Drug Residues
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10.5219/1687 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 858-868
Peter Zajác ◽  
Stanislava Zubrická ◽  
Jozef Čapla ◽  
Jozef Čurlej ◽  
Maroš Drončovský

This article provides brief information on the system of monitoring raw cows’ milk for the presence of inhibitory veterinary drug residues in the Slovak Republic. We are describing in detail how the monitoring is carried out and what laboratory methods are used for this monitoring. We also deal with the issue of the disposal of contaminated milk. The presence of inhibitory veterinary drugs like antibiotics or residues of these drugs in milk in an amount exceeding maximal residual limits defined in legislation is illegal. Milk supplies containing detectable concentrations are not acceptable. The reputation of milk as a healthy and safe food should be protected. Dairy companies and consequently consumers want to be confident that milk and milk products are free of inhibitory veterinary drugs contamination. Small amounts of certain antimicrobial agents may affect antibiotic resistance in the human population, some percentage of the population is hypersensitive to antibiotics and other drugs. The presence of drug residues in milk affects the technological process of the production of fermented dairy products. Each country should implement a system of monitoring these drugs' residues in food. The system, which is applied in Slovakia, is effective, it can detect and the presence of these substances before milk processing in dairies. The total incidence of these substances in 2020 was 0.025% of all 12,181 samples tested in central testing laboratories. During the last 20 years.

2021 ◽  
pp. 140349482110439
Hallvard Gjerde ◽  
Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen ◽  
Lihn Bache-Andreassen ◽  
Kristin Hanoa ◽  
Håvard Furuhaugen ◽  

Background People who inject drugs (PWID) have a high risk of premature death due to fatal overdoses. Newly emerged fentanyls, much more potent than heroin and other opioids, may increase this risk further. Therefore, precise information on injected drugs is critical to improving prevention strategies. Aims This study aimed to analyse drug residues in used injection equipment in order to determine drug and drug combinations and compare and complement findings with self-reported information. Methods Used syringes and needles ( n=766) were collected at the supervised drug consumption facilities, the needle exchange service and two low-threshold health services for problem drug users in Oslo, Norway. The material was collected every third month from June 2019 to June 2020 and analysed for 64 substances using highly specific analytical methods (ultra–high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry). Additionally, a street-recruited sample of PWID was interviewed from 2017 to 2019 regarding their drug injection habits ( n=572). Results Heroin (65.5%) or amphetamines (59.8%), often in combination (30.5%), were commonly detected in drug residues. Other opioids, stimulants or benzodiazepines were rarely detected (6.1%). Fentanyl was detected in only one syringe. Heroin was the most reported drug (77.6% during the past four weeks, 48.3% daily/almost daily), followed by amphetamines (57.5% during the past four weeks, 23.1% daily or almost daily). Injection of methadone, buprenorphine and dissolved tablets was self-reported more frequently than determined in drug residue findings. Conclusions Analysis of the injection equipment proved useful as a non-invasive, rapid and accurate means to obtain detailed information on injected drugs in Oslo and supplement traditional PWID survey information.

