dual luciferase reporter assay
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 747-755
Shengyong Liu ◽  
Xiangcheng Li

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor worldwide with a poor prognosis. Amounting studies revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) show important roles in various biological processes. The purpose of this study was to explore the biological function and potential molecular mechanism of CASC7 in HCC. Methods: CASC7 expression in HCC cell lines was detected by qRT-PCR. The expressions of CASC7 and miR-340-5p were changed by transfection of miR-340-5p mimic, the CASC7 overexpression and knockdown plasmids. The interaction between CASC7 and miR-340-5p was assessed by a Dual-Luciferase reporter assay. The biological functions of CASC7 were evaluated by CCK-8, colony formation assay, ROS assay kit, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry (FCM). Results: CASC7 was upregulated in HCC cell lines. CASC7 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation, as well as inhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress. In contrast, CASC7 knockdown could reverse these above changes. The result of the Dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that CASC7 directly targeted miR-340-5p and negatively regulated its expression. In addition, CASC7 promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of HCC cells through activating Nrf2 pathway by downregulating miR-340-5p. Conclusions: In summary, CASC7 promotes HCC tumorigenesis and progression through the Nrf2 pathway by targeting miR-340-5p, which may provide a new target for therapy of HCC.

2022 ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Xuesong Zhao ◽  
Shanhong Ni ◽  
Yuanyuan Zhang ◽  
Xiuli Wu ◽  

This study investigated if artemisinin-chrysosplenetin combination (ART-CHR) improved ART antimalarial efficacy against resistant Plasmodium berghei K173 via depressing host ABC transporter and potential molecular mechanism. Parasitaemia% and inhibition% were calculated and gene/protein expressions of ABC transporters or PXR/CAR/NF-κB p52 were detected by Western-blot and RT-qPCR. In vitro transcription of PXR/CAR was studied by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Our data indicated that ART-CHR improved ART efficacy against resistant parasites. P-gp inhibitor verapamil and CHR showed a stronger effect in killing resistant parasites while vehicle and Bcrp inhibitor novobiocin did not. ART activated intestinal ABCB1/ABCG2 and CHR inhibited them. ART decreased Bcrp protein whereas CHR increased it. ART ascended ABCC1/ABCC4/ABCC5 mRNA but ART-CHR descended them. CHR as well as rifampin (RIF) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) increased transcription levels of PXR/CAR while showed a versatile regulation on in vivo hepatic and enternal PXR/CAR in Mdr1a+/+ (WT) or Mdr1a-/- (KO) mice infected with sensitive or resistant parasites. Oppositely, hepatic and enteric N-7κB p52 mRNA was conformably decreased in WT but increased in KO-resistant mice. NF-κB pathway should potentially involved in the mechanism of CHR on inhibiting ABC transporters and ART resistance while PXR/CAR play a more complicated role in this mechanism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Changyu Zhu ◽  
Xiaolei Jiang ◽  
Hua Xiao ◽  
Jianmei Guan

AbstractRadioresistance prevails as one of the largest obstacles in the clinical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Meanwhile, tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) possess the ability to manipulate radioresistance in NPC. However, its mechanism remains to be further explored. Therefore, the current study set out to explore the mechanism of microRNA (miR)-142-5p delivered by TEVs in regard to the radiosensitivity of NPC. Firstly, peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with radioresistance and radiosensitivity, followed by RT-qPCR detection of miR-142-5p expression. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was carried out to elucidate the targeting relationship of miR-142-5p with HGF and EGF. In addition, radiotherapy-resistant NPC cell models were established by screening NPC cells with gradient increasing radiation exposure, and co-incubated with EVs isolated from miR-142-5p mimic-transfected NPC cells, followed by overexpression of HGF and EGF. Moreover, cell viability was detected by means of MTS, cell proliferation with a colony formation assay, cell apoptosis with flow cytometry, and expression patterns of related genes with the help of Western blot analysis. NPC xenotransplantation models in nude mice were also established by subcutaneous injection of 5-8FR cells to determine apoptosis, tumorigenicity, and radiosensitivity in nude mice. It was found that miR-142-5p was poorly expressed in peripheral blood from NPC patients with radioresistance. Mechanistic experimentation illustrated that miR-142-5p inversely targeted HGF and EGF to inactivate the HGF/c-Met and EGF/EGFR pathways, respectively. NPC cell apoptosis was observed to be augmented, while their radioresistance and proliferation were restricted by EVs-miR-142-5p or HGF silencing, or EGF silencing. Furthermore, EVs-miR-142-5p inhibited growth and radioresistance and accelerated the apoptosis of radiotherapy-resistant NPC cells in nude mice by inhibiting the HGF/c-Met and EGF/EGFR pathways. Collectively, our findings indicated that TEVs might inhibit the HGF/c-Met and EGF/EGFR pathways by delivering miR-142-5p into radiotherapy-resistant NPC cells to enhance radiosensitivity in NPC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Dianbo Long ◽  
Yiyang Xu ◽  
Guping Mao ◽  
Ruobing Xin ◽  
Zengfa Deng ◽  

AbstracttRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) are new noncoding RNAs, and recent studies have shown that tRNAs and tRFs have important functions in cell metabolism via posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. However, whether tRFs regulate cellular metabolism of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and action mechanism of tRFs in ACL cell metabolism. A tRF array was used to determine tRF expression profiles in different human ACL cells, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridisation were used to determine TRF365 expression. ACL cells were transfected with a TRF365 mimic or a TRF365 inhibitor to determine whether TRF365 regulates IKBKB expression. A rescue experiment and dual-luciferase reporter assay were conducted to determine whether the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of IKBKB has a TRF365-binding site. TRF365 was weakly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA) ACL and interleukin-1β-treated ACL cells. IKBKB was highly expressed in OA ACL and interleukin-1β-treated ACL cells; transfection with the TRF365 mimic suppressed IKBKB expression, whereas transfection with the TRF365 inhibitor had the opposite effect. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that TRF365 silenced the expression of IKBKB by binding to its 3′-UTR. Thus, TRF365 regulates the metabolism of ACL cells by targeting IKBKB. In summary, TRF365 may provide a new direction for the study of ACL degeneration and on the pathophysiological process of OA.

2022 ◽  
Liming Jin ◽  
Zhaoxia Zhang ◽  
Zhang Wang ◽  
Xiaojun Tan ◽  
Zhaoying Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: CSCs play an important role in tumor development. Some studies have demonstrated that piRNAs participate in the progression of various cancers. However, the detailed function of piRNAs in CSCs requires further investigation. This study aimed to investigate the significance of some piRNAs in Piwil2-iCSCs. Methods and Results: Differentially expressed piRNAs in Piwil2-iCSCs were screened by high-throughput sequencing. Target genes were predicted by the miRanda algorithm and subjected to GO and KEGG analysis. One of the differential piRNAs, novel piRNA MW557525, was transfected and its target gene NOP56 was silenced in Piwil2-iCSCs, respectively. RT-qPCR, western blot and dual luciferase reporter assay were used to investigate the interaction of piRNA MW557525 and NOP56. We identified the effect of piRNA MW557525 and NOP56 knockdown on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis via CCK-8, transwell assay, and flow cytometry. The expressions of CD24, CD133, KLF4, and SOX2 were detected via WB. The results showed that piRNA MW557525 was negatively correlated with NOP56, and it promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion, and inhibited apoptosis in Piwil2-iCSCs, and it also promoted the expressions of CD24, CD133, KLF4, and SOX2, while NOP56 showed the opposite effect. Conclusions: These findings suggested that novel piRNA MW557525 might be a novel therapeutic target in Piwil2-iCSCs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Shufang Yan ◽  
Yang Chen ◽  
Meihong Yang ◽  
Qian Zhang ◽  
Jiajia Ma ◽  

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the comprehensive biological process of several cancer types. In our former study, we found that hsa-microRNA- (miR-)28-5p was downregulated, but tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activating protein zeta (14-3-3ζ or YWHAZ) was upregulated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tissues. We predicted that YWHAZ was a target gene for hsa-miR- 28-5p using bioinformatics analysis. Our goal was to reveal the role of hsa-miR-28-5p in DLBCL. YWHAZ was tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of 137 DLBCL tissues, and the expression of hsa-miR-28-5p and YWHAZ was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 15 fresh and frozen DLBCL tissues. To study the functional roles of the downregulated hsa-miR-28-5p in DLBCL, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was conducted to estimate cell proliferation. Transient transfection of miRNA mimics was performed to overexpress hsa-miR-28-5p, and flow cytometry was performed to examine cell apoptosis and cell cycle progression. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to explore the relationship between hsa-miR-28-5p and YWHAZ. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to investigate the function of hsa-miR-28-5p in YWHAZ expression. hsa-miR-28-5p was found to be significantly downregulated in DLBCL tissues and cell lines. Functional studies showed that hsa-miR-28-5p overexpression inhibited cell viability and proliferation, and YWHAZ was predicted to be a target of hsa-miR-28-5p. Dual-luciferase reporter assay, Western blotting, and qRT-PCR verified that hsa-miR-28-5p negatively regulated YWHAZ expression by directly targeting its 3′ untranslated regions in DLBCL cells. hsa-miR-28-5p may suppress the growth of DLBCL cells by inhibiting YWHAZ expression. These findings could provide novel targets for DLBCL diagnosis and therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 12-24
Mabao YUAN ◽  
Hanjiao HANG ◽  
Lubin YAN ◽  
Xuanjie HUANG ◽  
Ziyang SANG ◽  

