Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of common antibiotics against different microorganisms in apparently healthy cattle in Shandong province and its suburb. A total of 220 nasal swab samples were collected and cultured for bacteriological evaluation. All the bacteria isolates after preliminary identification were subjected to antibiogram studies following disc diffusion method. It was found in the study that E. coli is the most commonly associated isolate (21%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), Salmonella spp. (15%), Shigella spp (12%), and Proteus spp (11%). While the antibiogram studies reveled that highest number of bacterial isolates showed resistance to Ampicillin (95%), followed by Augmentin (91%), Cefuroxime (85%) and Tetracycline (95%) of (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp). In the case of pseudomonas spp. and Salmonella the highest resistance was showed by Ampicillin (90%) followed by Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (80%), Cefixime (90%), and Erythromycin (80%). In Shigella spp and Salmonella spp highest resistance was showed by Amoxicillin, Ceftazidime, Augmentin (60%), and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (50%). It is concluded that in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher resistance for Ampicillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The high multiple Antibiotics resistance indexes (MARI) observed in all the isolates in this study ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. MARI value of >0.2 is suggests multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and indicate presence of highly resistant bacteria.
Objetivou-se avaliar a prevalência e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos gêneros Klebsiella spp. e Staphylococcus spp. isolados de amostras de urinas de mulheres provenientes de um Laboratório privado de Análises Clínicas no município de Conselheiro Lafaiete-MG, bem como a estação de maior prevalência. Foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal, do tipo quantitativo, visando à coleta de dados secundários sobre a prevalência e o perfil de sensibilidade dos gêneros Klebsiella spp. e Staphylococcus spp. isolados das uroculturas positivas em pacientes do gênero feminino com faixa etária entre 18 a 60 anos, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. No período do estudo foram identificadas neste laboratório 41 uroculturas positivas provenientes de mulheres dentro da faixa etária estipulada, sendo o gênero Klebsiella spp. o mais prevalente 13/41 (31,71%), seguido do Staphylococcus spp. 11/41 (26,83%). A partir dos resultados obtidos neste estudo, foi possível identificar que todos os objetivos foram alcançados, uma vez que se obteve o número de casos de infecções em pacientes do gênero feminino entre 18 a 60 anos, foi avaliado a estação com maior prevalência de infecção do trato urinário, apresentou-se em tabelas os patógenos de interesse, e descrito o perfil de sensibilidade das bactérias aos principais antimicrobianos de relevância clínica.
El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la calidad microbiológica del agua en las escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Tepatitlán de Morelos, Jalisco, México (3 de kinder, 15 de primaria y 4 de secundaria) mediante la cuantificación de cloro libre, bacterias coliformes totales (OCT) y fecales (OCF); además de la búsqueda cualitativa de Enterobacterias. En general, el 9% de las escuelas verificadas cumple con los criterios establecidos por la Normatividad Oficial Mexicana para cloro libre (0.2 a 1.5 mg/L), mientras que en el 59 % de las muestras sobrepasa los límites recomendables y en el 32 % no se detectó. En lo referente al contenido de OCT y OCF, estas bacterias se detectaron en muestras de agua provenientes de escuelas (K1 y S3) que no contenían cloro al llegar desde la red municipal, pero también en especímenes (P7, P8 y P15) que contenían cloro residual en exceso; de esto se concluye que la contaminación puede ser de origen y/o deberse a que los depósitos de almacenamiento están sucios. Por su parte, es importante destacar que en el 13.6 % de las muestras se identificó a la bacteria Escherichia coli; además, se aislaron cepas de Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella spp y Pseudomona spp. La presencia de bacterias patógenas en agua potable de instituciones educativas indica que ésta puede ser un vector de enfermedades, por lo que se recomienda que se lleven a cabo mantenimientos preventivos de limpieza en cisternas y tinacos, así como monitoreos frecuentes de la calidad microbiológica del agua.
Background: Colistin, is used as the last treatment line for infections concluded from multiple drug-resistant gram-negative microorganisms. Increased consumption of colistin leads to resistance to this antibiotic in many countries. This study investigated the usage pattern of colistin administration in a selected hospital in Iran.
Methods: This study was conducted in a selected hospital in Ahvaz. Inclusion criteria were all patients who received colistin during this time according to the health information system. Patients who were received less than three doses of colistin were excluded from the study. Prescription of colistin in all patients was evaluated according to the protocol extracted from the last version of Lexicomp written by Wolters Kluwer. The descriptive and analytical statistics were carried out by the R software.
Results: Among 27 patients who received colistin, pneumonia (30%) was the main diagnoses. Colistin administration was based on the microbiological culture data in 70% of cases. Considering the involved microorganism, most cases were Acinetobacter spp., followed by Klebsiella spp. Loading dose was prescribed for seven (26%) patients. In only five (19%) cases, colistin dosing, including loading dose, maintenance dose, and the interval of colistin administration, was appropriate during the study time. Increasing in serum creatinine was seen in two (7.4%) patients. In 29.4% of patients, the combination of colistin and carbapenems was observed.