2021 ◽  
Guo Wei ◽  
Min Qiu ◽  
Zhonghui Pu ◽  
Nana Long ◽  
Min Yang ◽  

Abstract BackgroundMastitis is one of the important diseases of the dairy cow. Currently, mastitis treatment in dairy cows is mainly based on antibiotics. However, the use of antibiotics causes adverse effects, including drug resistance, drug residues, host-microbiome destruction, and environmental pollution. Geraniol, extracted from Fructus Tsaoko, has demonstrated good antibacterial activity in mouse model. Geraniol and antibiotics were used to treat cows with clinical mastitis to test this possibility of geraniol as a potential alternative to antibiotics for bovine mastitis treatment. The effectiveness of treatment, improvement in inflammatory factors, the influence on microbiome, presence of drug residues, and induction of drug resistance were compared and analyzed.ResultsGeraniol demonstrated a better therapeutic rate than antibiotics on clinical mastitis of cows, with a longer course of treatment. Antibiotics and geraniol significantly reduced the abundance of pathogenic bacteria and restored the microbial community in milk. Meanwhile, geraniol increased the abundance of probiotics in milk. Interestingly, geraniol did not destroy the gut microbial community of cows, whereas antibiotics significantly reduced the diversity and destroyed the community structure of the gut microbiome in cows. Conversely, geraniol increased the diversity of the gut microbiome. Besides, no geraniol residue was detected in the milk four days after treatment discontinuation. However, antibiotic residues were detected in milk at the 7th day after drug withdrawal. In vitro experiments revealed that geraniol did not induce drug resistance in the Escherichia coli strain ATCC25922 after 120 generations of culturing, while antibiotics induced resistance after 10 generations. ConclusionsOur results suggest that geraniol has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects similar to antibiotics. Additionally, it retains the structure of the host-microbial community and does not lead to drug residues or induce drug resistance. Therefore, geraniol can be a potential substitute for antibiotics to treat mastitis and be widely used in the dairy industry.

Food Control ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 108523
Sihui Liang ◽  
Hairong Dai ◽  
Chunmin Wang ◽  
Huayin Zhang ◽  
Jian Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Majid Jaberi-Douraki ◽  
Soudabeh Taghian Dinani ◽  
Nuwan Indika Millagaha Gedara ◽  
Xuan Xu ◽  
Emily Richards ◽  

Extra-label drug use in food animal medicine is authorized by the US Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA), and estimated withdrawal intervals are based on published scientific pharmacokinetic data. Occasionally there is a paucity of scientific data on which to base a withdrawal interval or a large number of animals being treated, driving the need to test for drug residues. Rapid assay commercial farm-side tests are essential for monitoring drug residues in animal products to protect human health. Active ingredients, sensitivity, matrices, and species that have been evaluated for commercial rapid assay tests are typically reported on manufacturers' websites or in PDF documents that are available to consumers but may require a special access request. Additionally, this information is not always correlated with FDA-approved tolerances. Furthermore, parameter changes for these tests can be very challenging to regularly identify, especially those listed on websites or in documents that are not publicly available. Therefore, artificial intelligence plays a critical role in efficiently extracting the data and ensure current information. Extracting tables from PDF and HTML documents has been investigated both by academia and commercial tool builders. Research in text mining of such documents has become a widespread yet challenging arena in implementing natural language programming. However, techniques of extracting tables are still in their infancy and being investigated and improved by researchers. In this study, we developed and evaluated a data-mining method for automatically extracting rapid assay data from electronic documents. Our automatic electronic data extraction method includes a software package module, a developed pattern recognition tool, and a data mining engine. Assay details were provided by several commercial entities that produce these rapid drug residue assay tests. During this study, we developed a real-time conversion system and method for reflowing contents in these files for accessibility practice and research data mining. Embedded information was extracted using an AI technology for text extraction and text mining to convert to structured formats. These data were then made available to veterinarians and producers via an online interface, allowing interactive searching and also presenting the commercial test assay parameters in reference to FDA-approved tolerances.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1650-1664
Jagdish Kumar Parmar ◽  
Kundan Kumar Chaubey ◽  
Vikas Gupta ◽  
Manthena Nava Bharath

The veterinary drugs are broad-spectrum antibacterial antibiotics; it uses to cure the animal disease. Many countries have banned veterinary drug residues like nitrofurans metabolites, chloramphenicol. However, the people were administrated veterinary drugs to animals as illegal to increase the milk production in animals for economic benefit. The results of illegally use of veterinary drugs remain as a residue in animal product like milk and it is very harmful to whom consume it cause cancer and allergic for human being which has entered the concern among milk consumers. To control illegal use of veterinary drugs, the government of India has restricted its use in animals. For the identification and confirmation of veterinary drug residues in animal products, analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry are available. These are very sophisticated equipments which are available nowadays and their methodologies for the analytical method validation are described by European commission 2002/657/EC. The use of veterinary drugs is a big challenge to effectively identify and authorization of their use. There are so many analytical techniques are using very effectively and taking very less time to protect the consumers from their adverse effects. These techniques take very less time to identify more groups of compounds such as tetracycline, sulfonamides, anthelmintic, and macrolides in single multi-residue method. These methods having validation parameters include system precision, calibration curve, accuracy, limit of detection, and quantification. Therefore, improvement in the existing technologies and accessibility of new screening methodologies will give opportunities for automation that helps in obtaining the results in very less time and improved sensitivity and specificity which contribute to better safety assurance, standard, and quality of various food products of animal origin.

