Glasgow climate pact: a step on the way towards a lower carbon dioxide world

Geoffrey Hammond ◽  
Marcus Newborough

Geoffrey Hammond at the University of Bath and Marcus Newborough of ITM Power review what happened at the UN climate change conference in Glasgow last year, and what the resulting ‘Glasgow climate pact’ means for global warming and climate change.

2019 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
Bezon Kumar ◽  
Arif Ibne Asad ◽  
Purnima Banik

This paper mainly investigates the perception and knowledge on climate change of the university students in Bangladesh. To carry out this study, primary data are collected from 370 students and uses several statistical methods. Perception and knowledge on the causes, effects and mitigation ways of climate change problems, and perceived duties to combat against climate change are analyzed with descriptive statistics. This paper finds that deforestation is the main cause of global warming and climate change and, the effects of climate change is very serious on people’s health. Majority portion of the students think that it is difficult to combat against climate change problem because it has already been too late to take action. Besides this study also finds that government is crucially responsible for combating against climate change problem. The study calls for government mainly besides industry and youths to aware people about the causes, effects, mitigation ways of climate change so that they can contribute to the sustainable development by mitigating climate change problem.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 2014 ◽  
Mariano Pierantozzi ◽  
Sebastiano Tomassetti ◽  
Giovanni Di Nicola

The most commonly used refrigerants are potent greenhouse gasses that can contribute to climate change. Hydro-Fluoro-Olefins are low Global Warming Potential fluids. A summary of our experimental research activity on the thermodynamic properties of two environmentally friendly Hydro-Fluoro-Olefins, namely R1234yf and R1234ze(E), is reported. In particular, the measurements were performed with an isochoric apparatus and the apparatus specifically built to reach temperatures down to about 100 K. The data elaboration confirms the validity of the choice and that R1234yf and R1234ze(E) can be adopted in many domestic applications. Moreover, considering the reduction of the flammability issues of R1234yf and R1234ze(E), the properties of binary systems containing these fluids and carbon dioxide were analyzed. The presented mixtures could be very interesting for low-temperature applications such as cascade cycles.

2013 ◽  
Vol 39 (3) ◽  
pp. 115-126 ◽  
Yucheng Cao ◽  
Ewelina Staszewska

Abstract Uncontrolled emissions of landfill gas may contribute significantly to climate change, since its composition represents a high fraction of methane, a greenhouse gas with 100- year global warming potential 25 times that of carbon dioxide. Landfill cover could create favourable conditions for methanotrophy (microbial methane oxidation), an activity of using bacteria to oxidize methane to carbon dioxide. This paper presents a brief review of methanotrophic activities in landfill cover. Emphasis is given to the effects of cover materials, environmental conditions and landfill vegetation on the methane oxidation potential, and to their underlying effect mechanisms. Methanotrophs communities and methane oxidation kinetics are also discussed. Results from the overview suggest that well-engineered landfill cover can substantially increase its potential for reducing emissions of methane produced in landfill to the atmosphere.

2008 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 6141-6155 ◽  
Graeme L. Stephens ◽  
Todd D. Ellis

Abstract This paper examines the controls on global precipitation that are evident in the transient experiments conducted using coupled climate models collected for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). The change in precipitation, water vapor, clouds, and radiative heating of the atmosphere evident in the 1% increase in carbon dioxide until doubled (1pctto2x) scenario is examined. As noted in other studies, the ensemble-mean changes in water vapor as carbon dioxide is doubled occur at a rate similar to that predicted by the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship. The ratio of global changes in precipitation to global changes in water vapor offers some insight on how readily increased water vapor is converted into precipitation in modeled climate change. This ratio ɛ is introduced in this paper as a gross indicator of the global precipitation efficiency under global warming. The main findings of this paper are threefold. First, increases in the global precipitation track increase atmospheric radiative energy loss and the ratio of precipitation sensitivity to water vapor sensitivity is primarily determined by changes to this atmospheric column energy loss. A reference limit to this ratio is introduced as the rate at which the emission of radiation from the clear-sky atmosphere increases as water vapor increases. It is shown that the derived efficiency based on the simple ratio of precipitation to water vapor sensitivities of models in fact closely matches the sensitivity derived from simple energy balance arguments involving changes to water vapor emission alone. Second, although the rate of increase of clear-sky emission is the dominant factor in the change to the energy balance of the atmosphere, there are two important and offsetting processes that contribute to ɛ in the model simulations studied: One involves a negative feedback through cloud radiative heating that acts to reduce the efficiency; the other is the global reduction in sensible heating that counteracts the effects of the cloud feedback and increases the efficiency. These counteracting feedbacks only apply on the global scale. Third, the negative cloud radiative heating feedback occurs through reductions of cloud amount in the middle troposphere, defined as the layer between 680 and 440 hPa, and by slight global cloud decreases in the lower troposphere. These changes act in a manner to expose the warmer atmosphere below to high clouds, thus resulting in a net warming of the atmospheric column by clouds and a negative feedback on the precipitation.