Conclusion: Given the lack of appropriate dose adjustment of colistin that may lead to incidence of resistance and adverse effect, applying of the specialist clinical pharmacist will be suggested.
Colon diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC), are multifactor diseases that affect more than one million people per year; recently, the microbiota has been associated with an etiologic factor, specifically bacterial cyclomodulin positivity (CM+). Unfortunately, there are no studies from Mexico that detail the presence of bacterial CM+ in patients with colon diseases. We therefore performed a comprehensive study to investigate the associations and prevalence of cyclomodulin-positive Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC), non-DEC, and Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from Mexican subjects with colon diseases. In this work, we analyzed 43 biopsies, 87 different bacteria were isolated, and E. coli was the most frequently noted, followed by Klebsiella spp., and Enterococcus spp. E. coli, non-DEC, and EPEC belonging to phylogroup B2 were the most prevalent. More than 80% of E. coli and Klebsiella were CM+. pks, cdt, cnf, and cif were identified. cdt was associated with non-DEC, cif and its combinations with EPEC, as well as cdt and psk with Klebsiella. Lastly, all the CM+ bacteria were resistant to at least one antibiotic (34% were MDR, and 48% XDR). In conclusion, the high prevalence of bacterial CM+ in colon disease patients suggests that these bacteria play an important role in the genesis of these diseases.
Spontaneous infections of the preputial glands represent overlooked health problems in mice that could raise welfare concerns and potentially confound scientific experiments. Agents involved in preputial gland infections have rarely been investigated, with opportunistic pathogens of laboratory animals usually detected in inflamed preputial glands. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bacterial infection in the preputial glands and the relationship between haematological and pathological changes and infection status. We analysed 40 preputial glands from 20 one-year-old C57BL/6NCrl male mice by using bacteriology, haematology and pathology. Bacteria were isolated from 16/20 (80%) mice, for a total of 32/40 (80%) examined preputial glands. Enterobacter cloacae, Pasteurella spp., Klebsiella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in 35%, 17.5%, 15% and 12.5% of the examined glands, respectively. Preputial gland inflammation was identified in 29/40 (72.5%) glands and was classified as chronic interstitial adenitis in 27 cases and suppurative adenitis in the remaining two glands. No haematological changes were found in mice with infected glands. Histologically, the presence of intralesional bacteria, intraluminal necrotic material, intraluminal keratin accumulation, interstitial inflammatory cell infiltrate and granulocytes (intraluminal and/or interstitial), along with total inflammatory score and total histopathological score, were significantly increased in infected glands and correlated with the bacterial load. Most severe inflammatory changes were identified after S. aureus infection, while ductal hyperkeratosis was significantly increased in glands infected with Klebsiella spp. In conclusion, preputial gland infection was a common event in one-year-old C57BL/6NCrl mice, and bacterial load correlated with pathological findings, while systemic effects were not highlighted by haematology.
Foodborne pathogens are serious public healthproblems that greatly affect the cost of food production and healthcare while poultry are often associated with foodborne disease outbreaks. This study aimed at investigating the occurrence and distribution of bacterial pathogens associated with chicken meats sold around Bayero University, Kano old site. A total of twenty (20) meat samples comprised of 10 frozen and ten freshly slaughtered chicken were purchased from different selling outlets around the study area. The samples were processed using standard cultural and biochemical procedures. The results of the study showed the mean aerobic mesophilic bacterial count of 5.93 x 106 CFU/g and 3.12 x 106 CFU/g for frozen and freshly slaughtered chicken meat samples respectively. The coliform counts were 420.1 and 347.7 CFU/100g for frozen and freshly slaughtered chicken meat samples respectively. The distribution of different bacterial species revealed E. coli (26.0%), Klebsiella spp (4.0%), Salmonella spp (19.5%), Campylobacter spp. (14.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (30%) in frozen chicken meat samples while freshly slaughtered chicken meat samples revealed E. coli (21.0%), Klebsiella spp (8.9%), Salmonella spp (30%), Campylobacter spp. (15.0%) and Staphylococcus aureus (24.0%). This showed that frozen chicken meats were more contaminated than freshly slaughtered chicken meats which might be associated with poor handling and storage conditions.