Wentao Zhao ◽  
Rui Jiang ◽  
Wenping Guo ◽  
Chao Guo ◽  
Shilei Li ◽  

AbstractA rapid, simple, and sensitive method of detecting veterinary drug residues in animal food sources, including poultry and pork, was developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 155 veterinary drugs of 21 different classes. Sample pretreatment included a simple solid-liquid extraction step with 0.2% formic acid-acetonitrile-water and a purification step with a PRiME HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance) solid-phase extraction cartridge. Data were collected using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The limits of detection of 155 veterinary drugs ranged from 0.1 µg/kg to 10 µg/kg. The recovery rates were between 79.2 and 118.5 % in all matrices studied, with relative standard deviation values less than 15% (n = 6). The evaluated method allows the reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 155 veterinary drug residues in animal source food and has been successfully applied in authentic samples.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 61-76
Letícia de Araújo Almeida Freitas ◽  
Gandhi Radis-Baptista

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is an everyday recognized concern worldwide, and drugs as environmental contaminants have been detected in water and soil systems, posing risks to humans and wildlife. The presence of drugs in wastewater, groundwater, and even drinking water occurs in several countries, including Brazil, where the pharmaceutical market is expanding over the years. The adverse, harmful effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment range from the spreading of antimicrobial resistance and species survival to the interference with reproduction and increased cancer incidence in humans. Therefore, it is demanding to count on proper legislation to prevent these pollutants from entering the distinct environment compartments. In some developed countries, laws, directives, programs, and initiatives regarding drug disposal reach a mature status. In Brazil, federal laws dealing with drug residues’ management are recent, with flaws that might facilitate non-compliance with drug pollution issues. Besides, pharmacies and drugstores are not obligated to collect unneeded household medicines, while particular State laws aim to ordinate the disposal of drug residues regionally. In this review, we consider the current knowledge about pharmaceutical (drug) pollution, the recommendation and regulations on the disposal of useless medicines in some countries, and in the context of the expanding pharmaceutical market in Brazil. The awareness of emerging contaminants in the environment, besides the joint effort of authorities, consumers, and the general public nationwide, will be required to avoid pharmaceutical/drug pollution and achieve an eco-friendly environment and a sustainable society.

2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (1) ◽  
Eunjung Kim ◽  
Hyunjin Park ◽  
Sihyun Park ◽  
Jangduck Choi ◽  
Hae Jung Yoon ◽  

AbstractThe objective of this study was to optimize the analytical method for multi-class veterinary drug residues of 64 compounds in fishery products. Several compounds from veterinary drugs are banned or unauthorized in fishery products according to the Korean Food Code. Samples were extracted using acetonitrile/water (4:1, v/v) and the clean-up step was carried out by adding octadecylsilane and acetonitrile-saturated hexane. The target compounds were confirmed and quantified using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The proposed method was validated according to the CODEX guidelines (CAC/GL-71), and most target compounds were found to be in acceptable quantities under the requirements of the validation guidelines. The recovery of analytes was typically in the 60–120% range, and precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation was less than 31% at all levels of concentration. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.03 to 3 μg kg−1 in the fishery products. Moreover, the application of the proposed method to 96 real samples demonstrated that no drug residues exceeded the Korean maximum residue limits (MRLs). This evaluation method provides reliable identification and quantification of multi-class veterinary drugs in fishery products and can be an efficient means to inspect drugs currently banned or not approved for aquaculture in Korea.

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