Secondary Roots
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Plant Methods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bruna Bucciarelli ◽  
Zhanyou Xu ◽  
Samadangla Ao ◽  
Yuanyuan Cao ◽  
Maria J. Monteros ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The root system architecture (RSA) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) affects biomass production by influencing water and nutrient uptake, including nitrogen fixation. Further, roots are important for storing carbohydrates that are needed for regrowth in spring and after each harvest. Previous selection for a greater number of branched and fibrous roots significantly increased alfalfa biomass yield. However, phenotyping root systems of mature alfalfa plant is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and subject to environmental variability and human error. High-throughput and detailed phenotyping methods are needed to accelerate the development of alfalfa germplasm with distinct RSAs adapted to specific environmental conditions and for enhancing productivity in elite germplasm. In this study methods were developed for phenotyping 14-day-old alfalfa seedlings to identify measurable root traits that are highly heritable and can differentiate plants with either a branched or a tap rooted phenotype. Plants were grown in a soil-free mixture under controlled conditions, then the root systems were imaged with a flatbed scanner and measured using WinRhizo software. Results The branched root plants had a significantly greater number of tertiary roots and significantly longer tertiary roots relative to the tap rooted plants. Additionally, the branch rooted population had significantly more secondary roots > 2.5 cm relative to the tap rooted population. These two parameters distinguishing phenotypes were confirmed using two machine learning algorithms, Random Forest and Gradient Boosting Machines. Plants selected as seedlings for the branch rooted or tap rooted phenotypes were used in crossing blocks that resulted in a genetic gain of 10%, consistent with the previous selection strategy that utilized manual root scoring to phenotype 22-week-old-plants. Heritability analysis of various root architecture parameters from selected seedlings showed tertiary root length and number are highly heritable with values of 0.74 and 0.79, respectively. Conclusions The results show that seedling root phenotyping is a reliable tool that can be used for alfalfa germplasm selection and breeding. Phenotypic selection of RSA in seedlings reduced time for selection by 20 weeks, significantly accelerating the breeding cycle.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 139
Author(s):  
Rugayah . ◽  
Agus Karyanto ◽  
Ermawati . ◽  
Dewi Suselawati

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) seeds from seed, or commonly called seedling, have relatively few lateral roots and are poor in root hairs so that their growth is slow (having a long juvenile period of up to 10-15 years). For this reason, it is necessary to make efforts so that mangosteen seedlings can have a good root system through the addition of natural growth regulators. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of red onion extract, a mixture of onion extract and mung bean sprouts combined with biological liquid fertilizer on the growth of mangosteen seedling. This research was carried out in the Horticulture FP greenhouse in March 2020–July 2020. This study was arranged in a factorial (3 x 2) in a Randomized Block Design (RAK) with three replications. The first factor was natural ZPT treatment: without extract, red onion extract 400 g/L, and mixed extract of onion 200 g/L and green bean sprouts 200 g/L. The second factor is the provision of biological fertilizers, namely without biological fertilizers and 15 ml/L). The results showed that the administration of mixed extracts of shallots and mung bean sprouts tended to have better growth which could be seen from the highest average value for the variable plant height 6.04 cm, stem diameter 2.93 mm, and the number of secondary roots. The mixed extract treatment of shallots and mung bean sprouts also increased the widest leaf area by a difference of 3.5 cm² compared to the control. Keywords :  extract of shallot/ green bean sprout, growth regulator, mangosteen


2021 ◽  
Vol 911 (1) ◽  
pp. 012081
Author(s):  
Rahmawati ◽  
Muhammad Aqil

Abstract In some areas, farmers sometimes delay planting due to several factors, including: unfavorable climate, unprepared land and insufficient manpower so that planting takes a long time. As a result, seeds that have been given a fungicide cannot be planted and stored under uncontrolled conditions, both at the place and temperature of the storage room. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the storage resistance of seeds that have been given a fungicide (saromyl) so that they can be used as a reference for storing seeds of saromyl. The research was carried out in June - December 2020 at the seed quality testing laboratory of the Cereal Crops Research Institute (Balitsereal), Maros, South Sulawesi Province. The corn seeds used in the study were Bisma 2018 and 2019, Sukmaraga 2017 and 2019, Srikandi Kuning 2018 and 2019, Lamuru 2017 and 2019 varieties. Observations were made on 1000 grain weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity, maximum growth potential, seed growth speed, length of primary root, length of shoot and number of secondary roots. This study used a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The results showed that at room temperature storage (25-26°C and relative humidity 50-58%) the seeds that had been given a fungicide (saromil) with a storage period of 21 days still had high seed quality. Even at low temperature storage (18-18.9°C and Rh 50-55%) during the 6-month storage period, the quality of the seeds was very good. The shelf life of seeds that have been given a fungicide (saromil), is influenced by the shelf life of the seeds, the temperature and relative humidity of the storage room.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Christian Aparecido Demétrio ◽  
Jéssica Fernanda de Oliveira Jacob ◽  
Guilherme Bovi Ambrosano ◽  
Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

