induction phase
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260356
Mie S. Berke ◽  
Louise K. D. Fensholdt ◽  
Sara Hestehave ◽  
Otto Kalliokoski ◽  
Klas S. P. Abelson

Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is a common animal model for studying chronic inflammatory pain. However, modelling of the disease is associated with unnecessary pain and impaired animal wellbeing, particularly in the immediate post-induction phase. Few attempts have been made to counteract these adverse effects with analgesics. The present study investigated the effect of buprenorphine on animal welfare, pain-related behaviour and model-specific parameters during the disease progression in a rat model of CFA-induced monoarthritis. The aim was to reduce or eliminate unnecessary pain in this model, in order to improve animal welfare and to avoid suffering, without compromising the quality of the model. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with 20 μl of CFA into the left tibio-tarsal joint to induce monoarthritis. Rats were treated with either buprenorphine or carprofen for 15 days during the disease development, and were compared to a saline-treated CFA-injected group or a negative control group. Measurements of welfare, pain-related behaviour and clinical model-specific parameters were collected. The study was terminated after 3 weeks, ending with a histopathologic analysis. Regardless of treatment, CFA-injected rats displayed mechanical hyperalgesia and developed severe histopathological changes associated with arthritis. However, no severe effects on general welfare were found at any time. Buprenorphine treatment reduced facial pain expression scores, improved mobility, stance and lameness scores and it did not supress the CFA-induced ankle swelling, contrary to carprofen. Although buprenorphine failed to demonstrate a robust analgesic effect on the mechanical hyperalgesia in this study, it did not interfere with the development of the intended pathology.

Monil Y. N. Gala ◽  
Snehal S. Muchhala ◽  
Sujeet N. Charugulla ◽  
Rahul Rathod ◽  
Amey Mane ◽  

<p class="abstract"><strong>Background:</strong> Topical exposure to chemicals from cosmetics can lead to adverse skin effects or skin irritation. This study aimed to investigate the skin irritation and sensitizing potential of a moisturizer Venusia max lotion (paraben-free, alcohol-free, mineral oil-free, animal origin free (PAMA) free).</p><p class="abstract"><strong>Methods:</strong> In this single-center, non-randomized, observational study, skin irritation, and skin sensitization potential of a test product was assessed using the human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) technique. Approximately 0.04 g of the test product and filter papers dipped in 0.9% isotonic saline solution (~0.04 ml of solution) were filled in different wells of patch chambers and applied occlusively, on the back of each participant. Scoring of the skin reactions in the induction phase and challenge phase was done using Draize and international contact dermatitis research group (ICDRG) scales respectively. Scores were compared to the baseline and the negative control (isotonic saline).<strong></strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong>Results:</strong> In total 234 participants (50 with sensitive skin), 224 and 221 participants completed the induction phase and challenge phase respectively. Scores for the induction phase for Venusia max lotion (PAMA free) and isotonic saline were 0.46 and 0.06 respectively. The mean cumulative score of erythema and oedema for Venusia max lotion (PAMA free) was below 2. For the challenge phase, none of the participants showed any positive reactions at any time point for test product and isotonic saline.</p><p class="abstract"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Test product Venusia max lotion (PAMA free) found to be non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Thus, it can be used without fear of skin irritation or sensitization.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
André Weigert ◽  
Marie-Louise Bergman ◽  
Lígia A. Gonçalves ◽  
Iolanda Godinho ◽  
Nádia Duarte ◽  

