ARO-The Scientific Journal of Koya University
Latest Publications


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

153
(FIVE YEARS 123)

H-INDEX

4
(FIVE YEARS 3)

Published By Koya University

2307-549x, 2307-549x
Updated Friday, 26 November 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 51-57
Author(s):  
Safia S. I. Blbas ◽  
Hiwa A. Ahmad ◽  
Dawan J. Hawezy ◽  
Hemn Shawgery ◽  
Hersh N. Bahadin

Coronavirus is a pandemic disease. In most cases, the exact infection rate cannot be determined as not everybody can be tested for the virus, even though some of them carry the virus silently. Therefore, detection of antibodies of this virus is more practical to give us a better clue about the rate of infection because the asymptomatic people can be tested too. The serological detection of anti-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) antibodies among asymptomatic and moderate symptomatic individuals gives us the vital point to understanding the prevalence rate of COVID-19 among the population. Total of (436) volunteers were participated, (96) from teaching staff, (172) employee, and (168) students. Anti-SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) were detected in the serum by ELISA technique, and complete blood count was performed for all participants. The number of seropositive of anti-SARS-COV-2/IgG was (159), whereas IgM was (66). The highest prevalence rate of IgG detected among participants with family member infected with coronavirus (42.7%). Total WBCs count significantly increased among IgM positive participants. Many asymptomatic people were infected with coronavirus, which lead to more spreading of the virus among the population. Therefore, mass screening of the population for specific antibody against coronavirus is important to reduce the infection rate.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 46-50
Author(s):  
Muhanad A. Ahmed ◽  
Mohammed F. Mohammed Sabri ◽  
Wathiq R. Abed

In this paper, nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films are deposited onto glass substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Electrical and optical characterizations such as conductivity, resistivity, transmission, Seeback effect, absorption, absorption coefficient, energy band gap, and extinction coefficient as a function of photon energy, and the effect of thin films thickness on transmission are carried out to characterize the prepared samples. Results showed that the prepared SiC thin film is an n-type semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of ~3 eV, 448 nm cutoff wavelength, 3.4395 × 104 cm−1 absorption coefficient and 0.154 extinction coefficient. The surface morphology of the SiC thin films is studied using scanning electron microscope at a substrate temperature of 400 °C and it is found that the grain size of the prepared SiC thin film is about 30 nm. As such, the nano thin films optical and structural characteristics enable the films to be used as gases sensors in many optoelectronic devices such as the environment and ultraviolet photodiode.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 42-45
Author(s):  
Hanaa A. Muhammad ◽  
Khalid N. Sediq ◽  
Kwestan H. Sdiq

Recently, bottled water consumption has been increasing significantly, even when the quality of tap water is considered excellent, which contributes to plastic pollution. Besides, reducing the use of plastic generally is recommended world widely, as its consumption is in an alarming rate. Therefore, this study aims to compare the tap and bottled water and manifest the reasons behind choosing the bottled water, which is less comfortable and often more expensive over the tap water. In this study, samples have been taken from both bottled and tap water in Koya city from November 2020 to May 2021 to test their quality using PH, DO, EC, and TDS meter, hardness was determined by complexometric titration method at 21°C, and XRF spectrometers. According to the quality standards, most of the variables were in a permissible range, except for dissolved oxygen and Aluminum content in both types of water and TDS for two types of bottled water. However, the quality of tap water was much safer to be used, as compared with the bottled water. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 30-37
Author(s):  
Nahla Aljojo

While Big Data analytics can provide a variety of benefits, processing heterogeneous data comes with its own set of limitations. A transaction pattern must be studied independently while working with Bitcoin data, this study examines twitter data related to Bitcoin and investigate communications pattern on bitcoin transactional tweet. Using the hashtags #Bitcoin or #BTC on Twitter, a vast amount of data was gathered, which was mined to uncover a pattern that everyone either (speculators, teaches, or the stakeholders) uses on Twitter to discuss Bitcoin transactions. This aim is to determine the direction of Bitcoin transaction tweets based on historical data. As a result, this research proposes using Big Data analytics to track Bitcoin transaction communications in tweets in order to discover a pattern. Hadoop platform MapReduce was used. The finding indicate that In the map step of the procedure, Hadoop's tokenize the dataset and parse them to the mapper where thirteen patterns were established and reduced to three patterns using the attributes previously stored data in the Hadoop context, one of which is the Emoji data that was left out in previous research discussions, but the text is only one piece of the puzzle on bitcoin transaction interaction, and the key part of it is “No certainty, only possibilities” in Bitcoin transactions


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 38-41
Author(s):  
Khalid N. Sediq

Two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities were designed to tailor cavity quantum electrodynamics. Enhancing the spontaneous emission of low-quality factor nanocavity with embedded CdSe quantum dots (QDs) emitters is the aim of this study. Low concentration layer of CdSe QDs was sandwiched between two layers of Si2 N3 membrane using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The modification rate in spontaneous emission of L3 nanocavity up to 2.3-fold has been observed at 629.5 nm in compare to bare cavities. High field confinement in the sub-wavelength regime became an interest field for quantum electrodynamics applications and good platform to study light matter interactions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 22-25
Author(s):  
Shawbo A. Abubaker ◽  
Faten A. Chaqmaqchee ◽  
Akram H. Taha

