complete digestion
Recently Published Documents





2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 85-85
Jiali Chen ◽  
Min Wang ◽  
Tania L Archbold ◽  
Weijun Wang ◽  
Wenyi Fan ◽  

Abstract The porcine terminal small intestinal starch digestive activity and capacity undergo further developmental changes during the acute and adaptive weaning transition. Objective of this study was to address the hypothesis that weanling porcine growth promotion associated with therapeutic antimicrobials was mediated via improving intestinal starch digestion. A total of 170 crossbred barrows (n = 34 pens; 5 barrows/pen), weaned on d 19–21 with an average initial BW of 6.9±0.1 kg, were randomly assigned to two dried whey, corn and SBM-based diets, i.e., control vs. antimicrobials, for 21 d according to a randomized complete block design. The therapeutic multi-antimicrobial diet was supplemented with aureomycin 220, tiamulin 31.2 and ZnO 2,358 at mg/kg diet. The apparent ileal, cecal and total tract digestibility values of total starch and DM were determined by using the titanium dioxide as the digestibility marker (0.30% in the diets). There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the starch digestibility at the ileal (control, 98.3±0.9% vs. antimicrobials, 98.3±0.5%), cecal (control, 96.3±0.6% vs. antimicrobials, 97.1±0.6%) and total tract (control, 98.5±0.3% vs. antimicrobials, 98.7±0.3%) levels between the two diets. Furthermore, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the DM digestibility at the ileal (control, 75.7±2.2% vs. antimicrobials, 72.7±2.0%), cecal (control, 80.6±1.2% vs. antimicrobials, 81.3±1.2%) and total tract (control, 85.8±0.8% vs. antimicrobials, 84.7±0.9%) levels between the two diets. The Spearman’s correlation analyses revealed no significant associations (P > 0.05) between the growth performance endpoints of ADG, ADFI and F: G and the digestibility values of total starch and DM at the levels of ileal, cecal and total tract. Our results suggest that starch is near complete digestion at the distal small intestine, thus not limiting growth and feed conversion efficiency of weanling pigs fed corn and SBM-based diets. Hence, therapeutic multi-antimicrobial effects are unlikely channeled through modulating digestive utilization efficiency of starch and DM in weanling pigs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qingbiao Xu ◽  
Qinqin Qiao ◽  
Ya Gao ◽  
Jinxiu Hou ◽  
Mingyang Hu ◽  

Ruminants are mostly herbivorous animals that employ rumen fermentation for the digestion of feed materials, including dairy cows. Ruminants consume plant fibre as their regular diet, but lack the machinery for their digestion. For this reason, ruminants maintain a symbiotic relation with microorganisms that are capable of producing enzymes to degrade plant polymers. Various species of microflora including bacteria, protozoa, fungi, archaea, and bacteriophages are hosted at distinct concentrations for accomplishing complete digestion. The ingested feed is digested at a defined stratum. The polysaccharic plant fibrils are degraded by cellulolytic bacteria, and the substrate formed is acted upon by other bacteria. This sequential degradative mechanism forms the base of complete digestion as well as harvesting energy from the ingested feed. The composition of microbiota readily gets tuned to the changes in the feed habits of the dairy cow. The overall energy production as well as digestion is decided by the intactness of the resident communal flora. Disturbances in the homogeneity gastrointestinal microflora has severe effects on the digestive system and various other organs. This disharmony in communal relationship also causes various metabolic disorders. The dominance of methanogens sometimes lead to bloating, and high sugar feed culminates in ruminal acidosis. Likewise, disruptive microfloral constitution also ignites reticuloperitonitis, ulcers, diarrhoea, etc. The role of symbiotic microflora in the occurrence and progress of a few important metabolic diseases are discussed in this review. Future studies in multiomics provides platform to determine the physiological and phenotypical upgradation of dairy cow for milk production.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (7) ◽  
pp. 1466-1468
Pallavi Gupta ◽  
Divya Nidhi

