Transmission Of Information
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Winnie Poel ◽  
Claudia Winklmayr ◽  
Pawel Romanczuk

In human and animal groups, social interactions often rely on the transmission of information via visual observation of the behavior of others. These visual interactions are governed by the laws of physics and sensory limits. Individuals appear smaller when far away and thus become harder to detect visually, while close by neighbors tend to occlude large areas of the visual field and block out interactions with individuals behind them. Here, we systematically study the effect of a group’s spatial structure, its density as well as polarization and aspect ratio of the physical bodies, on the properties of static visual interaction networks. In such a network individuals are connected if they can see each other as opposed to other interaction models such as metric or topological networks that omit these limitations due to the individual’s physical bodies. We find that structural parameters of the visual networks and especially their dependence on spatial group density are fundamentally different from the two other types. This results in characteristic deviations in information spreading which we study via the dynamics of two generic SIR-type models of social contagion on static visual and metric networks. We expect our work to have implications for the study of animal groups, where it could inform the study of functional benefits of different macroscopic states. It may also be applicable to the construction of robotic swarms communicating via vision or for understanding the spread of panics in human crowds.

2021 ◽  
Ulzhamilya Bibatyrovna Serikbayeva

In the modern world, the rapid growth of science and technology has caused a huge need for information exchange. There was a need to create a theoretical model of the translation process. Translation problems attracted the attention of linguists, and the study of translation began to take shape as a special linguistic discipline. The requirements for translation accuracy have significantly increased. The translation was supposed to ensure the accurate transmission of information in all details. Without allowing at the same time violations of the norms of the translation language. A strictly scientific analysis of the semantic functions of comparable forms of languages involved in the translation process was required. It was necessary to find out what the linguistic essence of this process is, to what extent it is determined by linguistic factors proper, to what extent such factors limit the accuracy of information transmission.

2021 ◽  
Mario Mastriani

Abstract Entanglement is a random phenomenon that is instantly synchronized, regardless of the space that mediates between entangled particles. However, the instantaneous transmission of information using entanglement is impossible. This is because the instantaneity in the synchronization of non-local outcomes as a consequence of quantum measurement (after the distribution of the entangled pairs) cannot be used for an entanglement-based communication system to transmit information instantaneously. This impossibility stems from the following two reasons: a) the difficulty of controlling non-local outcomes through local actions without the intervention of an auxiliary channel (classical), and b) regardless of the previous point, no communication system based on entanglement can be instantaneous due to the distribution of an entangled pair at relativistic speeds, necessary to generate the quantum channel, each time a qubit must be transmitted. Three simple experiments help to clarify this controversial point. In fact, this study establishes what is truly responsible for the impossibility to transmit information instantaneously of any communication system based on entanglement. In this respect, functional models of the internal behavior of quantum measurement, and entanglement were developed, which allow analyzing the instantaneity post-distribution of entangled particles, before and after a quantum measurement, as well as the randomness in the results obtained from a quantum measurement of the entanglement. In this sense, this study establishes a debate about three possible responsible for the aforementioned randomness: the quantum measurement itself, entanglement, and the human intervention. Finally, homology between the entanglement and the double-slit experiment is presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 56
Yixue Hao ◽  
Yiming Miao ◽  
Min Chen ◽  
Hamid Gharavi ◽  
Victor C. M. Leung

With the rapid development of 5G communications, enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine type communications and ultra-reliable low latency communications are widely supported. However, a 5G communication system is still based on Shannon’s information theory, while the meaning and value of information itself are not taken into account in the process of transmission. Therefore, it is difficult to meet the requirements of intelligence, customization, and value transmission of 6G networks. In order to solve the above challenges, we propose a 6G mailbox theory, namely a cognitive information carrier to enable distributed algorithm embedding for intelligence networking. Based on Mailbox, a 6G network will form an intelligent agent with self-organization, self-learning, self-adaptation, and continuous evolution capabilities. With the intelligent agent, redundant transmission of data can be reduced while the value transmission of information can be improved. Then, the features of mailbox principle are introduced, including polarity, traceability, dynamics, convergence, figurability, and dependence. Furthermore, key technologies with which value transmission of information can be realized are introduced, including knowledge graph, distributed learning, and blockchain. Finally, we establish a cognitive communication system assisted by deep learning. The experimental results show that, compared with a traditional communication system, our communication system performs less data transmission quantity and error.