Background: Patients on hemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk for COVID-19, overall are poor responders to vaccines, and were prioritized in the Portuguese vaccination campaign.Objective: This work aimed at evaluating in HD patients the immunogenicity of BTN162b2 after the two doses induction phase, the persistence of specific antibodies along time, and factors predicting these outcomes.Methods: We performed a prospective, 6-month long longitudinal cohort analysis of 156 HD patients scheduled to receive BTN162b2. ELISA quantified anti-spike IgG, IgM, and IgA levels in sera were collected every 3 weeks during the induction phase (t0 before vaccine; t1, d21 post first dose; and t2 d21 post second dose), and every 3–4 months during the waning phase (t3, d140, and t4, d180 post first dose). The age-matched control cohort was similarly analyzed from t0 to t2.Results: Upon exclusion of participants identified as previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, seroconversion at t1 was lower in patients than controls (29 and 50%, respectively, p = 0.0014), while the second vaccine dose served as a boost in both cohorts (91 and 95% positivity, respectively, at t2, p = 0.2463). Lower response in patients than controls at t1 was a singularity of the participants ≤ 70 years (p = 2.01 × 10−05), associated with immunosuppressive therapies (p = 0.013), but not with lack of responsiveness to hepatitis B. Anti-spike IgG, IgM, and IgA levels decreased at t3, with IgG levels further waning at t4 and resulting in &gt;30% seronegativity. Anti-spike IgG levels at t1 and t4 were correlated (ρ = 0.65, p &lt; 2.2 × 10−16).Conclusions: While most HD patients seroconvert upon 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccination, anti-spike antibodies levels wane over the following 4 months, leading to early seroreversion in a sizeable fraction of the patients. These findings warrant close monitoring of COVID-19 infection in vaccinated HD patients, and advocate for further studies following reinforced vaccination schedules.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1409
Kacper Nijakowski ◽  
Rafał Rutkowski ◽  
Piotr Eder ◽  
Katarzyna Korybalska ◽  
Janusz Witowski ◽  

We previously observed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may compromise oral host defense, as assessed by decreased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Biologic therapy with inhibitors of cytokines or adhesion molecules is increasingly used for patients with IBD. Little is known, however, about how this treatment modality affects the release and properties of saliva. Here, we aimed to determine how biologic therapy in patients who had not responded to previous standard treatment with conventional drugs affected the salivary concentration of IgA and MPO. To this end, unstimulated whole mixed saliva was collected before treatment or after 10–12 weeks of therapy from 27 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 24 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). After the induction phase of therapy with biologics, salivary levels of IgA and MPO increased significantly in UC, but not in CD patients. These increases were approximately 8-fold and 6-fold, for IgA and MPO, respectively. Moreover, these effects occurred in UC patients who responded successfully to therapy, but not in those who failed to improve. Furthermore, the relative increases in salivary IgA and MPO correlated with the relative decrease in UC severity, as assessed by the Mayo scale. These data indicate that the successful therapy with biologics in UC patients results also in improved oral host defense. However, it remains to be determined why such an effect does not occur during therapy for CD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Angela Damato ◽  
Francesca Bergamo ◽  
Lorenzo Antonuzzo ◽  
Guglielmo Nasti ◽  
Francesco Iachetta ◽  

The NIVACOR trial is a phase II study assessing the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in combination with FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab in first-line setting in patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) RAS/BRAF mutated. We report safety run-in results in the first 10 patients enrolled. Patients received triplet chemotherapy with FOLFOXIRI scheme plus bevacizumab, in association with nivolumab every 2 weeks for 8 cycles (induction phase) followed by bevacizumab plus nivolumab every 2 weeks (maintenance phase), until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicities. The first ten patients were evaluated: 7 experienced at least one adverse event (AE) related to FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab and 2 related to nivolumab. The most frequent grade 1–2 AEs related to FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab were diarrhea and fatigue (71%), nausea and vomiting (57%); 3 (43%) had grade 3–4 neutropenia, and 2 (20%) patients developed grade 1–2 AEs nivolumab related: skin rash and salivary gland infection. Two patients delayed the dose because of serious AEs, proteinuria and salivary gland infection; one patient discontinued experimental treatment due to the ileo-urethral fistula and concurrent Clostridium infection diarrhea. No treatment- related death occurred. The safety run-in analysis of NIVACOR trial reassured using co-administration of FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab and nivolumab was well tolerated with an acceptable toxicity profile.Clinical Trial Registration, (NCT04072198).