ABSTRACT: Couroupita guianensis Aubl. is an Amazonian forest species with important medicinal and ornamental value. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media and light spectra on the in vitro germination and development of the zygotic embryos of C. guianensis. The culture media, MS and WPM, were evaluated without the addition of plant growth regulators and were associated with four LED light spectra: white (CW), 70% red + 30% blue (R2B), 100% red (R), and 100% blue (B). One hundred percent of the seeds successfully underwent in vitro germination, and the culture media did not interfere with embryo development. In addition to this, the different light spectra induced in vitro morphogenesis and R2B treatment significantly promoted the production of secondary roots. This effect may aid in the rooting and acclimatization of seedlings of this species.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8369
Author(s):  
Chintan Kapadia ◽  
R. Z. Sayyed ◽  
Hesham Ali El Enshasy ◽  
Harihar Vaidya ◽  
Deepshika Sharma ◽  
...  

Salinity significantly impacts the growth, development, and reproductive biology of various crops such as vegetables. The cultivable area is reduced due to the accumulation of salts and chemicals currently in use and is not amenable to a large extent to avoid such abiotic stress factors. The addition of microbes enriches the soil without any adverse effects. The effects of microbial consortia comprising Bacillus sp., Delftia sp., Enterobacter sp., Achromobacter sp., was evaluated on the growth and mineral uptake in tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) under salt stress and normal soil conditions. Salinity treatments comprising Ec 0, 2, 5, and 8 dS/m were established by mixing soil with seawater until the desired Ec was achieved. The seedlings were transplanted in the pots of the respective pH and were inoculated with microbial consortia. After sufficient growth, these seedlings were transplanted in soil seedling trays. The measurement of soil minerals such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, and pH and the Ec were evaluated and compared with the control 0 days, 15 days, and 35 days after inoculation. The results were found to be non-significant for the soil parameters. In the uninoculated seedlings’ (control) seedling trays, salt treatment significantly affected leaf, shoot, root dry weight, shoot height, number of secondary roots, chlorophyll, and mineral contents. While bacterized seedlings sown under saline soil significantly increased leaf (105.17%), shoot (105.62%), root (109.06%) dry weight, leaf number (75.68%), shoot length (92.95%), root length (146.14%), secondary roots (91.23%), and chlorophyll content (−61.49%) as compared to the control (without consortia). The Na and K intake were higher even in the presence of the microbes, but the beneficial effect of the microbe helps plants sustain in the saline environment. The inoculation of microbial consortia produced more secondary roots, which accumulate more minerals and transport substances to the different parts of the plant; thus, it produced higher biomass and growth. Results of the present study revealed that the treatment with microbial consortia could alleviate the deleterious effects of salinity stress and improve the growth of tomato plants under salinity stress. Microbial consortia appear to be the best alternative and cost-effective and sustainable approach for managing soil salinity and improving plant growth under salt stress conditions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (AAEBSSD) ◽  
pp. 159-162
Author(s):  
Pooja Ojha ◽  
Sreekunwar ◽  
Jaideep Singh Bhadauriya ◽  
Shivkumar Singh Bhadauria ◽  
Rajesh Lekhi

The present investigation was conducted at Fruit Nursery, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Gwalior during the year 2015-16 on guava cv. Gwalior-27. The treatment combinations comprised with four concentration of IBA viz., 0ppm (I0), 7500ppm (I1), 10000ppm (I2) and 15000ppm (I3) and four concentration of NAA viz., 0ppm (B0), 50ppm (N1), 100ppm (N2) and 150ppm (N3). Results revealed that higher concentration of IBA (15000 ppm) and NAA (150 ppm) gave significantly highest results on callusing, number of primary and secondary roots, root weight per air layer, rooting and survival percentage over other lower concentrations while, combined application of higher concentration of both the growth regulators (I3N3) also gave higher results for all the parameters however, it was statistically at par with application of IBA @ 15000 ppm + NAA @ 100 ppm (I3N2) for all the parameters except survival percentage.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (AAEBSSD) ◽  
pp. 138-141
Author(s):  
P. Lepakshi ◽  
P. Vinaya Kumar Reddy