Human anatomy is the science where human body structures are designed to enable complete physiological action thus establishing homeostasis of the human body. Acharya Sushruta had a keen observation about the human body reflecting that without the absolute knowledge of Rachana Sharir. Chikitsak cannot be considered an expert. In Ayurveda, the part of G.I.T. is mentioned in Koshthanga by various Acharya. These Koshthanga are Aamashaya, Pakwashaya, Purishdhara, Uttarguda, Adharguda, Kshudrantra etc. which are situated within the koshtha. In modern anatomy, G.I.T. or Alimentary canal includes all the structures between the mouth and anus, forming a continuous passageway that includes the main organ of digestion, namely the stomach small intestine and large intestine, each part of the Gastric intestinal tract is adapted to its specific function. The 'oesophagus' function primarily to conduct food rapidly from the pharynx to the stomach mixing along with the digestive juic- es, carrying out partial digestion and then propelling the food into the duodenum is the function of the stomach small intestine is designed for complete digestion and absorption of nutrients. Absorption of water and electrolyte from the chyme to form solid faeces is the function of the large intestine. Pakwashaya is the main organ related to the site of Vata Dosha, Purishvaha srotas, Purishdhara kala, Koshthanga and Aashaya. Pakwashaya plays an important role in formation of urine and digestion of food. Keywords: Pakwashaya, Purish

2021 ◽  
Tyler R. Lambeth ◽  
Ryan R. Julian

Aggregation of amyloid-beta (A) into extracellular plaques is a well-known hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). Similarly, autophagic vacuoles, autophagosomes, and other residual bodies within dystrophic neurites, though more difficult to detect, are characteristic features of AD. To explore the potential intersection between these observations, we conducted experiments to assess whether A fibril formation disrupts lysosomal proteolysis. Fibrils constituted from either A 1-40 or A 1-42 were grown under both neutral and acidic pH. The extent of proteolysis by individual cathepsins (L, D, B, and H) was monitored by both thioflavin T fluorescence and liquid-chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The results show that all A fibrils are resistant to cathepsin digestion, with significant amounts of undigested material remaining for samples of fibrils grown in both neutral and acidic pH. Further analysis revealed that the neutral-grown fibrils are proteolytically resistant throughout the sequence, while the acid-grown fibrils prevented digestion primarily in the C-terminal portion of the sequence. Fibrils grown from A 1-42 are generally more resistant to degradation compared to A 1-40. Overall, the results indicate that A fibrils formed in the neutral pH environments found in intracellular or extracellular spaces may pose the greatest difficulty for complete digestion by the lysosome, particularly when the fibrils are comprised of A 1-42.

2021 ◽  
pp. geochem2021-034
Z. Han ◽  
M. Edraki ◽  
A. Nguyen ◽  
M. Mostert

Tungsten is a critical element used in the industry with increasing global demand. There are millions of tons of current and legacy mineral processing tungsten tailings worldwide that can potentially contaminate the environment and pose human health risks. These tailings could also potentially turn into valuable resources if we thoroughly characterise their geochemical composition. In this study, an innovative method was developed to achieve the complete digestion of tungsten tailings. We tested three different digestion methods (hotplate digestion, bomb digestion, and ColdBlockTM digestion) and compared the results. Additionally, an alkali fusion for major element analysis was also applied and tested. The results showed that alkali fusion is the best method for major elements analysis, while bomb digestion is the best method for tungsten and trace element analysis, but volatile chlorite loss was also observed. The hot plate digestion method for tungsten mine tailings was not recommended, because of poor recoveries of trace elements compared to the bomb digestion method. The quick and safer ColdBlockTM digestion method could be used for Bismuth (Bi), Molybdenum (Mo), and several rare earth element analyses indicated by their recoveries being close to the bomb digestion method. 

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ehsan Kayal ◽  
Catharina Alves-de-Souza ◽  
Sarah Farhat ◽  
Lourdes Velo-Suarez ◽  
Joanne Monjol ◽  

Dinoflagellates are major components of phytoplankton that play critical roles in many microbial food webs, many of them being hosts of countless intracellular parasites. The phototrophic dinoflagellate Scrippsiella acuminata (Dinophyceae) can be infected by the microeukaryotic parasitoids Amoebophrya spp. (Syndiniales), some of which primarily target and digest the host nucleus. Early digestion of the nucleus at the beginning of the infection is expected to greatly impact the host metabolism, inducing the knockout of the organellar machineries that highly depend upon nuclear gene expression, such as the mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway and the plastid photosynthetic carbon fixation. However, previous studies have reported that chloroplasts remain functional in swimming host cells infected by Amoebophrya. We report here a multi-approach monitoring study of S. acuminata organelles over a complete infection cycle by nucleus-targeting Amoebophrya sp. strain A120. Our results show sustained and efficient photosystem II activity as a hallmark of functional chloroplast throughout the infection period despite the complete digestion of the host nucleus. We also report the importance played by light on parasite production, i.e., the amount of host biomass converted to parasite infective propagules. Using a differential gene expression analysis, we observed an apparent increase of all 3 mitochondrial and 9 out of the 11 plastidial genes involved in the electron transport chains (ETC) of the respiration pathways during the first stages of the infection. The longer resilience of organellar genes compared to those encoded by the nucleus suggests that both mitochondria and chloroplasts remain functional throughout most of the infection. This extended organelle functionality, along with higher parasite production under light conditions, suggests that host bioenergetic organelles likely benefit the parasite Amoebophrya sp. A120 and improve its fitness during the intracellular infective stage.

