titanium surfaces
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 461
Paula Navarro ◽  
Alberto Olmo ◽  
Mercè Giner ◽  
Marleny Rodríguez-Albelo ◽  
Ángel Rodríguez ◽  

The chemical composition and surface topography of titanium implants are essential to improve implant osseointegration. The present work studies a non-invasive alternative of electrical impedance spectroscopy for the characterization of the macroporosity inherent to the manufacturing process and the effect of the surface treatment with femtosecond laser of titanium discs. Osteoblasts cell culture growths on the titanium surfaces of the laser-treated discs were also studied with this method. The measurements obtained showed that the femtosecond laser treatment of the samples and cell culture produced a significant increase (around 50%) in the absolute value of the electrical impedance module, which could be characterized in a wide range of frequencies (being more relevant at 500 MHz). Results have revealed the potential of this measurement technique, in terms of advantages, in comparison to tiresome and expensive techniques, allowing semi-quantitatively relating impedance measurements to porosity content, as well as detecting the effect of surface modification, generated by laser treatment and cell culture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 420
Ming Yan ◽  
Philip Hartjen ◽  
Martin Gosau ◽  
Tobias Vollkommer ◽  
Audrey Laure Céline Grust ◽  

Cold plasma treatment increases the hydrophilicity of the surfaces of implants and may enhance their integration with the surrounding tissues. The implaPrep prototype device from Relyon Plasma generates cold atmospheric plasma via dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). In this study, titanium surfaces were treated with the implaPrep device for 20 s and assessed as a cell culture surface for fibroblasts. One day after seeding, significantly more cells were counted on the surfaces treated with cold plasma than on the untreated control titanium surface. Additionally, the viability assay revealed significantly higher viability on the treated surfaces. Morphological observation of the cells showed certain differences between the treated and untreated titanium surfaces. While conventional plasma devices require compressed gas, such as oxygen or argon, the implaPrep device uses atmospheric air as the gas source. It is, therefore, compact in size and simple to handle, and may provide a safe and convenient tool for treating the surfaces of dental implants, which may further improve the implantation outcome.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 287
Serena De Santis ◽  
Edoardo Rossi ◽  
Marco Sebastiani ◽  
Simona Sennato ◽  
Edoardo Bemporad ◽  

Surface free energy (SFE) of titanium surfaces plays a significant role in tissue engineering, as it affects the effectiveness and long-term stability of both active coatings and functionalization and the establishment of strong bonds to the newly growing bone. A new contact–mechanics methodology based on high-resolution non-destructive elastic contacting nanoindentation is applied here to study SFE of micro- and nano-structured titanium surfaces, right after their preparation and as a function of exposure to air. The effectiveness of different surface treatments in enhancing SFE is assessed. A time-dependent decay of SFE within a few hours is observed, with kinetics related to the sample preparation. The fast, non-destructive method adopted allowed for SFE measurements in very hydrophilic conditions, establishing a reliable comparison between surfaces with different properties.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 51
Takahiro Shuto ◽  
Yuichi Mine ◽  
Seicho Makihira ◽  
Hiroki Nikawa ◽  
Takanori Wachi ◽  

Fluoride and abrasives in toothpastes may cause corrosion and deterioration of the titanium used for implants and other prostheses. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the presence or absence and types of fluoride and abrasives affected the titanium surface texture. Brushing with toothpastes was performed on pure-titanium discs using an abrasive testing machine. Unprocessed titanium discs without brushing were used as control samples. Surface roughness, color, and gloss of titanium were measured and the differences compared with the control were analyzed. Additionally, titanium surfaces and abrasives in toothpastes were observed using a scanning electron microscope to compare the surface texture of each sample. Some toothpastes (abrasive+) significantly increased the difference in surface roughness, color, and gloss, compared with ultrapure water. Toothpaste (fluoride+/abrasive+) that had many polygonal abrasive particles led to the largest color differences and exhibited notable scratches and a larger number of contaminant- or corrosion-like black spots. In contrast, brushing with toothpaste without fluoride or abrasives (fluoride−/abrasive−) caused little change to the titanium surface. These results suggest that both fluoride and abrasives in toothpaste used for brushing may be factors that affect surface texture and corrosion resistance of titanium.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1566
Marie-Joséphine Crenn ◽  
Pierre Dubot ◽  
Elie Mimran ◽  
Olivier Fromentin ◽  
Nicolas Lebon ◽  