2021 ◽  
Hemang Subramanian ◽  
Susmitha Subramanian

BACKGROUND Recent advancements in digital pathology resulting from advances in imaging and digitization have increased the convenience and usability of pathology for disease diagnosis, especially in oncology, urology, and gastro-enteric diagnosis. However, despite the possibilities to include low-cost diagnosis and viable telemedicine, remote diagnosis potential, digital pathology is not yet accessible due to expensive storage, data security requirements, and network bandwidth limitations to transfer high-resolution images and associated data. The increase in storage, transmission and security complexity concerning data collection and diagnosis makes it even more challenging to use artificial intelligence algorithms for machine-assisted disease diagnosis. We design and prototype a digital pathology system that uses blockchain-based smart contracts using the Non-fungible Token standard and the Inter-Planetary File System (IPFS) for data storage. Our design remediates shortcomings in the existing digital pathology systems infrastructure, which is centralized. The proposed design is extendable to other fields of medicine that require high-fidelity image and data storage. Our solution is implemented in data systems that can improve access, quality of care and reduce the cost of access to specialized pathological diagnosis, reducing cycle times for diagnosis. OBJECTIVE The study's main objectives are to highlight the issues in digital pathology and suggest a software architecture-based blockchain and IPFS create a low-cost data storage and transmission technology. METHODS We use the design science research method (DSRM) consisting of six stages to inform our design overall. We innovate over existing public-private designs for blockchains but using a two-layered approach that separates actual file storage from meta-data and data persistence. RESULTS Here, we identify key challenges to adopting digital pathology, including challenges concerning long-term storage, the transmission of information, etc. Next, using accepted frameworks in non-fungible token-based intelligent contracts and recent innovations in distributed secure storage, we propose a decentralized, secure, and privacy-preserving digital pathology system. Our design and prototype implementation using Solidity, web3.js, Ethereum, and node.js help us address several challenges facing digital pathology. We demonstrate how our solution that combines non-fungible token (NFT) smart contract standard with persistent decentralized file storage to solve most of the challenges of digital pathology and sets the stage for reducing costs and improving patient care and speed of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS We identify technical limitations that increase costs and reduce mass adoption of digital pathology. We present several design innovations by using standards in NFT decentralized storage to prototype a system. We also present implementation details of a unique security architecture for a digital pathology system. We illustrate how this design can overcome privacy, security, network-based storage, and data transmission limitations. We illustrate how improving these factors sets the stage for improving data quality and standardized application of machine learning and Artificial Intelligence to such data CLINICALTRIAL Not applicable

2021 ◽  
pp. 174569162110084
Yafeng Pan ◽  
Giacomo Novembre ◽  
Andreas Olsson

The study of the brain mechanisms underpinning social behavior is currently undergoing a paradigm shift, moving its focus from single individuals to the real-time interaction among groups of individuals. Although this development opens unprecedented opportunities to study how interpersonal brain activity shapes behaviors through learning, there have been few direct connections to the rich field of learning science. Our article examines how the rapidly developing field of interpersonal neuroscience is (and could be) contributing to our understanding of social learning. To this end, we first review recent research extracting indices of brain-to-brain coupling (BtBC) in the context of social behaviors and, in particular, social learning. We then discuss how studying communicative behaviors during learning can aid the interpretation of BtBC and how studying BtBC can inform our understanding of such behaviors. We then discuss how BtBC and communicative behaviors collectively can predict learning outcomes, and we suggest several causative and mechanistic models. Finally, we highlight key methodological and interpretational challenges as well as exciting opportunities for integrating research in interpersonal neuroscience with social learning, and we propose a multiperson framework for understanding how interpersonal transmission of information between individual brains shapes social learning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (10) ◽  
pp. 381-390
Urvashi Dhaked ◽  
Dr. Ashok Kumar ◽  
Dr. Brajesh Kumar Singh ◽  

