destructive processes
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2021 ◽  
pp. 81-104
Mykola Bondarchuk

The purpose of the study is a comprehensive analysis of the measures taken by the relevant Soviet authorities in the USSR during the period of the new economic policy (NEP) in order to eliminate the manifestations of organized crime. Objectives of the study: to determine the main causes of banditry and its manifestations in Soviet Ukraine in the NEP; to explore the ways and methods of struggle of the Soviet power against it. The methodological basis of the study are general scientific (logical, comparative), and special historical methods (problem-chronological). They allowed to determine this period, in which the problem of organized crime is studied specifically, in chronological and logical order. Comparative analysis was used to study individual phenomena of this process. The study is also based on the principles of scientificity, historicism and objectivity. The scientific novelty of the study is that for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the manifestations of organized crime in Soviet Ukraine in 1921-1928 and ways to combat them was carried out. New archival documents on this issue and materials of periodicals of those years were put into scientific circulation. An attempt has been made to give an objective, unbiased assessment of these phenomena and the actions of the Soviet authorities in those years. Conclusions. The new economic policy of the Soviet state during the 1920's was implemented against the background of increasing manifestations of various social anomalies. The struggle against them took place in a difficult socio-economic situation in which the society found itself after the First World War. According to the analysis of the archival sources, the Soviet authorities attached great importance to these measures, and first of all to their termination. These problems were caused by various factors, but primarily by the destructive processes in society itself and the struggle of the Bolsheviks for the establishment of their power. This also applies to the events of the recent Civil War in the former Russian Empire and the state liberation struggle in Ukraine in 1917-1921. One of the main reasons for the growth of organized crime was a difficult economic situation caused by the effects of military communism. In the period under study, namely in the first half of the 1920's, the process of formation of the law enforcement system of the Soviet power took place. The main burden of responsibility for the state of the criminogenic situation in the country rested with the local police.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 288-292
V. A. Ananev ◽  
V. N. Pavlov ◽  
A. M. Pushkarev

Background. Modern minimally invasive surgical techniques reduce traumatism of operative interventions and aggressive anaesthesia, which accordingly shortens the patient’s hospital stay and rehabilitation period.Aim. An improvement of surgical outcomes in patients with purulent pyelonephritis via introduction of laparoscopic techniques.Materials and methods. Th e study included 80 purulent pyelonephritis patients operated at the Territorial Clinical Hospital during 2006—2018. Th e patients were divided between two cohorts. Cohort 1 included 40 (50 %) patients operated with standard techniques (ST), cohort 2 — 40 (50 %) patients having surgery by an original minimally invasive technique (OT). Kidney decapsulation was found to outcome in parenchymal decompression and blood circulation restore in cortical layer. Intraarterial infusion of alprostadil prevents further spread of purulent-destructive processes in kidney.Results and discussion. In patients with the minimally invasive technique, postoperative period proceeded at no complications. On day 1, the patients reported reduced pain syndrome in the surgical area. Contrasted renal MSCT before and aft er surgery showed the recovery of renal blood flow and significant diminishing of destruction foci in short term. Nephrectomy was not performed as no-indication.Conclusion. The treatment outcomes in 40 patients having the new surgical technique demonstrate its efficacy and applicability in clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (103) ◽  
pp. 168-178
A. R. Mysak ◽  
Y. M. Lenjo ◽  
B. V. Gutyj ◽  
Ya. G. Krupnyk ◽  
S. V. Tsisinska ◽  