Vinita Subodh Chavan

ABSTRACT :           Grahanidushti or Grahaniroga is associated with group of disorders caused due to Agnidushti. Grahani is an organ described in Ayurveda texts as a Sthana of Agni where the Agni is placed. Grahani and Agni are said to be inter-related i.e. if one gets vitiated it vitiates other too in long course of time. The Sthiti or state of Agni depends upon Ahara which is a major important part of life which is included in Trayopastambha (key pillars). For that Ayurveda broadly explains Ahara-Vidhi which is the rules and manners for preparing and having food. Vidhi-tyaga or not following these manners for long term give rise to Agnidushti which further give rise to Grahaniroga. One of these Vidhi-Tyaga hetu is Adhyashana which is having food before the digestion of previously ingested food. Ayurevda explains Jeernashana as a Vidhi which is to have food after the complete digestion of previous food. Incidence of Adhyashana has increased as increasing modernization of society. Also, the incidence of Grahaniroga has increased very much and both should be addressed. As the treatment for Grahaniroga is Agni-Vardhana or Deepana, Hetu- Privarjana i.e. avoiding causative factor is very important. To address this, an attempt is made to review Adhyashana in Grahanidushti.  

Stratigraphy ◽  
2020 ◽  
pp. 205-212
Kimberly C. Meehan ◽  
Cody Kowalski ◽  
Kimberly Bartlett ◽  
Isabelle Li ◽  
Paul Bembia

ABSTRACT: Researchers in paleontological and paleoecological sciences often need complete disaggregation of rock materials for certain lines of investigation. However, complete disaggregation of more lithified sedimentary rock is known to be problematic. A complete shale disaggregation method implementing quaternary ammonium surfactants,widely used in paleontological sciences for poorly lithified shale and mudstone, was successfully used on well lithified Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin ofWestern New York. Over 50 Devonian gray and black shale samples were collected from multiple localities in western New York (Cashaqua, Rhinestreet, Skaneateles, Windom, and Ludlowville), coarsely crushed, and fully immersed in a quaternary ammonium surfactant until complete disaggregation was achieved (5–14 days); aliquots were run through a series of nested sieves. The sieved sediments contained hundreds of well-preserved microfossils released from the shale: ostracods, dacryoconarids, and previously unreported palymorphs, charophytes, agglutinated foraminifera, miospores, and other microspherules. These microfossils were easily found within disaggregated and sieved samples but were unrecognizable on the shale surface and destroyed in prior investigations of whole rock thin sections. In addition to more traditional approaches, inclusion of this complete rock disaggregation method may assist in a more complete analysis of material, increase our understandings of ancient basin systems and have important implications on our understanding of the paleoecology during the Late Devonian marine biotic crises.

2020 ◽  
Susan Carnachan ◽  
Tracey Bell ◽  
Ian Sims ◽  
RAA Smith ◽  
V Nurcombe ◽  

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd The depolymerisation of porcine mucosal heparan sulfate under the action of heparin lyases and analysis by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is described. Heparan sulfate treated to enzymic bond scission producing a Δ4,5 double-bond and quantified by SEC with ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopic detection (230 nm) indicated that the majority of the biopolymer (>85%) was reduced to disaccharides (degree of polymerisation (DP) = 2). However, analysis of the SEC eluant using refractive index (RI), which reflects the mass contribution of the oligosaccharides rather than the molar response of a UV chromophore, indicated that a considerable proportion of the digested HS, up to 43%, was present with DP >2. This was supported by a mass balance analysis. These results contradict the accepted literature where “complete digestion” is routinely reported. Herein we report on the composition and methodology utilised to ascertain the extent of depolymerization and disaccharide composition of this important biopolymer.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document