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2022 ◽  
Rafael Gomes ◽  
Juliana Pereira ◽  
João Ravasco ◽  
João Vale ◽  
Fausto Queda

The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction of biomass derived furans is an emerging technology for the preparation of new molecular entities and “drop-in” commodity chemicals. In this work we address the challenge of the direct use of electron-poor furanic platforms as dienes through the use of an unexplored chitin derived furan, 3-acetamido-5-acetylfuran (3A5AF). The 3-acetamido group promoted a remarkable increase in the kinetics of the DA allowing for the preparation of 7-oxanorbornenes (7-ONB) at 50 ºC. Partial hydrolysis of the enamide to hemi-acylaminals was possible upon fine tuning of the reaction conditions, disabling retro-DA processes. Finally, DA reaction of the reduced form of 3A5AF allowed quantitative formation of 7-ONB in aqueous condition after 10 minutes. Certanly these are the first steps for expanding the toolbox of chitin derived 3A5AF as diene.

2022 ◽  
Yi-Ru Gao ◽  
Wen-Xin Zhang ◽  
Ya-Nan Wei ◽  
You Li ◽  
teng fei ◽  

Antimicrobial resistant pathogens infections motivate the exploration of alternative approaches to treat bacterial infections. Copper ions (Cu2+) have been involved in sterilization, however, its direct use may cause high local...

2022 ◽  
pp. 153-174
Preeti Gupta ◽  
Anamika Sahu ◽  
Surjit Prasad ◽  
Mata Prasad

Individuals suffering with psychotic disorders face lifelong emotional dysregulation and may have impairments in their thought processes and perceptual experiences despite the availability to pharmacological treatment and good compliance. They feel extreme distress with their psychotic experiences that may result in avoidance of these experiences which may further warrant for residual symptoms and frequent hospitalizations. For a few decades literature has focused on exploring the possibilities of acceptance-based interventions in psychosis. Mindfulness interventions employ the strategies of direct use of meditation practice or combined use of meditation with acceptance-based or compassion-based practices. This chapter tends to summarize the various mindfulness interventions used for psychosis and review their feasibility in terms of evidence base and therapeutic specificity. Furthermore, it recommends the guidelines for protocol to be used with psychotic individuals and advocates the need for more methodologically rigorous evidence.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
Junghoon Yang ◽  
Duyoung Choi ◽  
Kwang-Seok Kim ◽  
Dae Up Kim ◽  
Jungpil Kim

Na3V2(PO4)3 is regarded as one of the promising cathode materials for next-generation sodium ion batteries, but its undesirable electrochemical performances due to inherently low electrical conductivity have limited its direct use for applications. Motivated by the limit, this study employed a porous carbon network to obtain a porous carbon network–Na3V2(PO4)3 composite by using poly(vinylalcohol) assised sol-gel method. Compared with the typical carbon-coating approach, the formation of a porous carbon network ensured short ion diffusion distances, percolating electrolytes by distributing nanosized Na3V2(PO4)3 particles in the porous carbon network and suppressing the particle aggregation. As a result, the porous carbon network–Na3V2(PO4)3 composite exhibited improved electrochemical performances, i.e., a higher specific discharge capacity (~110 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C), outstanding kinetic properties (~68 mAh g−1 at 50 C), and stable cyclic stability (capacity retention of 99% over 100 cycles at 1 C).

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 296
Bahruddin Ibrahim ◽  
Zuchra Helwani ◽  
Ivan Fadhillah ◽  
Arya Wiranata ◽  
Joni Miharyono

The direct use of natural rubber latex (NRL) as a binder for emulsion paints did not produce emulsion paints with good opacity, washability resistance, and regulated touch drying time, even when mixed with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). This study aimed to study the properties of opacity (hiding power), washability resistance, and set drying touch time of emulsion paint with a binder added from a mixture of modified natural rubber latex (NRL) and PVAc. NRL modifications included UV photodepolymerization with TiO2 catalyst and grafting copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene (NRL-g-(MMA-co-St)). NRL was mixed with PVAC at ratios of 0/100; 15/85; 25/75; 35/65; 50/50; 100/0% w/w before being used as a binder for emulsion paint. Emulsion paint samples had different binder contents, namely 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/w. Tests on paint samples included opacity using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer (EASYSPEC safas Monaco), washability using the Digital BGD 526 Wet Abrasion Scrub Tester, and drying time set using the ASTM STP500 procedure. The results showed that the opacity (hiding power), washability resistance, and set drying touch time met the emulsion paint standards for all binder levels, except the 100% w/w modified NRL composition. The higher level of NRL in the binder causes these properties to decrease and become unstable. The best opacity (hidden power), washing resistance, and drying touch time were obtained on modified NRL with a concentration of 15% w/w. The binder content in the paint was around 4% w/w, with an opacity of about 1.78% abs, washing resistance of 12 times, and the set drying touch time to 80 min.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2801
Eva Gato ◽  
Astrid Perez ◽  
Alicja Rosalowska ◽  
Maria Celeiro ◽  
German Bou ◽  