Of the total number of animal diseases, 70–80 % are non-communicable diseases, and more than 50 % are surgical diseases, which cause significant economic damage to the livestock industry due to reduced productivity and premature culling of livestock. Irrational, unbalanced in terms of macro- and microelements, vitamins, carbohydrates feeding leads to metabolic disorders. At the same time, deep destructive-degenerative changes in bones, joints, ligaments and tendons are registered, horn formation in the hooves is disturbed and a less stable horn is produced. Omission in feeding unsatisfactory housing conditions and inadequate care of animals. When such conditions are often supplemented, the outer cover of animals, in particular the hooves, is affected first of all. In the event of inflammatory and dystrophic processes at the base of the skin of the hooves there is a violation of tissue (tubular) and cellular structure. The horn of such hooves undergoes changes in the form of parakeratosis and deformation; this contributes to the spread and accumulation of fungal flora, which shows its pathogenic action mainly due to enzymatic activity and toxic products, which characterizes these microorganisms as a factor in the destructive processes of the hoof horn. With reduced mechanical stability and destroyed by microscopic fungi of hoof horn is more likely to develop aseptic or purulent pododermatitis. Here, the fungal flora is not only a contributing factor in the occurrence of diseases, but also as one of the factors complicating the course of the disease. That is why timely detection and effective treatment of ungulomycosis prevents the complication of the pathological process, which can even lead to culling of animals. The essence of treatment of superficial ungulomycosis is reduced to functional cleaning of hooves and their antiseptic treatment in the form of fungicidal powders, sprays, hoof baths. In deep ungulomycosis, and, moreover, in combination with purulent pododermatitis, treatment includes local anesthesia, orthopedic treatment, antiseptic treatment with isolation, pathogenetic therapy. Prevention of ungulomycosis is based on knowledge of the etiology of the disease and the pathogenetic mechanisms of its development.  Its essence is to form in animals a strong hoof horn, prevent its destruction and eliminate favorable conditions for the reproduction of keratomycetes. This includes proper feeding, proper housing conditions and appropriate animal care.

2021 ◽  
pp. 29-46
Edwin F. Ackerman

This chapter argues that Marx and Weber were right to relate party emergence with capitalism and the modern state. But understanding the nature of this relationship requires a 1) rethinking of the unique characteristics of the party as a political-organizational modality and 2) a focus on the destructive processes associated with the ascent of a market economy and a bureaucratic state apparatus. A reading of Marx and Weber through the prism of Antonio Gramsci’s understanding of the party-form and Bourdieu’s insights on political representation moves us in this direction. Capitalism and the modern State transform political organization, as it ceases to be an act of direct presentation to a territorial outsider and becomes an act of re-presentation whereby a specialized intermediary agent (party, union, civil societal organization) articulates private sectoral interests that cut across local communities. This transition from “territorial presentation” to “social sectoral representation” requires two primitive accumulations, and economic and a political one.

N. Gimaldinova ◽  
L. Lyubovtseva ◽  
E. Lyubovtseva

The aim of the study was to identify the features of variations in the localization of monoamines (catecholamines, serotonin)in the cell structures of autopsy material of lungs affected by tuberculosis. Material and methods. 165 cases of secondary pulmonary tuberculosis were studied. We studied 2500 histological preparations of patients aged 30 to 55 years, divided into 5 groups, corresponding to the forms of secondary tuberculosis (group 1-acute focal tuberculosis, group 2-fibro-focal tuberculosis, group 3-infiltrative tuberculosis, group 4-acute cavernous tuberculosis, group 5 - fibro-cavernous tuberculosis. To selectively detect neuroamine-containing structures of the lungs and adrenergic nerve fibers, the Falk-Hillarp luminescence-histochemical method was used in the modification of E. M. Krokhina, based on the reaction of neuroamine condensation with formaldehyde. Results. When using the Falk-Hillarp luminescence-histochemical method, mycobacteria of tuberculosis containing catecholamines and serotonin were detected in autopsy material of lungs affected by a specific inflammatory process, as well as neuroamine-containing granular luminescent cells and mast cells. Affected and unaffected areas of the lungs contain different amounts of the studied monoamines. The results of the study revealed the dependence of the number of cells and the content of the studied bioamines in them on the form of secondary tuberculosis. It was found that in small forms of secondary tuberculosis (acute focal, fibrotic-focal), the number of cells and quantitative parameters of the studied neurotransmitters (catecholamines, serotonin) in granular luminescent cells and mast cells change in the direction of increase. In destructive processes in the lungs (acute cavernous and fibrous-cavernous tuberculosis), the content of catecholamines in the studied structures in the affected area prevails over the control. The concentration of serotonin in the studied cells of the area of lung tissue affected by the tuberculosis process is reduced. The number of neuroamine-containing cells is significantly reduced. The maximum luminescence of catecholamines and serotonin in granular luminescent cells was determined in the infiltrative form of tuberculosis. In mast cells, the highest content of catecholamines was found in the group of acute cavernous tuberculosis, and serotonin in the group of the infiltrative form of the disease. In stained sections of the lungs in this form of tuberculosis, a luminescent pathway of lymphocytes was found. The nerve fibers detected at the sites of mycobacteria were also changed. They did not have a clear luminescence, looked "swollen", in places they did not have varicose veins. Conclusion. Comparing the results of the study with the literature data, it was found that pulmonary tuberculosis occurs as a delayed reaction, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis manifests itself as a corpuscular antigen.