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3510
Ray Ishida ◽  
Jamie Cole ◽  
Joaquin Lopez-Orozco ◽  
Nawell Fayad ◽  
Alberto Felix-Lopez ◽  

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted virus that belongs to the genus Alphavirus within the family Togaviridae. Humans infected with MAYV often develop chronic and debilitating arthralgia and myalgia. The virus is primarily maintained via a sylvatic cycle, but it has the potential to adapt to urban settings, which could lead to large outbreaks. The interferon (IFN) system is a critical antiviral response that limits replication and pathogenesis of many different RNA viruses, including alphaviruses. Here, we investigated how MAYV infection affects the induction phase of the IFN response. Production of type I and III IFNs was efficiently suppressed during MAYV infection, and mapping revealed that expression of the viral non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) was sufficient for this process. Interactome analysis showed that nsP2 interacts with DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A (Rpb1) and transcription initiation factor IIE subunit 2 (TFIIE2), which are host proteins required for RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription. Levels of these host proteins were reduced by nsP2 expression and during infection by MAYV and related alphaviruses, suggesting that nsP2-mediated inhibition of host cell transcription is an important aspect of how some alphaviruses block IFN induction. The findings from this study may prove useful in design of vaccines and antivirals, which are currently not available for protection against MAYV and infection by other alphaviruses.

K. Devaraja ◽  
Neethu V. Krishnan ◽  
Vasudeva K. Bhat ◽  
Kailesh Pujary ◽  
Archana M. Venkatagiri ◽  

AbstractPalatal involvement in mucormycosis is mostly secondary to rhino-orbito-cerebral disease, but rarely can be a primary disease of the oral mucosa. This report presents two rare cases of the isolated palatal mucormycosis in neutropenic children and highlights some of the peculiar features of the primary palatal disease and management-related issues in children. A 12-year-old child, who had completed the dexamethasone-based induction phase of chemotherapy for Near Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and a 9-year-old boy with a Late Isolated Medullary relapse of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who was to receive salvage induction chemotherapy, developed palatal discoloration without any other major complaints. Both had neutropenia and were on antifungal prophylaxis. In vitro staining of the discolored mucosa suggested mucormycosis, which was confirmed by pathological examination of the debrided tissue. Computed tomography, done before debridement, showed no significant sinonasal disease enabling us to proceed with the transoral approach. With the help of adjuvant antifungal therapy, the infection could be contained in both cases. This report, along with the reviewed literature, shows that limited palatal mucormycosis can be effectively treated by early diagnosis and debridement and appropriate antifungal therapy. Also, the role of antifungal prophylaxis amongst neutropenic patients has been briefly discussed here.

Abhilasha Sampagar ◽  
B R Ritesh ◽  
Dubey Shiv ◽  
Shridhar C. Ghagne ◽  
Neha Patil ◽  