Electrochemically anodized (EA) surfaces promise enhanced biological properties and may be a solution to ensure a seal between peri-implant soft tissues and dental transmucosal components. However, the interaction between the modified nano-structured surface and the gingival cells needs further investigation. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the biological response of gingival cells to EA titanium surfaces in in vitro studies with a score-based reliability assessment. A protocol aimed at answering the following focused question was developed: “How does the surface integrity (e.g., topography and chemistry) of EA titanium influence gingival cell response in in vitro studies?”. A search in three computer databases was performed using keywords. A quality assessment of the studies selected was performed using the SciRAP method. A total of 14 articles were selected from the 216 eligible papers. The mean reporting and the mean methodologic quality SciRAP scores were 87.7 ± 7.7/100 and 77.8 ± 7.8/100, respectively. Within the limitation of this review based on in vitro studies, it can be safely speculated that EA surfaces with optimal chemical and morphological characteristics enhance gingival fibroblast response compared to conventional titanium surfaces. When EA is combined with functionalization, it also positively influences gingival epithelial cell behavior.

2021 ◽  
Beatriz H. D. Panariello ◽  
Drashty P. Mody ◽  
George J. Eckert ◽  
Paulo G. Coelho ◽  
Simone Duarte

Abstract Peri-implantitis is a bacteria-initiated infection that as yet has no effective treatment. A novel approach to treat peri-implantitis is the use of low-temperature plasma (LTP). LTP disrupts the biofilm while conditioning the surrounding host environment for bone growth around the infected implant. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of LTP on newly formed (24-h) and mature (7-days) peri-implant-related biofilms. Biofilm was composed of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104), Porphyromonas gingivalis (W83), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 35037), and Veillonella dispar (ATCC 17748). They were cultivated in brain heart infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract, hemin (0.5 mg/mL), and menadione (5 mg/mL) and kept at 37⁰C in anaerobic conditions for 24-h. The species were mixed for a final concentration of ~105 colony forming units (CFU)/mL (OD=0.01), and the bacterial suspension was transferred to 24-well plates containing titanium specimens. Biofilms were treated with LTP for 1, 3, and 5 min at 3 or 10 mm from plasma-tip to sample. Controls were no treatment (Negative control=NC) and argon-flow at the same LTP conditions. Positive controls were 14 g/mL amoxicillin and 140 µg/mL metronidazole individually or combined, and 0.12% chlorhexidine. Biofilms were evaluated by CFU, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). Wilcoxon Signed-Rank and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests were applied (α = 0.05). Bacterial growth was observed in all no-treatment groups corroborated by FISH. LTP treatment significantly reduced all bacteria species when compared to the NC in both tested periods and in all treatment combinations (p≤0.016), these results were corroborated by CLSM. There were no significant differences during biofilm development, between 24-h, 3, and 7 days within each LTP treatment, or among the bacteria within each LTP treatment (p≥0.05). LTP application is effective to reduce peri-implantitis-related multispecies biofilms on titanium surfaces.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Peijun Huang ◽  
Xue Chen ◽  
Zhongren Chen ◽  
Min Chen ◽  
Jinzhi He ◽  