Мадина Магомедкамиловна Шахбанова ◽  
Мадина Багавутдиновна Гимбатова

Происходящие в институте семьи изменения исследователями характеризуются как кризисные, а наблюдающиеся деструктивные процессы - противоречивые. Объектом данного исследования является семейно-брачная сфера народов Дагестана. Предметом исследования выступает межрелигиозный брачный союз и брачное поведение дагестанских народов. Хронологические рамки исследования охватывают XIX - начало XXI вв., и этот исторический период позволит проследить эволюцию отношения к межрелигиозным бракам, от их полного неприятия до толерантного отношения к ним. Методологической основой этносоциологического исследования является принцип исторической реконструкции, историко-сравнительный и историко-типологический методы, шкала социальной дистанцированности Богардуса, которая показывает существующие в массовом сознании городского населения республики установки в различных сферах социального взаимодействия. Полученные результаты исследования свидетельствуют о том, что в традиционном дагестанском обществе отношение к межрелигиозным бракам, в силу высокой исламизации общества, было отрицательным. С присоединением Дагестана к России заключение межрелигиозных браков становится возможным при условии принятия ислама одного из брачующихся, при соблюдении шариатских брачных норм и обрядов. С увеличением доли русского населения в Дагестане со второй половины ХХ в. отношение к межрелигиозным бракам изменилось, шариатские нормы при заключении брака, в связи с советизацией дагестанского общества, не всегда соблюдались. Исследование показало, что опрошенное городское население ориентировано на взаимодействие в различных социальных сферах, за исключением семейно-брачной, ибо для респондентов ключевым параметром при вступлении в брачный союз выступает вероисповедание будущего супруга (супруги). Однако эмпирические данные показывают, что в массовом сознании горожан существует толерантное отношение к межрелигиозному браку своих детей, в сравнении с собственными брачными установками. Исследование выявило наличие существенных отличий по типу религиозности: наиболее консервативна подгруппа, самоидентифицирующаяся как убежденно верующие, впрочем, как и верующие, хотя процентные показатели заметно ниже, по сравнению с подмассивами колеблющихся, неверующих и убежденно неверующих. Researchers describe changes taking place in the institute of the family as crisis, and the observed destructive processes as contradictory. The object of this study is the marital sphere of the peoples of Dagestan. The subject of the study is the interreligious marriage union and the marriage behavior of the Dagestan peoples. The chronological framework of the study covers the 19th - early 21st centuries and this historical period will allow us to trace the evolution of attitudes towards interreligious marriages, from their complete rejection to tolerant attitude towards them. The methodological basis of ethnosociological research is the principle of historical reconstruction, historical, comparative and historical-typological methods, and the Bogardus social distance scale, which shows the attitudes existing in the mass consciousness of the urban population of the republic in various areas of social interaction. The obtained results of the study indicate that in traditional Dagestan society, the attitude towards interreligious marriages, due to the high Islamization of society, was negative. With the accession of Dagestan to Russia, the conclusion of interreligious marriages becomes possible provided one of the spouses accepts Islam, subject to sharia marriage norms and rites. With an increase in the share of the Russian population in Dagestan from the second half of the twentieth century, the attitude to interreligious marriages has changed, sharia norms in marriage, in connection with the Sovietization of Dagestan society, have not always been respected. The study shows that the urban population surveyed is focused on interaction in various social spheres, with the exception of marital, because for respondents the religion of the future spouse is the key parameter when joining a marriage union. However, empirical data show that in the mass consciousness of citizens there is a tolerant attitude towards the interreligious marriage of their children, in comparison with their own marital attitudes. The study has revealed significant differences in the type of religiosity: the most conservative subgroup is self-identifying as "staunchly believers," and "believers", although the percentages are noticeably lower, compared with the sub-masses of fluctuating, unbelieving and staunchly unbelievers.