Relevance. Acute bacterial prostatitis is one of the urgent problems in urology. According to the data presented in the literature, the number of men who have been diagnosed with this disease ranges from 10 to 40 %. At the same time, the main etiological factor in the development of this pathology is most often assigned to the bacterial microflora. However, most of the works are devoted to the study of the microflora in chronic prostatitis, and the state of the microflora in acute bacterial prostatitis remains insufficient. The aim of the study is to evaluate the state of prostate secretion microflora in a comparative aspect in healthy individuals and in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis. Materials and Methods. The study included a comparative analysis of microbiological cultures in prostate secretion of 30 people. All examined were divided into two groups: the first included 15 people without established urological pathology, the second - 15 people with an established diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis. Results and Discussion. As a result of the study, it was found that when sowing prostate secretion in persons without established pathology, the absence of microorganism growth was not observed in 60 % of observations, while in 40 % of cases, microorganisms growth was obtained. In the group of examined without established urological pathology, the growth of microorganisms of the following was noted: Escherichia coli - in 58 % of observations; Staphylococcus epidermidis - in 10 % of observations; Staphylococcus warnerii - in 6 % cases and Enterobacter spp. - in 26 %. At the same time, the number of detected microorganisms did not exceed 104 CFU/ml. At the same time, the presence of microbial associations was not recorded. In patients with acute bacterial prostatitis, the sterile prostate secret was 13,3 %, and in 86,7 % of people, microflora growth was obtained. Most often, in the group examined with acute bacterial prostatitis, Escherichia coli was obtained - in 45 % of the observations; Klebsiella spp. - in 23 % cases and Proteus spp. - in 19 %. Less often Staphylococcus epidermidis - in 8 % of observations; Enterobacter spp. - 3,2 %. Serratia spp. - 1,1 % and Staphylococcus warnerii - in 0,7 % cases were the least obtained. At the same time, 86 % of observations in this group revealed microbial associations. Conclusion . Comparison of the state of microflora of prostate secretions in healthy individuals and patients with acute bacterial prostatitis revealed that in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis, the absence of inoculated microflora in prostate secretions was 3 times less than in healthy individuals (13.3 % and 40 %, respectively.), and Escherichia coli was the most common microorganism in the group of patients with acute bacterial prostatitis.
The article presents the data of the research on the problem of two clinical forms of enteroproducing Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) – associated infection in the children who are not connected with food – antibiotic-associated and sporadic forms. Within the period of 2019–2021 a retrospective analysis of the results of complex clinical and laboratory study of children aged from 2 months to 18 years with diarrhea (acute intestinal infection, n = 406 children) was carried out within the framework of the algorithm developed by Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases (Russia, Saint Petersburg). The material for the study included stool tests, coprofiltrates and strains of the microorganisms determinating microbiocoenosis of the intestines including enterotoxigenic strains of C. perfringens. The main group included children with diarrhea (n = 38 of 406 children with diarrhea) who at admission presented C. perfringens enterotoxin in coprofiltrates found by immune-enzyme analysis and there were identified the cultures of enterotoxigenic strains of C. perfringens by tests of intestinal contents. The first group included children (n = 30 of 406 children; 7 %) with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). The second group included children (n = 8 of 406 children; 2 %) with sporadic diarrhea. An overwhelming majority of patients with ААD (n = 20; 92.3 %) of the first 8 (100 %) years of life presented intensity of diarrhea syndrome in direct dependence on colonization activity of enterotoxigenic C perfringens (colony-forming units/g feces) (r = 0.78). The disease proceeded mainly with the syndromes of gastroenteritis, enterocolitis and hemorrhagic colitis. There was noted a reliable high frequency of severe forms of both ААD, and sporadic diarrhea (р < 0.05) caused by enterotoxigenic strains of C perfringens in children of the first year of life. Deep decompensated disorders of large intestine microbiota associated with Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, were characterized by severity and prolonged character of the course (р < 0.05). The received results determine the tactics of differential diagnosis and treatment of AAD and sporadic diarrhea caused by enteroproducing strains of C. perfringens.
Phosphorus is a major growth-llimiting nutrient which plays important biochemical role in living system. It is widely distributed in minerals as phosphates. It reacts easily with Fe3+ in ferruginous ultisols and therefore not bioavailable for plant usage. Many bacteria have the ability to solubilize phosphate minerals and make it bioavailable to plants.Thus this research investigates the culturable bacterial composition of ferruginous ultisol, comparative to control soils as well as the phosphate solubilizing capabilities of the isolates for future use in soil improvements. Six soil samples of different ferruginous levels and a control were assayed for physicochemical parameters prior to the experiment. Culturable bacteria as well as the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were assayed in Pikovskaya’s medium at 27oC with 7.5 pH for 7days. Six distinct isolates were observed which proved to be Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp., Bacillus spp. and Serratia spp. based on biochemical and morphological characteristics. Of these six isolates, three isolates(EMBF2-Klebsiella spp, BCAF1- Proteus spp and BCAC2- Bacillus spp) were identified to solubilize phosphate by releasing a considerable amount of phosphate (12.01-21.23 ppm) and lowering the pH of the media. The three isolates showed tolerance to acidic and alkaline media and also showed plant growth promoting capabilities by releasing indole acetic acid and siderophores. The result revealed that the three isolates had potential to chelate the ion bond in identified to solubilize phosphate by releasing a considerable amount of phosphate (12.01-21.23 ppm) and lowering the pH of the media. The three isolates showed tolerance to acidic and alkaline media and also showed plant growth promoting capabilities by releasing indole acetic acid and siderophores. The result revealed that the three isolates had potential to chelate the ion bond in Fe3+ in ferruginous ultisol by releasing low molecular weight organic acid, making phosphate to be bioavailable for plant usage. This will serve as biofertilizer in improving yield of crops in ferruginous ultisol and improve soil fertility.