total dissolved solids
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Mohd Yawar Ali Khan ◽  
Mohamed El Kashouty ◽  
Waleed Gusti ◽  
Amit Kumar ◽  
Ali Mohammad Subyani ◽  

Seawater has intruded into many of Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coastal aquifers, with varying degrees of extension depending on location, hydrogeology, and population density. This study aimed to evaluate and comprehend the processes that influence the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the coastal aquifer in Saudi Arabia’s Khulais region. Groundwater samples were taken from nineteen locations during the winter and summer of 2021, and data from major ions and trace elements were examined and interpreted using ArcGIS software. The total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations ranged between 480 and 15,236 mg/L and 887–18,620 mg/L in winter and summer, respectively. Groundwater TDS concentration was observed to be influenced by groundwater flow, lithogenic, anthropogenic, and seawater intrusion in this study (2021) when compared to 2016. The concentration of nitrate (NO3−) and strontium (Sr) in most samples exceeds the drinking guidelines. The occurrence of high concentrations of bromide (Br), Fluoride (F), Iron (Fe) (winter and summer) and Aluminum (Al), Boron (B), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) (winter) was also exhibited and observed up to more than drinking and irrigation limits. The central part of the study area was affected by seawater intrusion. The hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil was measured, and it ranged from 0.24 to 29.3 m/day. Based on electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium absorption ratio, most aquifer samples were unsuitable for irrigation (SAR).

Raíssa Carvalho ◽  
Alyce Leal ◽  
Luiz Carlos Palermo ◽  
Claudia Mansur

The objective of this work was to obtain tamarind gum from Tamarindus indica L. seeds, which are waste from the food industry. Tamarind gum was extracted by two methods and the highest yield achieved was 32.6% w/w, containing 69.25% w/w of organic matter, which was composed mostly of the nonionic polysaccharide xyloglucan. The greatest molar mass of the tamarind gum was Mw=7.16 x 105 g/mol with polydispersity index (PI) of 1.7. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of tamarind gum samples were carried out in two brines (total dissolved solids values of 29,711 mg/L and 68,317 mg/L, containing divalent ions) that simulated petroleum reservoir salinity levels, with different temperatures (25, 60 and 80°C). The rheological curves indicated high salt resistance of the gum samples. Under a shear rate of 7.3 s-1 the highest viscosity values found were approximately 86, 41 and 50 cP with at concentration of 5,000 ppm and temperatures of 25, 60 and 80ºC, respectively.

2022 ◽  
A Rajendran ◽  
C. Mansiya ◽  
M. Shanmuganathan

Abstract Although flood hit the entire part of Chennai, Tamil nadu some three years ago, the quality of water is still found to be worse because of major inundation in these areas. The current inspection deals with the physico-chemical analysis of the ground water samples collected from ten locations in Neelangarai and Triplicane area in Chennai, Tamil Nadu and assessed using Heber Water Quality Index (HWQI) in the post tsunami circumstances. The factors examined were pH, fecal coliform, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and turbidity. In addition to these parameters, pointers like electrical conductivity and salinity were also taken into consideration. The over all HWQI outcomes for all the trials in Neelangarai area were determined between 65.02 and 72.25 and Triplicane area was 66.64 - 70.71, which suggest that all the samples are medium to good in quality and could used for human consumption.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012087
M Hayati ◽  
N Arpi ◽  
Z F Rozali

Abstract Rujak kawista sauce is one of the typical Indonesian foods made from palm sugar, tamarind, bird’s eye chili, nuts, and special fruits of kawista to enhance the flavour. There is no information about the shelf-life of rujak kawista sauce to date. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study on the storage time of the rujak kawista sauce to determine the product’s shelf life. This study used the ASLT method to determine the shelf life of rujak sauce. The sauce was stored at temperatures of 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C within 21 days storage time and was analysed every seven days. The analytical methods used to support the ASLT method are TBA, moisture content, FFA, total dissolved solids and pH. The result showed that TBA value was 0.046-0.19 mg malonaldehyde/kg, moisture content was 16.68-20%, FFA was 0.66-0.80%, total dissolved solid was 17.9-21.1°Brix, and pH was 3.1-3.5. Based on Arrhenius calculations, the shelf-life of rujak kawista sauce was two months.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 196-203
Amoo Afeez Oladeji ◽  
Adeleye Adeniyi Olarewaju ◽  
Bate Garba Barde ◽  
Asaju Catherine Iyabo ◽  
Isiaq Saheed Mohammed ◽  

The interface between surface water and groundwater is becoming more complex owing to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities these days. In this study, the physicochemical; pH, color, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and turbidity while bacteriological parameters; total and fecal coliform of water samples from River Gashua and its surrounding wells in Gashua local government area of Yobe State were assessed. All the physicochemical parameters were analyzed using water quality standards. Fecal and total coliforms were assayed using the filter membrane technique. The results obtained from the physicochemical parameters of Boreholes (BH1, BH2, and BH3) and hand pump wells (HPW1, HPW2, and HPW3) are within the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. However, the river (R) water sample was found to have a high concentration in total dissolved solids, turbidity, and color than permissible standards. Bacteriological analysis revealed the presence of total and fecal coliform in the water samples; R, BH2, BH3, HPW1, HPW2, and HPW3. The findings indicate that there is a need to protect the quality of the river system. Therefore, it is recommended that government and other stakeholders should take appropriate and corrective actions to avert the continuous discharge of waste products into the river. Again, Yobe State Ministry of Environment should ensure that all public boreholes are routinely subjected to appropriate water assays to ascertain their suitability for human consumption.