O.I. Gerasimov ◽  
I.S. Andrianova ◽  
L.M. Sidletska ◽  
A.Ya. Spivak ◽  
V.V. Kuryatnikov ◽  

Technological overcoming of the potential threat of a decrease in the quality of radiation monolithic structures of protective shields, which are under constant influence of ionizing radiation (due to radiation embitterment) is one of the most urgent tasks of ensuring protection against radiation exposure. The aim of the work is to carry out a comparative analysis of the quality (in terms of radiation protection) of monolithic and granular protective screens. In contrast to monolithic prototypes, granular conglomeration has clear advantages, which are to avoid destructive processes of radiation embitterment, simplify replacement and handling (compaction and compaction), and disposal. It is important to emphasize that the protective properties of granular screens hardly differ from their monolithic counterparts, and the economic advantages of the corresponding technologies are significant at the same time. The material provided is actually the formulation of the problem on the theoretical substantiation of the advantages of using granular materials (in comparison with monolithic ones) in radiation protection technologies based on analysis as physical mechanisms and form factors of interaction neutron and gamma radiation with a substance with a developed morphology on a micro-scale.

Е.С. Панькина ◽  
Н.В. Дорофеев ◽  
А.В. Греченева

В данной статье предлагается алгоритм контроля образования деструктивных процессов в геотехнических системах. Предлагаемый алгоритм на практике корректирует диапазон допустимых параметров геотехнической системы на основе комплексной обработки данных о внешних факторов и комбинаций реакций системы, построенного на основе теории бифуркаций. По результатам работы алгоритма происходит формирование оценки изменения состояния геотехнической системы. В статье так же описаны результаты практического применения разработанного алгоритма на основе данных геотехнического мониторинга (наблюдения осуществлялись с 2016 по 2021 год)параметров грунтового основания, а также физико-механических параметров элементов конструкций фундамента и сооружения. В качестве сооружения выступало трехэтажное здание, возведенное на кирпичном ленточном фундаменте. Объект исследования находится в г. Муроме Владимирской области. В ходе применения разработанного алгоритма были выделены наиболее уязвимые ключевые точки геотехнической системы в которых развиваются скрытые деструктивные процессы. Полученные результаты также подтверждаются результатами моделирования в ЛИРА-САПР напряжений в конструкции фундамента здания при изменении долей природной влажности верхних слоев грунта. Таким образом, хотя в решении задач геотехнического мониторинга и оценки устойчивости геотехнических систем существуем множество подходов, тем не менее постоянно возникающие за проектные ситуации, приводящие к возникновению аварий и катастроф техногенного и природного характера, показывают их не высокую эффективность. Поэтому, применение разработанного алгоритма актуально при прогнозировании устойчивости геотехнической системы за счет коррекции в динамическом режиме допустимых пределов варьирования физико-механических параметров устойчивости геотехнической системы, полученных в проектных расчетах. This article proposes an algorithm for controlling the formation of destructive processes in geotechnical systems. In practice the proposed algorithm corrects the range of acceptable parameters of the geotechnical system based on complex data processing on external factors and combinations of reactions of the system. It built on the basis of the theory of bifurcations. Based on the results of the algorithm, an assessment of changes is formed in the state of the geotechnical system. The article also describes the results of the practical application of the developed algorithm based on geotechnical monitoring data (observations were carried out from 2016 to 2021) of the parameters of the soil base, as well as the physical and mechanical parameters of the structural elements of the foundation and structure. The structure was a three-story building erected on a brick ribbon foundation. The object of the research is located in the city of Murom, Vladimir region. During the application of the developed algorithm, the most vulnerable key points of the geotechnical system were identified in which hidden destructive processes develop. The obtained results are also confirmed by the results of modeling in LIRA-CAD of stresses in the structure of the foundation of a building with a change in the proportion of natural humidity of the upper layers of the soil. Thus, although there are many approaches to solving the problems of geotechnical monitoring and assessing the stability of geotechnical systems, nevertheless, constantly emerging project situations that lead to accidents and catastrophes of a man-made and natural nature show their low efficiency. Therefore, the application of the developed algorithm is relevant when predicting the stability of the geotechnical system due to the correction in the dynamic mode of the permissible limits of variation of the physical and mechanical parameters of the stability of the geotechnical system obtained in the design calculations.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6534
Elena L. Gerasimova ◽  
Elena R. Gazizullina ◽  
Maria V. Borisova ◽  
Dinara I. Igdisanova ◽  
Egor A. Nikiforov ◽  