[Objective] Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric neuroendocrine tumor. Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma have poor clinical outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying neuroblastoma progression could help identify potential therapeutic targets. This study aimed to explore the roles of itchy E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (ITCH) in neuroblastoma progression using neuroblastoma cell lines and xenograft models of neuroblastoma. [Methods] ITCH-silencing or overexpressing neuroblastoma cells were established using two different human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-AS and SH-SY5Y. In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to determine the effects of ITCH on neuroblastoma cell behaviors. The dual-luciferase reporter assay and co-transfection experiments were applied to determine the interaction of ITCH and miR-145-5p during neuroblastoma progression. [Results] In both cell lines, ITCH overexpression significantly promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion capacities of neuroblastoma cells, while ITCH silencing with ShITCH suppressed neuroblastoma cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Moreover, overexpression of ITCH decreased 51% and 54% the protein expressions of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1), and inhibited 59% and 66% the phosphorylation of Yes-associated protein (YAP), concomitant with 2.02-fold and 2.56-fold increased expressions of cell proliferation marker Ki67 and 2.51-fold and 2.26-fold elevated levels of anti-apoptosis marker Bcl2 in SK-N-AS and SH-SY5Y cells, respectively. The dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that ITCH interacted with miR-145-5p. Further in vitro and xenograft experiments showed that ITCH negatively affected the tumor-suppressive effect of miR-145-5p. [Conclusion] ITCH promotes neuroblastoma cell proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting LATS1 and promoting YAP nuclear translocation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Xu Niu ◽  
Haitao Sun ◽  
Feng Qiu ◽  
Jing Liu ◽  
Tianchi Yang ◽  

Objective. To analyze the function of miR-10b-5p in suppressing the invasion and proliferation of primary hepatic carcinoma cells by downregulating erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2). Material and Methods. Eighty-six hepatic carcinoma (HCC) tissue specimens and 86 corresponding adjacent tissue specimens were collected, and the mRNA expression of miR-10b-5p and Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) in the specimens was determined using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Western blot was employed to quantify EphA2, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and Caspase-3 in the cells, and CCK8, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry were applied to evaluate the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of cells, respectively. Moreover, the dual luciferase reporter assay was utilized for correlation analysis between miR-10b-5p and EphA2. Results. miR-10b-5p was lowly expressed in HCC, while EphA2 was highly expressed. Cell experiments revealed that miR-10b-5p overexpression or EphA2 knockdown could reduce cell proliferation, accelerate apoptosis, strongly upregulate Bax and Caspase-3, and downregulate Bcl-2. In contrast, miR-10b-5p knockdown or EphA2 overexpression gave rise to reverse biological phenotypes. Furthermore, dual luciferase reporter assay verified that miR-10b-5p was a target of EphA2, and the rescue experiment implied that transfection of pCMV-EphA2 or Si-EphA2 could reverse EphA2 expression and cell biological functions caused by miR-10b-5p overexpression or knockdown. Conclusions. miR-10b-5p reduced HCC cell proliferation but accelerate apoptosis by regulating EphA2, suggesting it has the potential to be a clinical target for HCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Zhiliang Chen ◽  
Zaosong Zheng ◽  
Yingwei Xie ◽  
Qiyu Zhong ◽  
Wentai Shangguan ◽  

AbstractCircular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of covalently closed circular-formed RNAs and play crucial roles in the oncogenesis and progression of various human cancers. Here we identified a novel circRNA, circPPP6R3, to be highly expressed both in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues and cell lines based on analyzing high-throughput sequencing data and qRT-PCR analysis. Highly expressed circPPP6R3 was positively correlated with higher histological grade, T stage, and M stage as well as advanced clinical stage of ccRCC patients. Functionally, knockdown of circPPP6R3 attenuated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ccRCC cells whereas overexpression had the reverse effects. Mechanistically, the biotin-labeled pull-down assay and dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that circPPP6R3 directly interacted with miR-1238-3p. miR-1238-3p inhibitors had a rescue effect on the proliferative and metastatic capacities by knockdown of circPPP6R3. Moreover, RNA-sequencing analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that circPPP6R3 upregulated CD44, a cell-surface glycoprotein contributed to the cell adhesion and metastasis, via sponging to miR-1238-3p. Further investigation revealed that MMP9 and Vimentin were regulated by CD44 in ccRCC. Our study thus provided evidence that the regulatory network involving circPPP6R3/miR-1238-3p/CD44 axis might provide promising biomarkers as well as a therapeutic approach for ccRCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Lin Fu ◽  
Na Li ◽  
Yu Ye ◽  
Xiaying Ye ◽  
Tong Xiao ◽  

Let-7 miRNA family has been proved as a key regulator of mesenchymal stem cells’ (MSCs’) biological features. However, whether let-7b could affect the differentiation or proliferation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) is still unknown. Here, we found that the expression of hsa-let-7b was visibly downregulated after mineralization induction of PDLSCs. After transfected with hsa-let-7b mimics or inhibitor reagent, the proliferation ability of PDLSCs was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, and 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay. On the other hand, the osteogenic differentiation capacity was detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and activity, alizarin red staining, Western blot, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We verified that hsa-let-7b did not significantly impact the proliferation ability of PDLSCs, but it could curb the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Besides, we predicted CTHRC1 acts as the downstream gene of hsa-let-7b to affect this process. Moreover, the combination of CTHRC1 and hsa-let-7b was verified by dual luciferase reporter assay. Our results demonstrated that the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs was enhanced after inhibiting hsa-let-7b, while was weakened after cotransfection with Si-CTHRC1. Collectively, hsa-let-7b can repress the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs by regulating CTHRC1.

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