the infestation rates of various ectoparasites in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, camels, equids and to ascertain the prevalence and epidemiology of ectoparasites in different regions of Pakistan. This review could be useful in devising prevention and control strategies and identifying the risk factors associated with ectoparasites to enhance animal productivity. It provides directions for veterinary schools, researchers, and organizations aiming to collaborate with neighboring countries to eradicate these parasites. Future studies could support working veterinarians and administrators and contribute to human well-being.

V. Smolyar ◽  

The purpose of the research is – develop technological requirements for technical means for pork production on pig farms, adapted to EU standards. Research methods. During the development of technological requirements for mechanization of pork production on pig farms, adapted to EU standards, the basic regulatory documents were used: EU Directive 91/630 of 19.11.1991; EU Directive 2008/120 of 18.12.2008. Technological requirements for mechanization of pork production are formed by the following components: keeping pigs, feeding pigs, watering pigs, removing manure, creating a microclimate, veterinary services. Research results.Technological requirements for mechanization of pork production were developed for the first time in Ukraine. The design of equipment for keeping pigs must provide conditions for keeping animals close to natural. In accordance with EU regulatory requirements, free conditions for keeping animals must be ensured. The technological area of the machine per animal must be at least: 0.15 m2 for pigs with an average live weight of up to 10 kg; 0,2 m2 for pigs with an average live weight of 10 kg to 20 kg; 0,3 m2 for pigs with an average live weight of 20 kg to 30 kg; 0,4 m2 for pigs with an average live weight of 30 kg to 50 kg; 0,55 m2 for pigs with an average live weight of 50 kg to 85 kg; 0,65 m2 for pigs with an average live weight of 85 to 110 kg; 1,0 m2 for pigs with an average live weight of more than 110 kg. Dimensions of individual machines for keeping pigs: width - 60 cm, length - 170 cm, area 1,0 m2; sows - width - 65 cm, length - 190 cm, area 1,2 m2. The number of pigs in the technological group must be at least 6 heads. The minimum technological area for individual keeping of an adult boar should be 6,0-7,5 m2. The technological area of the machine for keeping the breeding boar and sow during mating must be at least 10 m2. Piglets kept near sows should be provided with a comfortable heated area. During group keeping of pigs, their simultaneous access to feed must be ensured. When creating drinking bowls for pigs, it is necessary to take into account the technological requirements regarding the need of pigs for water and its flow rate. Pigs should not be kept in conditions with high excess air temperature and high relative humidity. When creating equipment for pig breeding, it is necessary to take into account the negative impact of air currents in piggeries on animals. It is not allowed to keep pigs constantly in the dark. Conclusions. For the first time in Ukraine, technological requirements for technical means for pork production on pig farms, adapted to EU standards, have been developed, taking into account the following components: keeping, feeding, watering pigs, manure removal, creating a microclimate, veterinary services. Technological requirements will be useful in the creation and implementation of modern machinery and equipment for pig farms.

Roger B. Haston ◽  
Sharon Pailler

Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the market dynamics of companion animal veterinary services through the simulation of willingness to pay and willingness to wait as consumer behavior attributes. SAMPLES Numerical distributions for the willingness to pay and willingness to wait of simulated potential clients of companion animal clinics. PROCEDURES Simulations were run by use of numerical distributions to create demand curves and analyze market dynamics across 2 market segments (price sensitive and price insensitive) and different price dispersion between clinics. RESULTS The simulations suggested that the profit-maximizing price of a full-service clinic created a natural segmentation of the companion animal veterinary market, with a majority of clients coming from the price-insensitive segment. The simulation of 2 clinics (full-service and low-cost) with 2 market segments showed an increase in the overall market for veterinary services when a low-cost clinic was present. In addition, the lower the price charged at the low-cost clinic, the greater the profits for the full-service clinic. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The presence of multiple prices for the same services, or price dispersion, in a market increases the overall market value and services more clients. Discouraging low-cost companion animal practices from entering the market decreases efficiency by leaving a population of pet owners unserved and ultimately reduces the overall market for veterinary services and the economic viability of veterinary practices.

A.I. Akmullin ◽  
E.N. Trofimova ◽  
M.N. Vasiliev ◽  
S.M. Domolazov ◽  

In the conditions of small towns, the scientific justification of the current prices for veterinary work (services) provided by budgetary institutions of the state veterinary service is of particular importance. The article presents the results of the authors research on the development of a price list of tariffs for paid veterinary services for the Novocheboksarsk city station for the control of animal diseases. 528 prices for paid veterinary services provided by the institution have been developed. Developed in 2021 prices in comparison with the current ones (2015) for the maintenance of productive animals increased from 1.2 to 3 times; for the maintenance of dogs, cats and other unproductive animals - from 1.3 to 4.2 times; for veterinary and sanitary examination and other types of veterinary work - from 1.6 to 6 times.

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