This study aimed to validate and reanalyze urinary biomarkers for detecting colorectal cancers (CRCs). We previously conducted urinary metabolomic analyses using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and found a significant difference in various metabolites, especially polyamines, between patients with CRC and healthy controls (HC). We analyzed additional samples and confirmed consistency between the newly and previously analyzed data. In total, we included 36 HC, 34 adenoma (AD), and 214 CRC samples, which were used for subsequent analyses. Among the 132 quantified metabolites, 16 exhibited consistent differences in both datasets, which included polyamines, etc. Pathway analyses of the integrated data revealed significant differences in many metabolites, such as glutamine, and metabolites of the TCA and urea cycles. The discrimination ability of the combination of multiple metabolites among the three groups was evaluated, which yielded higher sensitivity than tumor markers. The Mann–Whitney test was employed to evaluate the prognosis predictivity of the assessed metabolites and the difference between the patients with or without recurrence, which yielded 16 significantly different metabolites. Among these 16 metabolites, 11 presented significant prognosis predictivity. These data indicated the potential of metabolite-based discrimination of patients with CRC and AD from HC and prognosis predictivity of the monitored metabolites.
Tempe is a fermented soybean food that is globally renowned for its high protein content. Methods of preparing tempe vary worldwide, and include soaking in vinegar before fermentation. This study aimed to determine the effects of soaking in vinegar by metabolome analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and sensory attribute evaluation. Vinegar affected metabolism during tempe fermentation, which led to altered metabolite profiles in the final product. We validated the metabolite profiles of two types of tempe using triangle tests and rate-all-that-apply (RATA) tests, which revealed that the sensory attributes of a golden-brown color, ammonia smell, pleasant smell, salty flavor, and acceptance significantly differed (p < 0.05) between the two types of tempe. A high concentration of specific amino acids in the control tempe explained a strong ammonia smell, saltiness, and darker golden-brown sensory attributes. Tempe soaked in vinegar contained high concentrations of metabolites associated with a roasted aroma and cooked meat. In conclusion, most RATA panelists who were being introduced to tempe preferred that soaked in vinegar to the control that was not.
Numerous representatives of mosses, including Hypnum cupressiforme, have been used to alleviate different inflammation-related conditions. However, the mode of action underlying this anti-inflammatory potential has been poorly understood. Moreover, the influence of seasonality on the chemical composition and biological activity of mosses is generally overlooked. This study aimed to investigate the influence of seasonal changes (spring, summer, and autumn) on secondary metabolite composition and biological activities of ethyl acetate H. cupressiforme extracts. Antioxidant activity was measured using β-carotene bleaching assay, while MTT, NBT, ELISA, and Griess assays were carried out to explore the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective potential of extracts. Inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase were assessed experimentally and by docking analysis. The highest content of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity were observed in moss during the summer. Extracts inhibited the secretion of ROS, NO, TNF-α, and IL-6, alleviating the inflammatory potential of H2O2 and LPS in microglial and neuronal cells. Strong inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase were observed in vitro. Docking analyses revealed high-affinity interactions of secondary metabolites present in H. cupressiforme with important enzyme residues. Altogether, these results reveal the neuroprotective potential and the significance of seasonal fluctuations on secondary metabolite content and biological activities in moss H. cupressiforme.
Mucous membranes such as the gill and skin mucosa in fish protect them against a multitude of environmental factors. At the same time, changes in the molecular composition of mucus may provide valuable information about the interaction of the fish with their environment, as well as their health and welfare. In this study, the metabolite profiles of the plasma, skin and gill mucus of freshwater Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were compared using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Several normalization procedures aimed to reduce unwanted variation in the untargeted data were tested. In addition, the basal metabolism of skin and gills, and the impact of the anesthetic benzocaine for euthanisation were studied. For targeted metabolomics, the commercial AbsoluteIDQ p400 HR kit was used to evaluate the potential differences in metabolic composition in epidermal mucus as compared to the plasma. The targeted metabolomics data showed a high level of correlation between different types of biological fluids from the same individual, indicating that mucus metabolite composition could be used for fish health monitoring and research.
Meat is biochemically active, and the various pre-and post-harvest processes
can affect meat quality. Metabolomics is a valuable tool to elucidate metabolite changes in meat.
The overall goal of this study was to provide an overview of various techniques, data analysis, and
application of metabolomics in meat color research.
Both targeted and non-targeted approaches have been used to determine metabolite profiles in meat. Researchers use gas-, liquid-chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance platforms to separate molecules. Metabolomics is used to characterize muscle-specific differences in
color stability, meat tenderness, the impact of aging on meat color, and to determine metabolite profile differences between normal-pH and dark-cutting beef. Color stable muscles have more glycolytic metabolites than color labile muscles.
The use of metabolomics has greatly enhanced our understanding of metabolites' role
in meat quality. There are challenges in data analysis; thus, there is a need for multiple platforms in
order to obtain comprehensive metabolite libraries specific to food. Metabolomics in combination
with wet-laboratory techniques can provide novel insights on the relationship between postmortem
metabolism and meat color.
The production of good Meju soybean paste primarily depends on the selection of raw materials and fermenting microorganisms, which together influence its characteristic metabolites, taste, and aroma. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between properties and metabolites in Meju samples fermented by Aspergillus oryzae alone or with Bacillus velezensis. We developed fast-stable processing techniques to obtain Meju from A. oryzae and B. velezensis using the inoculation method, thereby ensuring safety in the production of soybean paste. The amino-type nitrogen content increased from an initial 180–228 mg% to a final 226–776 mg% during fermentation and was higher in Meju inoculated separately with the fungi and bacteria (C group) than in Meju co-inoculated with both the starters concurrently (D group). The levels of metabolites such as glucose, myo-inositol, glycerol, and fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids) in Meju fermented by A. oryzae with B. velezensis were higher than those in Meju fermented by A. oryzae alone. Fungal growth was affected by the inoculated bacteria, which often occurs during the fermentation of co-inoculated Meju.