An extraction method was designed and scaled up to produce multicomponent polyphenolic extracts from blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) of three different varieties. The process was specifically drawn up to comply with green chemistry principles. Extracts were obtained for the direct assessment of their antimicrobial and antiadhesive activities, and their direct use in the control of infections caused by concerning multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. Analytical characterization was performed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Similar qualitative profiles were obtained in the three studied varieties with some significant quantitative differences. Up to 22 different polyphenols were identified with a clear predominance of anthocyani(di)ns followed by flavanols, non-flavonoids, and far behind by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins. The individual content of the main polyphenols was also discussed. A pilot scale extract has been also produced as a proof-of-concept, showing that scaling-up triples the content of bioactive phytochemicals. The effect of the polyphenolic extracts was analyzed against seven multidrug-resistance bacterial species by performing biofilm formation and growth and killing curves assays. All the studied varieties showed antibacterial and antiadhesive activities, being the extract containing the highest concentration of bioactive polyphenols, the most active with a high bactericidal effect.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Jan Erik Doornweerd ◽  
Gert Kootstra ◽  
Roel F. Veerkamp ◽  
Esther D. Ellen ◽  
Jerine A. J. van der Eijk ◽  

Animal pose-estimation networks enable automated estimation of key body points in images or videos. This enables animal breeders to collect pose information repeatedly on a large number of animals. However, the success of pose-estimation networks depends in part on the availability of data to learn the representation of key body points. Especially with animals, data collection is not always easy, and data annotation is laborious and time-consuming. The available data is therefore often limited, but data from other species might be useful, either by itself or in combination with the target species. In this study, the across-species performance of animal pose-estimation networks and the performance of an animal pose-estimation network trained on multi-species data (turkeys and broilers) were investigated. Broilers and turkeys were video recorded during a walkway test representative of the situation in practice. Two single-species and one multi-species model were trained by using DeepLabCut and tested on two single-species test sets. Overall, the within-species models outperformed the multi-species model, and the models applied across species, as shown by a lower raw pixel error, normalized pixel error, and higher percentage of keypoints remaining (PKR). The multi-species model had slightly higher errors with a lower PKR than the within-species models but had less than half the number of annotated frames available from each species. Compared to the single-species broiler model, the multi-species model achieved lower errors for the head, left foot, and right knee keypoints, although with a lower PKR. Across species, keypoint predictions resulted in high errors and low to moderate PKRs and are unlikely to be of direct use for pose and gait assessments. A multi-species model may reduce annotation needs without a large impact on performance for pose assessment, however, with the recommendation to only be used if the species are comparable. If a single-species model exists it could be used as a pre-trained model for training a new model, and possibly require a limited amount of new data. Future studies should investigate the accuracy needed for pose and gait assessments and estimate genetic parameters for the new phenotypes before pose-estimation networks can be applied in practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
Anthousa TZOTZI ◽  
Irene KOUTSERI ◽  
Myrsini MALAKOU ◽  
Theodoros PARISIS ◽  
Dry Bean ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-24
S. C. Maree ◽  
T. Alderliesten ◽  
P. A. N. Bosman

Abstract Domination-based multi-objective (MO) evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are today arguably the most frequently used type of MOEA. These methods however stagnate when the majority of the population becomes non-dominated, preventing further convergence to the Pareto set. Hypervolume-based MO optimization has shown promising results to overcome this. Direct use of the hypervolume however results in no selection pressure for dominated solutions. The recently introduced Sofomore framework overcomes this by solving multiple interleaved single-objective dynamic problems that iteratively improve a single approximation set, based on the uncrowded hypervolume improvement (UHVI). It thereby however loses many advantages of population-based MO optimization, such as handling multimodality. Here, we reformulate the UHVI as a quality measure for approximation sets, called the uncrowded hypervolume (UHV), which can be used to directly solve MO optimization problems with a single-objective optimizer. We use the state-of-the-art gene-pool optimal mixing evolutionary algorithm (GOMEA) that is capable of efficiently exploiting the intrinsically available greybox properties of this problem. The resulting algorithm, UHV-GOMEA, is compared to Sofomore equipped with GOMEA, and the domination-based MO-GOMEA. In doing so, we investigate in which scenarios either domination-based or hypervolume-based methods are preferred. Finally, we construct a simple hybrid approach that combines MO-GOMEA with UHV-GOMEA and outperforms both.

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