The synthesis of inhibitors for oxidative stress-associated destructive processes based on 2H-imidazole-derived phenolic compounds affording the bifunctional 2H-imidazole-derived phenolic compounds in good-to-excellent yields was reported. In particular, a series of bifunctional organic molecules of the 5-aryl-2H-imidazole family of various architectures bearing both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents in the aryl fragment along with the different arrangements of the hydroxy groups in the polyphenol moiety, namely derivatives of phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, hydroxyquinol, including previously unknown water-soluble molecules, were studied. The structural and antioxidant properties of these bifunctional 5-aryl-2H-imidazoles were comprehensively studied. The redox transformations of the synthesized compounds were carried out. The integrated approach based on single and mixed mechanisms of antioxidant action, namely the AOC, ARC, Folin, and DPPH assays, were applied to estimate antioxidant activities. The relationship “structure-antioxidant properties” was established for each of the antioxidant action mechanisms. The conjugation effect was shown to result in a decrease in the mobility of the hydrogen atom, thus complicating the process of electron transfer in nearly all cases. On the contrary, the conjugation in imidazolyl substituted phloroglucinols was found to enhance their activity through the hydrogen transfer mechanism. Imidazole-derived polyphenolic compounds bearing the most electron-withdrawing functionality, namely the nitro group, were established to possess the higher values for both antioxidant and antiradical capacities. It was demonstrated that in the case of phloroglucinol derivatives, the conjugation effect resulted in a significant increase in the antiradical capacity (ARC) for a whole family of the considered 2H-imidazole-derived phenolic compounds in comparison with the corresponding unsubstituted phenols. Particularly, conjugation of the polyphenolic subunit with 2,2-dimethyl-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-imidazol-4-yl fragment was shown to increase ARC from 2.26 to 5.16 (104 mol-eq/L). This means that the considered family of compounds is capable of exhibiting an antioxidant activity via transferring a hydrogen atom, exceeding the activity of known natural polyphenolic compounds.

Yuliana M. Terletska ◽  

Science still does not have a single scientifically sound concept of mental deprivation, which would explain its psychological essence, this mental phenomenon cannot be adequately assessed, or measures to prevent or eliminate negative mental phenomena it provoked cannot be developed. The article aims to reveal the basic principles and substantiate the main provisions of the functional-procedural concept of mental deprivation. Psycho-energetic and energy-psycho-functional approaches were used, as well as methods of analysis, synthesis, abstraction, specification, comparison, generalisation, and grouping of knowledge about the human psyche. The functional-procedural concept of mental deprivation of humans covers an interconnected system of provisions. According to them, mental deprivation is a course of more or less powerful destructive processes in the functioning of his psyche. Such processes arose from the destruction of mental parameters in various areas due to long-term unfulfilling necessary for normal functioning and development. The development of a functional-procedural concept of mental deprivation of a human will make it possible, first, to adequately define its essence and content in the scientific dimension as a phenomenon of the psyche; secondly, to assess its impact on the functioning of the whole psyche; third, to disclose the impact on development or its delay, actions, behaviour, and activities of an individual; fourth, to develop psychotherapeutic measures to prevent the occurrence of mental deprivation and eliminate its negative consequences.

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