Abstract Introduction The recent advances in cancer treatment have resulted in significant improvement in the outcome of pediatric cancers. However, febrile neutropenia (FN) is the most important cause of mortality and morbidity in pediatric cancer patients and is a crucial limiting factor for the outcome. The greatest threat that we are facing is the emergence of pan drug-resistant (PDR) organisms. Objectives To study bacterial organisms causing bloodstream infections (BSI) during febrile neutropenia episodes, their antibiotic sensitivity pattern, impact on treatment outcome during the intensive phase of chemotherapy, and the association between prior administration of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDR). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was conducted in patients between the age group of 0 to 18 years who were treated for malignancies in the division of pediatric oncology at a tertiary center from August 2017 to December 2020. Blood cultures were collected under aseptic precautions, and they were processed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute Guideline (CLSI) 2017. Results A total of 122/159 (76.7%) patients were diagnosed to have hematological malignancies, and 37/159 (23.3%) patients were found to be suffering from solid tumors. A total of 309 episodes of FN were documented and 386 cultures were sent, out of which 87/386 (22.53%) cultures were positive for bacteria and 2/386 (2.2%) for fungi. Gram-negative isolates were seen in 51/87 (58.62%) cultures and Gram-positive in 36/87 (41.37%) cultures. Burkholderia cepacia and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CONS) were the commonest found Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. MDR bacterial strains were seen in 44/87 (50.57%) cultures and PDR strains in 8/87 (9.2%) cultures. Resistance was higher with Klebsiella species and CONS. There were six mortalities during the induction phase of acute leukemia treatment, out of which 4/6 (66.66%) were due to MDR infections, 1/6 (16.6%) due to fungal infection and chemotherapy refractoriness each. Conclusion Proven bacterial infections were determined in 22.53% of febrile neutropenia episodes. Most BSI in patients with febrile neutropenia were caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Indiscriminate use of higher antibiotics before referral led to the emergence of MDR organisms, thus compromising the outcome. Our study emphasizes the fact that antibiotic stewardship is a crucial task to counter MDR bacteremia-related morbidity and mortality in neutropenic children.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2720
Mohamed Elhiti ◽  
Mohammed M. Mira ◽  
Kenny K. Y. So ◽  
Claudio Stasolla ◽  
Kim H. Hebelstrup

Somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis encompasses an induction phase requiring auxin as the inductive signal to promote cellular dedifferentiation and formation of the embryogenic tissue, and a developmental phase favoring the maturation of the embryos. Strigolactones (SLs) have been categorized as a novel group of plant hormones based on their ability to affect physiological phenomena in plants. The study analyzed the effects of synthetic strigolactone GR24, applied during the induction phase, on auxin response and formation of somatic embryos. The expression level of two SL biosynthetic genes, MOREAXILLARY GROWTH 3 and 4 (MAX3 and MAX4), which are responsible for the conversion of carotene to carotenal, increased during the induction phase of embryogenesis. Arabidopsis mutant studies indicated that the somatic embryo number was inhibited in max3 and max4 mutants, and this effect was reversed by applications of GR24, a synthetic strigolactone, and exacerbated by TIS108, a SL biosynthetic inhibitor. The transcriptional studies revealed that the regulation of GR24 and TIS108 on somatic embryogenesis correlated with changes in expression of AUXIN RESPONSIVE FACTORs 5, 8, 10, and 16, known to be required for the production of the embryogenic tissue, as well as the expression of WUSCHEL (WUS) and Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor-like Kinase 1 (SERK1), which are markers of cell dedifferentiation and embryogenic tissue formation. Collectively, this work demonstrated the novel role of SL in enhancing the embryogenic process in Arabidopsis and its requirement for inducing the expression of genes related to auxin signaling and production of embryogenic tissue.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1356336X2110562
Björn Tolgfors ◽  
Mikael Quennerstedt ◽  
Erik Backman ◽  
Gunn Nyberg

In many countries, assessment for learning (AfL) is recommended in both policy and research as a concept that should be integrated into the teaching of physical education (PE) in schools. AfL is also part of physical education teacher education (PETE) programs in several countries and, consequently, something future PE teachers are expected to practice in their teaching. In a previous study ( Tolgfors et al., 2021 ), we showed how AfL was transmitted and transformed between a university course and a school placement course within Swedish PETE. In the current study, we have more closely followed three of the preservice teachers who took part in our initial study into their first year of PE teaching. The purpose of this follow-up study is thus to explore how AfL is enacted in the induction phase of PE teaching. The more specific research question is: how is AfL enacted in beginning teachers’ PE practices under the contextual conditions provided at the schools where they are employed? The data were generated through Stimulated Recall interviews and follow-up interviews via the online meeting software Zoom. The analysis was based on Braun et al.’s (2011) contextual dimensions of policy enactment and Bernstein’s (1996) pedagogic device. Our findings illustrate how AfL is generally enacted through (1) progression and (2) “rich tasks.” However, the contextual dimensions of each school provide different conditions that either support or hinder the use of AfL in PE. AfL is accordingly enacted in different ways in the induction phase of PE teaching.

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