C.O. Ataguba ◽  
I. C. Brink

An investigation into the pollution of stormwater runoff from automobile workshops in Nigeria was performed. Also, multivariate regression was used to predict the pH, oil, and grease (O&G) as well as the electrical conductivity (EC) in relation to the characteristics of the solids and metals pollutants of the untreated automobile workshop stormwater. The results indicated that automobile workshops contributed notable amounts of pollutants to stormwater runoff. Results were compared with Nigerian and USEPA standards. It was found that most of the parameters had mean value ranges far greater than standard limits. The multivariate regression showed variations in the results obtained from different automobile workshops. These variations could be due to the influence of factors such as the volume of automobile servicing activities and the waste generated from these activities that flow in the stormwater runoff. However, the bulk of the EC and pH of the stormwater were associated with the concentrations of the total dissolved solids and copper while the bulk of the O&G concentration was associated with the concentrations of lead and cadmium. It is recommended to treat automobile workshop stormwater to prevent detrimental effects in aquatic systems. Future research is aimed at modeling such treatment using multivariate regression techniques is warranted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Hilma Rantilla Amwele ◽  
Nnenesi Anna Kgabi ◽  
Liisa Indileni Kandjibi

The groundwater quality data from 1,137 boreholes in 10 regions of Namibia were assessed for sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Kelly's ratio (KR), sodium percentage (Na%), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), potential salinity (PS), electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) to determine the suitability for the irrigation. The groundwater was classified as follows: all the regions' groundwater shows the TH as very hard water of >4.6 meq/l, PS as not suitable for irrigation (>3 meq/l), and EC as very highly (0.75–2.25 dS/m). However, Na%: 10% of regions have doubtful water (>80%), MAR: 30% of regions are not recommended for irrigation (>50 meq/l), and TDS: 90% of the regions have slightly moderate (450–2,000 mg/l) and 10% have groundwater that is unsuitable for agricultural purposes (>2,000 mg/l). The unsuitability of groundwater for irrigation could be due to higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cl− that has exceeded the FAO guideline for irrigation. Some groundwater qualities had inverse classification such as SAR all regions have excellent groundwater (<10 meq/l), KR: 90% of regions have safe water (<1 meq/l), Na%: 50% of regions have good groundwater (20–40%), 40% of the regions have permissible water (40–80%), and MAR: +70% of region's water is recommended for irrigation (<50 meq/l).

2021 ◽  
Vol 82 (3) ◽  
pp. 234-236
Mila Trayanova ◽  
Sava Kolev ◽  
Diana Rabadjieva ◽  
Aleksey Benderev ◽  
Rumiana Gergulova

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the environmental impact of a surface spill of groundwater with high total dissolved solids content by clarifying the extent of contamination in the soil layer near the borehole R1 – Barzina. The overall tendency for limitation of the migration of chloride pollution in the immediate vicinity of the formed surface spill. The fluctuations of the chlorides content in depth indicates the seasonal impact of refreshment by atmospheric waters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 019-024
Ni Komang Alit Astiari ◽  
Ni Putu Anom Sulistiawati ◽  
I Nengah Suaria ◽  
I Nyoman Rai

This research was conducted in Belancan Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, Indonesia, from December 2020 to July 2021, which aimed to increase production and fruits quality of Siam orange with calcitor fertilizer and concentration of neem leaf extract. The study used a randomized block design, factorial with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was calcitor fertilizer consisting of 4 concentration levels, i.e., 0 cc/l/tree (K0); 2 cc/l/tree (K1), 4 cc/l/tree (K2), and 6 cc/l/tree (K3), while the second factor was neem leaf extract consisting of 3 concentration levels, i.e., 0% (M0), 5% (M1), and 10% (M2). The results showed that the interaction between calcitor fertilizer and neem leaf extract concentration had no significant effect on all observed variables. Calcitor fertilizer with a concentration of 6 cc/l/tree could improve the quality of Siam orange fruit, which was reflected by the increase in the number of fruit per tree (106.44 fruit), weight per fruit (114.08 g), weight of fruit per tree (14 .37 kg), fruit diameter (6.89 cm) and total dissolved solids (11.52 %brix) or increased by 27.56%, 7.54%; 40.74%; 12.58% and 44.72%, respectively, than those of control. While in the treatment of neem leaf extract at a concentration of 10% increase the number of fruit per tree (107.73 fruit), weight per fruit (117.44 g), fruit weight per tree (16.04 kg), fruit diameter (7.58 cm) and total dissolved solids (10.83% brix), or an increase of 69.44%; 18.76%; 78.84% and 42.31%, respectively, than those of control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (2E) ◽  
pp. 134-149
Omar Aqrawi

Fifteen spring water samples were collected from the study area, to identify its quality, as well as the prevailing water type in it. samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of main cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, and anions HCO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3-, as well as investigating the physio-chemical properties represented by Hydrogen Number, Electrical Conductivity, and Total Dissolved Solids. Piper classification demonstrated that all samples are of type normal earth alkaline water with prevailing bicarbonate with a percentage of 79.9% of all the samples, except for SP4, SP9, and SP11, which characterized with normal alkaline water with prevailing bicarbonate and sulfate or chloride with a percentage of 19.9%. The results of the analysis showed a prevalence of calcium ions over the rest of the cations followed by Mg2+, Na+, and K+, and a prevalence of HCO3- ion over the rest of the anions followed by NO3-, Cl-, and SO42-. The water quality index showed that all samples are categorized within the excellent type for drinking, with a range of 3.14-29.94. In addition, several classifications used (Eaton, 1950, Turgeon, 2000 and Don, 1995) demonstrated that the water is of excellent type to use for irrigation with Na%=2.51, Sodium Adsorption Ratio=0.08, and RSC=-1.65. Using Wilcox Diagram for irrigation water; show that all samples are within the domain of the excellent water for irrigation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document