The study entitled “Effect of different growing media on seed germination and seedling growth ofJamun (Syzygium cumunii L. Skeels)” was carried out at College of Horticulture, Dr. Y.S.R Horticultural University, Venkataramannagudem, West Godavari District, AndhraPradesh, during the year 2018-19.Jamun seeds were sown in media comprising of soil, cocopeat and vermicompost in different ratios, Among which the media comprising of Soil + cocopeat + vermicompost @ 1:1:1 has shown best results in germinationparameters like earlier initiation of germination(10.91 days), less days taken to 50 percent germination(14.5 days) , highest percent of germination at 15 and 30 DAS(48.37% and 98.14 % respectively). The growth parameters likemaximum plant height(96.33cm), more number of leaves(55.75), increased girth(7.58mm) and chlorophyll content, lengthiest primary root(25.82cm), more number of secondary roots per seedling(41.51), highest fresh and dry weight of the shoot(80.24 and 20.67g.) and root and good root: shoot ratio(0.28)at 150 days after sowing were observed in plants that were sown in media comprising of Soil + cocopeat + vermicompost @ 1:1:1.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (7) ◽  
pp. 1028
Author(s):  
Merijn Kerstens ◽  
Vera Hesen ◽  
Kavya Yalamanchili ◽  
Andrea Bimbo ◽  
Stephen Grigg ◽  
...  

Root development is crucial for plant growth and therefore a key factor in plant performance and food production. Arabidopsis thaliana is the most commonly used system to study root system architecture (RSA). Growing plants on agar-based media has always been routine practice, but this approach poorly reflects the natural situation, which fact in recent years has led to a dramatic shift toward studying RSA in soil. Here, we directly compare RSA responses to agar-based medium (plates) and potting soil (rhizotrons) for a set of redundant loss-of-function plethora (plt) CRISPR mutants with variable degrees of secondary root defects. We demonstrate that plt3plt7 and plt3plt5plt7 plants, which produce only a handful of emerged secondary roots, can be distinguished from other genotypes based on both RSA shape and individual traits on plates and rhizotrons. However, in rhizotrons the secondary root density and the total contribution of the side root system to the RSA is increased in these two mutants, effectively rendering their phenotypes less distinct compared to WT. On the other hand, plt3, plt3plt5, and plt5plt7 mutants showed an opposite effect by having reduced secondary root density in rhizotrons. This leads us to believe that plate versus rhizotron responses are genotype dependent, and these differential responses were also observed in unrelated mutants short-root and scarecrow. Our study demonstrates that the type of growth system affects the RSA differently across genotypes, hence the optimal choice of growth conditions to analyze RSA phenotype is not predetermined.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Minglong Liu ◽  
Zhi Lin ◽  
Xianlin Ke ◽  
Xiaorong Fan ◽  
Stephen Joseph ◽  
...  

While biochar use in agriculture is widely advocated, how the effect of biochar on plant growth varies with biochar forms and crop genotypes is poorly addressed. The role of dissolvable organic matter (DOM) in plant growth has been increasingly addressed for crop production with biochar. In this study, a hydroponic culture of rice seedling growth of two cultivars was treated with bulk mass (DOM-containing), water extract (DOM only), and extracted residue (DOM-free) of maize residue biochar, at a volumetric dosage of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1%, respectively. On seedling root growth of the two cultivars, bulk biochar exerted a generally negative effect, while the biochar extract had a consistently positive effect across the application dosages. Differently, the extracted biochar showed a contrasting effect between genotypes. In another hydroponic culture with Wuyunjing 7 treated with biochar extract at sequential dosages, seedling growth was promoted by 95% at 0.01% dosage but by 26% at 0.1% dosage, explained with the great promotion of secondary roots rather than of primary roots. Such effects were likely explained by low molecular weight organic acids and nanoparticles contained in the biochar DOM. This study highlights the importance of biochar DOM and crop genotype when evaluating the effect of biochar on plants. The use of low dosage of biochar DOM could help farmers to adopt biochar technology as a solution for agricultural sustainability.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 709
Author(s):  
Gwendolyn K. Kirschner ◽  
Ting Ting Xiao ◽  
Ikram Blilou

Plants, as sessile organisms, have evolved a remarkable developmental plasticity to cope with their changing environment. When growing in hostile desert conditions, plants have to grow and thrive in heat and drought. This review discusses how desert plants have adapted their root system architecture (RSA) to cope with scarce water availability and poor nutrient availability in the desert soil. First, we describe how some species can survive by developing deep tap roots to access the groundwater while others produce shallow roots to exploit the short rain seasons and unpredictable rainfalls. Then, we discuss how desert plants have evolved unique developmental programs like having determinate meristems in the case of cacti while forming a branched and compact root system that allows efficient water uptake during wet periods. The remote germination mechanism in date palms is another example of developmental adaptation to survive in the dry and hot desert surface. Date palms have also designed non-gravitropic secondary roots, termed pneumatophores, to maximize water and nutrient uptake. Next, we highlight the distinct anatomical features developed by desert species in response to drought like narrow vessels, high tissue suberization, and air spaces within the root cortex tissue. Finally, we discuss the beneficial impact of the microbiome in promoting root growth in desert conditions and how these characteristics can be exploited to engineer resilient crops with a greater ability to deal with salinity induced by irrigation and with the increasing drought caused by global warming.


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