The WSN is a self-configuring network in which no centralized control is available. The sensing devices are considered as the nodes. These nodes have small size and low-cost. Primarily, the deployment of these networks is done in the military areas in order to monitor the activities of conflicting sides. These networks can monitor all the movement of energy. Malicious nodes can also join the network and trigger different types of active & passive attacks. The major kind of active attack is sinkhole intrusion. Such an attack allows the attacker node to spoof the identity of sink and act like sink itself. The sensor nodes focus on the transmission of information to the attacker node instead of BS. This research study suggests an algorithm to explore and segregate the attacker nodes from the network. This algorithm is designed on the basis of the identify confirmation. The NS2 (Network Simulator 2) is utilized to deploy the suggested algorithm and diverse metrics are utilized for analyzing the results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (10) ◽  
pp. 87-98
N. V. Tikhonova

Nowadays, digital technologies are widely used at all levels of education and are effectively integrated into diverse teaching and learning activities (transmission of information, educational projects, presentations, games, training, modeling, evaluation and competence assessment, etc.). Information and communication technologies are considered in this study as a key element of assessment of teacher student professional skills and competencies during school teaching practice. A digital portfolio is regarded as a form of authentic assessment of teaching practice and a way to improve teaching performance and to contribute to pre-service teachers’ professional growth. The purpose of the research is to analyze the opportunities and potential benefits as well as the disadvantages of using digital portfolio in teacher preparation course and to propose recommendations for the full realization of this method’s potential. The author analyzes the experience of Swiss teachers in using a digital portfolio to assess the results of student teaching practice. The research focuses on the role of the digital portfolio in developing the pre-service teachers’ ability to selfassessment and self-reflection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (2) ◽  
Tomáš Marvan ◽  
Michal Polák ◽  
Talis Bachmann ◽  
William A Phillips

Abstract We present a theoretical view of the cellular foundations for network-level processes involved in producing our conscious experience. Inputs to apical synapses in layer 1 of a large subset of neocortical cells are summed at an integration zone near the top of their apical trunk. These inputs come from diverse sources and provide a context within which the transmission of information abstracted from sensory input to their basal and perisomatic synapses can be amplified when relevant. We argue that apical amplification enables conscious perceptual experience and makes it more flexible, and thus more adaptive, by being sensitive to context. Apical amplification provides a possible mechanism for recurrent processing theory that avoids strong loops. It makes the broadcasting hypothesized by global neuronal workspace theories feasible while preserving the distinct contributions of the individual cells receiving the broadcast. It also provides mechanisms that contribute to the holistic aspects of integrated information theory. As apical amplification is highly dependent on cholinergic, aminergic, and other neuromodulators, it relates the specific contents of conscious experience to global mental states and to fluctuations in arousal when awake. We conclude that apical dendrites provide a cellular mechanism for the context-sensitive selective amplification that is a cardinal prerequisite of conscious perception.

Open Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
Katelyn Cuttler ◽  
Maryam Hassan ◽  
Jonathan Carr ◽  
Ruben Cloete ◽  
Soraya Bardien

Synaptopathies are brain disorders characterized by dysfunctional synapses, which are specialized junctions between neurons that are essential for the transmission of information. Synaptic dysfunction can occur due to mutations that alter the structure and function of synaptic components or abnormal expression levels of a synaptic protein. One class of synaptic proteins that are essential to their biology are cell adhesion proteins that connect the pre- and post-synaptic compartments. Neurexins are one type of synaptic cell adhesion molecule that have, recently, gained more pathological interest. Variants in both neurexins and their common binding partners, neuroligins, have been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize some of the key physiological functions of the neurexin protein family and the protein networks they are involved in. Furthermore, examination of published literature has implicated neurexins in both neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There is a clear link between neurexins and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, multiple expression studies have also shown changes in neurexin expression in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review highlights the potential importance of neurexins in brain disorders and the importance of doing more targeted studies on these genes and proteins.

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