2009 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 119-134 ◽  
Mishka Lysack

Abstract The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from Vygotsky – the Zone of Proximal Development, and learning as social/relational transaction – are used to illuminate specific aspects of the teach-in. The article concludes by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing the global warming movement regarding public education.

2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (7) ◽  
pp. 106-114
J. Marvin Herndon

Government leaders and educators ought to be able to rely on scientists to tell the truth about climate change, but science has been tainted by politics. Real science, unlike politics, is all about telling the truth, truth that is securely anchored to the properties of matter and radiation. The current, high-profile, politically-driven, climate-change debate centers on two disparate ideas, namely, either global warming is caused by carbon dioxide or is not occurring at all. Neither is correct. Evidence from World War II indicates that particulate pollution, not carbon dioxide, is the cause of global warming. The difference between daily high and nightly low temperature data, tracked over time over a large geographic area, provide evidence that global warming is in fact occurring, which is independent of carbon dioxide. Particles in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are heated by solar radiation and by radiant heat from the Earth, and transfer that heat to atmospheric gases by molecular collisions. The resultant heating increases atmospheric temperature, and reduces the temperature difference relative to air near the surface, which reduces atmospheric convection, and concomitantly reduces convective heat transport from the surface. This is the mechanism whereby particulate pollution causes global warming.

2019 ◽  
Vol 801 ◽  
pp. 179-184
John Andrew Kane P. Jovellana ◽  
B. Pajarito

Increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere caused by excessive greenhouse gas emissions is strongly associated to global warming and climate change. This study aims to prove the feasibility of using pectin as the backbone for amine functionalization with application as coating on zeolites for carbon dioxide capture. Characterization of the solutions using FTIR and of the adsorbents using SEM demonstrated the successful modification of pectin using NH3 and TETA as alternative amine-functionalized coating for adsorbent. It has been reported for the first time that the polysaccharide pectin can be aminated and modified for CO2 capture upon coated on substrates such as zeolites. The adsorption capacities at 5% breakthrough of the adsorbents coated with the modified pectin are 2.24 mmol/CO2 g adsorbent and 2.28 mmol/CO2 g adsorbent, when coated with NH3-modified and TETA-modified pectin, respectively. It is recommended for further study to synthesize substrates with higher surface area, and optimize the formulations of the pectin modification.

2014 ◽  
Vol 33 (4) ◽  
pp. 319-323 ◽  
Jun-Hao Liu ◽  
Guo-Hua Zhang ◽  
Kuo-Chih Chou

AbstractCarbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and substantially affects the global warming and climate change, so study on the adsorption of carbon dioxide is very urgent. As a new CO2 captor, Ba2Fe2O5 was prepared by the solid state reaction of Fe2O3 with BaCO3, following formula Fe2O3 + 2BaCO3 = Ba2Fe2O5 + 2CO2. The reaction kinetics in isothermal condition was investigated by using the method of thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was found that the reaction of Fe2O3 with BaCO3 was controlled by the diffusion step in the product layer, and the kinetics process could be described by the RPP model (Real Physical Picture) with the apparent activation energy extracted to be 161.122 kJ/mol.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1365
Paulina Poma ◽  
Marco Usca ◽  
María Polanco ◽  
Theofilos Toulkeridis ◽  
Carlos Mestanza-Ramón

The landfill is a final disposal technique to confine municipal solid waste (MSW), where organic matter is degraded generating leachate and biogas composed of methane gases (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases that contribute to global warming. The objective of the current research was to estimate the amount of biogas generated through the LandGEM 3.03 mathematical model to determine the amount of electrical energy generated and the number of homes that would be supplied with electrical energy from 2021 to 2144. As a result of the application, it was estimated that in the Pichacay landfill, the highest point of biogas generation in 2053 would be 76,982,177 (m3/year) that would generate 81,226,339.36 (kWh/year), and would supply 5083 homes with electricity. Similarly, in the Las Iguanas landfill, the highest point would be 693,975,228 (m3/year) of biogas that produces 73,223,5296.7 (kWh/year) and would supply electricity to 45,825 homes. Of the performed gas analyses in the Pichacay landfill in 2020, an average of 51.49% CH4, 40.35% CO2, 1.75% O2 and 17.8% H2S was presented, while in the Las Iguanas landfill, for 2020 and 2021, we obtained an average of 51.88/CH4, 36.62% CO2, 1.01% O2 and 187.58 ppm H2S. Finally, the biogas generated by being harnessed minimizes the impacts related to global warming and climate change and would contribute electricity to the nearby communities.

Filippo Giorgi

This contribution presents the various pieces of evidence which bring the scientific community to conclude that global warming is happening and it is mostly due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, deriving from the use of fossil fuels and some intensive agricultural practices. The main climatic changes associated with global warming are then discussed, along with the main model-derived future climate scenarios and the impacts that climate change can have on different socioeconomic sectors. Finally, the response policies to global warming are described, and in particular the concepts of adaptation and mitigaziotn (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions).

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