reduced form
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2022 ◽  
Rafael Gomes ◽  
Juliana Pereira ◽  
João Ravasco ◽  
João Vale ◽  
Fausto Queda

The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction of biomass derived furans is an emerging technology for the preparation of new molecular entities and “drop-in” commodity chemicals. In this work we address the challenge of the direct use of electron-poor furanic platforms as dienes through the use of an unexplored chitin derived furan, 3-acetamido-5-acetylfuran (3A5AF). The 3-acetamido group promoted a remarkable increase in the kinetics of the DA allowing for the preparation of 7-oxanorbornenes (7-ONB) at 50 ºC. Partial hydrolysis of the enamide to hemi-acylaminals was possible upon fine tuning of the reaction conditions, disabling retro-DA processes. Finally, DA reaction of the reduced form of 3A5AF allowed quantitative formation of 7-ONB in aqueous condition after 10 minutes. Certanly these are the first steps for expanding the toolbox of chitin derived 3A5AF as diene.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 324
Igor Y. Iskusnykh ◽  
Anastasia A. Zakharova ◽  
Dhruba Pathak

Glutathione is a remarkably functional molecule with diverse features, which include being an antioxidant, a regulator of DNA synthesis and repair, a protector of thiol groups in proteins, a stabilizer of cell membranes, and a detoxifier of xenobiotics. Glutathione exists in two states—oxidized and reduced. Under normal physiological conditions of cellular homeostasis, glutathione remains primarily in its reduced form. However, many metabolic pathways involve oxidization of glutathione, resulting in an imbalance in cellular homeostasis. Impairment of glutathione function in the brain is linked to loss of neurons during the aging process or as the result of neurological diseases such as Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease. The exact mechanisms through which glutathione regulates brain metabolism are not well understood. In this review, we will highlight the common signaling cascades that regulate glutathione in neurons and glia, its functions as a neuronal regulator in homeostasis and metabolism, and finally a mechanistic recapitulation of glutathione signaling. Together, these will put glutathione’s role in normal aging and neurological disorders development into perspective.

André P. Oliveira

The Duffin–Schaeffer Conjecture answers a question on how well one can approximate irrationals by rational numbers in reduced form (an imposed condition) where the accuracy of the approximation depends on the rational number. It can be viewed as an analogue to Khintchine’s theorem with the added restriction of only allowing rationals in reduced form. Other conditions such as numerator or denominator a prime, a square-free integer, or an element of a particular arithmetic progression, etc. have also been imposed and analogues of Khintchine’s theorem studied. We prove versions of Khintchine’s theorem where the rational numbers are sourced from a ball in some completion of [Formula: see text] (i.e. Euclidean or [Formula: see text]-adic), while the approximations are carried out in a distinct second completion. Finally, by using a mass transference principle for Hausdorff measures, we are able to extend our results to their corresponding analogues with Haar measures replaced by Hausdorff measures, thereby establishing an analogue of Jarník’s theorem.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21

We study the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on foreign corporate investment flows to Singaporean firms using a linear reduced-form empirical specification on data from the past decade. Overall, we find that the cost of debt capital falls on average when the Singapore dollar depreciates. Isolating the effect of exchange rates on US-denominated debt vis-a-vis interest rates and yield curve variables shows that an increase in the cost of foreign debt capital through exchange rate changes leads to lower investment, albeit only slightly and an order of magnitude less important than short-term government bond yields.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Junkee Jeon ◽  
Geonwoo Kim

In this paper, we study the valuation of power exchange options with a correlated hybrid credit risk when the underlying assets follow the jump-diffusion processes. The hybrid credit risk model is constructed using two credit risk models (the reduced-form model and the structural model), and the jump-diffusion processes are proposed based on the assumptions of Merton. We assume that the dynamics of underlying assets have correlated continuous terms as well as idiosyncratic and common jump terms. Under the proposed model, we derive the explicit pricing formula of the power exchange option using the measure change technique with multidimensional Girsanov’s theorem. Finally, the formula is presented as the normal cumulative functions and the infinite sums.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261337
Muhammad Usman Arshad ◽  
Zeeshan Ahmed ◽  
Ayesha Ramzan ◽  
Muhammad Nadir Shabbir ◽  
Zahid Bashir ◽  

The study explores the causal relationship between monetary policy effectiveness and financial inclusion in developed and under-developed countries. Structural Vector Auto-regressive techniques have been inducted to explore the relationship between monetary policy effectiveness and financial inclusion. The study covers the secondary data of 10 developed and 30 underdeveloped countries throughout 2004–2018. It is concluded that monetary policy effectiveness and financial inclusion do not have a contemporaneous impact on each other. Nevertheless, the reduced-form Vector Auto-regressive witness the reverse causality between financial inclusion and monetary policy effectiveness in developed countries. Thus, effective monetary policy enhances financial inclusion in a country, and a higher degree of financial inclusion lowers the inflation rate and makes monetary policy effective. One way causality from monetary policy effectiveness to financial inclusion can be observed in under-developed countries. Using the Structural Vector auto-regressive technique and financial inclusion index composed of three-dimension to examine the relationship of monetary policy effectiveness and financial inclusion in developed and developing countries is considered the study’s significant contribution.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Hua Wang ◽  
Tianyi Li ◽  
Ahmed M. Hashem ◽  
Ashraf E. Abdel-Ghany ◽  
Rasha S. El-Tawil ◽  

This work aimed at synthesizing MoO3 and MoO2 by a facile and cost-effective method using extract of orange peel as a biological chelating and reducing agent for ammonium molybdate. Calcination of the precursor in air at 450 °C yielded the stochiometric MoO3 phase, while calcination in vacuum produced the reduced form MoO2 as evidenced by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed different morphologies and sizes of MoOx particles. MoO3 formed platelet particles that were larger than those observed for MoO2. MoO3 showed stable thermal behavior until approximately 800 °C, whereas MoO2 showed weight gain at approximately 400 °C due to the fact of re-oxidation and oxygen uptake and, hence, conversion to stoichiometric MoO3. Electrochemically, traditional performance was observed for MoO3, which exhibited a high initial capacity with steady and continuous capacity fading upon cycling. On the contrary, MoO2 showed completely different electrochemical behavior with less initial capacity but an outstanding increase in capacity upon cycling, which reached 1600 mAh g−1 after 800 cycles. This outstanding electrochemical performance of MoO2 may be attributed to its higher surface area and better electrical conductivity as observed in surface area and impedance investigations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Gabriel Montes-Rojas

Abstract A multivariate vector autoregressive model is used to construct the distribution of the impulse-response functions of macroeconomics shocks. In particular, the paper studies the distribution of the short-, medium-, and long-term effects after a shock. Structural and reduced form quantile vector autoregressive models are developed where heterogeneity in conditional effects can be evaluated through multivariate quantile processes. The distribution of the responses can then be obtained by using uniformly distributed random vectors. An empirical example of exchange rate pass-through in Argentina is presented.

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