Abstract Background Erbium yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Er:YAG) laser have been shown to be suitable for decontamination of titanium surfaces at a wide range of energy settings, however, high intensity of laser irradiation destroy titanium surface and low intensity cannot remove enough microbial biofilm. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal energy setting of Er:YAG laser for decontamination of sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) titanium surfaces. Material and methods After supragingival biofilm construction in vivo, SLA and HA titanium discs were divided into three groups: blank control (BC, clean discs), experimental control (EC, contaminated discs) and experimental groups (EP, contaminated discs irradiated by Er:YAG laser at 40, 70, and 100 mJ/pulse). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), live/dead bacterial fluorescent detection, and colony counting assay were used to detect the efficacy of laser decontamination. To investigate the effect of laser decontamination on titanium surface biocompatibility, MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion and proliferation activity were examined by SEM and CCK-8 assay. Results Er:YAG laser irradiation at 100 mJ/pulse removed 84.1% of bacteria from SLA titanium surface; laser irradiation at 70 and 100 mJ/pulse removed 76.4% and 77.85% of bacteria from HA titanium surface respectively. Laser irradiation improved MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion on both titanium surfaces. For SLA titanium discs, 100 mJ/pulse group displayed excellent cellular proliferation activity higher than that in BC group (P < 0.01). For HA titanium discs, 70 mJ/pulse group showed the highest activity comparable to BC group (P > 0.05). Conclusions With regards to efficient microbial biofilm decontamination and biocompatibility maintenance, Er:YAG laser at 100 mJ/pulse and 70 mJ/pulse are considered as the optimal energy settings for SLA titanium and HA titanium surface respectively. This study provides theoretical basis for the clinical application of Er:YAG laser in the treatment of peri-implantitis.

2021 ◽  
Zhendi Fu ◽  
Xuehua Deng ◽  
Xiaodan Fang

Abstract Background: Human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) have key roles in the formation of soft-tissue attachments around dental implants. We added calcium ions (Ca2+) to the surface of titanium plates (TPs) to make it more conducive to the early adhesion and proliferation of hGFs. Methods: Ca2+ was loaded onto the TP surface by a hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of TP surfaces were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Proliferation of hGF-1 cells was measured by the CCK-8 assay. Immunofluorescence staining was done to detect adherent proteins on the TP surface. TPs were divided randomly into two groups: control and Ca.Results: In the Ca group, irregular lamellar crystals were found on the surface of TPs; The percentage of hGF-1 cells adhering to TPs in the Ca group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.01); The fluorescence of integrin-β1 and F-actin in the Ca group was stronger than that in the control group. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Ca2+ can be added to TP surfaces by a hydrothermal method, and can enhance hGF adhesion. This property may be beneficial if Ca2+ is added to titanium surfaces before dental implantation.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7305
Julia Kensy ◽  
Maciej Dobrzyński ◽  
Rafał Wiench ◽  
Kinga Grzech-Leśniak ◽  
Jacek Matys

Objective: Laser treatment has been recently introduced in many fields of implant dentistry. The systematic review tried to address the question: “How does laser modification of titanium surface influence fibroblast adhesion?”. Methods: An electronic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was performed. The following keywords were used: (laser) AND (fibroblast) AND (titanium) AND (implant OR disc) AND (proliferation OR adhesion). Initially, 136 studies were found. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All studies chosen to be included in the review were considered to have a low risk of bias. Results: Studies included in the review varied with laser parameters or ways of observing fibroblast behavior. Studies showed that fibroblasts tend to take different shapes and create extensions on modified surfaces and that their metabolic activity is more intense. One study concentrated on laser application and showed that three-directional laser application is the most successful in terms of fibroblast adhesion. Studies which concentrated more on laser parameters showed that too low energy density (lower or equal to 0.75 J/cm2) does not influence fibroblast adhesion. Increasing the energy density over 0.75 J/cm2 causes better cell adhesion of fibroblasts to the laser-modified sample. One included study focused on increasing titanium surface wettability, which also positively influenced cell adhesion. Conclusion: The studies included in the review proved a positive effect of laser-modified titanium surfaces on fibroblast adhesion. However, the application of an appropriate laser energy dose is crucial.

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