In this study, different types of polymers in postconsumer plastics with pure plastics have been studied. Highdensity polyethylene (HDPE1 and HDPE2), polyvinyl chloride (PVC3 and PVC4), polyethylene terephthalate (PET5 and PET6), and polypropylenes (PP7 and PP8) were compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. XRF has shown the spectral in K-lines of polymer materials present in plastics waste. The peak intensity and degree of crystallinity of commercial polymers are varied using XRD analysis. The intensity not attributable to the crystalline peaks may be regarded as the amorphous scattering and used as a template in analyzing the diffraction pattern of the samples. The XRD analysis helps to provide characteristic spectral lines whose intensities vary with the type of each constituent polymer. The combined usage of XRD and XRF techniques yielded very useful and effective results for a commercial plastic management.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 26-29
Author(s):  
Shawbo A. Abubaker

In this work, the design of GaAs/AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) has been implemented for 1300 nm vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) for optical fiber communication applications. The top DBR period and Al concentration are varied, the peak reflectivity of the DBR is increasing from 50% to 97.5% for 13 periods with increasing Al concentration, whereas the reflectivity bandwidth is increased to almost 190 nm. The relation between wavelength and incidence angle variation on DBR reflectivity is increasing with the incident angle (0°, 20°, 30°, and 50°), the resonant wavelength and bandwidth of the measured reflectance spectra shifts to shorter wavelength and wider bandwidth, respectively. In addition, a comparison between the linear, the graded, and the parabolic DBRs has been achieved with transfer matrix method using MATLAB software to show the influence of layer in DBRs and its effect on lasing wavelength. It is shown that using grading DBR mirror is much more beneficial compared to abrupt DBR, whereas it has lower reflectivity of almost 10% due to VCSOAs device which needs less number of top layers until prevent reaching lasing threshold.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 10-14
Author(s):  
Karzan J. Ghafoor ◽  
Karwan M. Hama Rawf ◽  
Ayub O. Abdulrahman ◽  
Sarkhel H. Taher

Dialect recognition is one of the most attentive topics in the speech analysis area. Machine learning algorithms have been widely used to identify dialects. In this paper, a model that based on three different 1D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) structures is developed for Kurdish dialect recognition. This model is evaluated, and CNN structures are compared to each other. The result shows that the proposed model has outperformed the state of the art. The model is evaluated on the experimental data that have been collected by the staff of department of computer science at the University of Halabja. Three dialects are involved in the dataset as the Kurdish language consists of three major dialects, namely Northern Kurdish (Badini variant), Central Kurdish (Sorani variant), and Hawrami. The advantage of the CNN model is not required to concern handcraft as the CNN model is featureless. According to the results, the 1 D CNN method can make predictions with an average accuracy of 95.53% on the Kurdish dialect classification. In this study, a new method is proposed to interpret the closeness of the Kurdish dialects by using a confusion matrix and a non-metric multi-dimensional visualization technique. The outcome demonstrates that it is straightforward to cluster given Kurdish dialects and linearly isolated from the neighboring dialects.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 15-21
Author(s):  
Subasini Uthirapathy ◽  
Tara F. Tahir

Withania somnifera (WS) (Dunal) or Ashwagandha is a well-known hypolipidemic herb and antioxidant. In this study, 75% ethanolic extract of WS is attempted to evaluate the cardioprotective activity of isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity and hypolipidemic activity in Triton WR 1339-induced hyperlipidemia. In addition, phytochemical evaluation of the same extracts analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). This study found that 7 days of therapy with WS extracts at 1000 mg/kg b.wt. reduced cholesterol by 76%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 71%, and TAG by 12% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, it can significantly reduce cholesterol and LDL levels (P < 0.05). Similarly, the use of 50 mg/kg b.wt. of WS extract showed a cardioprotective effect against isoproterenol-induced cardiac toxic rats. The antioxidants glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are increased in WS extract (P < 0.05), whereas the release of cardiac indicators in heart tissue is reduced (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a 30-day treatment with WS also reduced triacylglycerol in isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxic rats. GC–MS analysis of the methanol fraction of the Ashwagandha 70% ethanolic extract showed the presence of higher concentrations of fatty acids. In conclusion, WS showed hypolipidemic and cardioprotective activities in diseased animals induced by isoproterenol and Triton WR 1339.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 103-108
Author(s):  
Salah I. Yahya ◽  
Abbas Rezaei

A dual-band bandpass-bandpass microstrip diplexer with very small size and good performance is designed in this work. The proposed diplexer has a novel structure which is introduced for the first time in this paper. In comparison with the previously reported diplexers, it occupies the most compact size of 0.002 λg2 (226.7 mm2), fabricated on 0.787 mm dielectric substrate height. The resonance frequencies of the presented diplexer are located at 0.76 GHz and 1.79 GHz making it suitable for the global system for mobile communications (GSM) applications. It has a wide flat channels with two fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 41.1% and 50%. Another feature of the proposed diplexer is its ability to suppress the harmonics. It can attenuate the 1st to 7th harmonics. Moreover, it has low insertion losses and low group delays at both channels while the isolation and return losses are acceptable. Finally, the proposed diplexer is fabricated and measured to verify the simulation results, where a good agreement between the simulation and measurement results is obtained.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document