tumorigenesis and progression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 747-755
Shengyong Liu ◽  
Xiangcheng Li

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor worldwide with a poor prognosis. Amounting studies revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) show important roles in various biological processes. The purpose of this study was to explore the biological function and potential molecular mechanism of CASC7 in HCC. Methods: CASC7 expression in HCC cell lines was detected by qRT-PCR. The expressions of CASC7 and miR-340-5p were changed by transfection of miR-340-5p mimic, the CASC7 overexpression and knockdown plasmids. The interaction between CASC7 and miR-340-5p was assessed by a Dual-Luciferase reporter assay. The biological functions of CASC7 were evaluated by CCK-8, colony formation assay, ROS assay kit, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry (FCM). Results: CASC7 was upregulated in HCC cell lines. CASC7 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation, as well as inhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress. In contrast, CASC7 knockdown could reverse these above changes. The result of the Dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that CASC7 directly targeted miR-340-5p and negatively regulated its expression. In addition, CASC7 promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of HCC cells through activating Nrf2 pathway by downregulating miR-340-5p. Conclusions: In summary, CASC7 promotes HCC tumorigenesis and progression through the Nrf2 pathway by targeting miR-340-5p, which may provide a new target for therapy of HCC.

Carmela Ferri ◽  
Anna Di Biase ◽  
Marco Bocchetti ◽  
Silvia Zappavigna ◽  
Sarah Wagner ◽  

Abstract Background The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), MALAT1, plays a key role in the development of different cancers, and its expression is associated with worse prognosis in patients. However, its mechanism of action and its regulation are not well known in prostate cancer (PCa). A general mechanism of action of lncRNAs is their interaction with other epigenetic regulators including microRNAs (miRNAs). Methods Using lentiviral stable miRNA transfection together with cell biology functional assays and gene expression/target analysis, we investigated the interaction between MALAT1 and miR-423-5p, defined as a target with in silico prediction analysis, in PCa. Results Through bioinformatic analysis of data available from TCGA, we have found that MALAT1 expression correlates with high Gleason grade, metastasis occurrence, and reduced survival in PCa patients. These findings were validated on a TMA of PCa showing a significant correlation between MALAT1 expression with both stage and grading. We report that, in PCa cells, MALAT1 expression and activity is regulated by miR-423-5p that binds MALAT1, downregulates its expression and inhibits its activity in promoting proliferation, migration, and invasion. Using NanoString analysis, we unraveled downstream cell pathways that were affected by miR-423-5p expression and MALAT1 downregulation and identified several alterations in genes that are involved in metastatic response and angiogenic pathways. In addition, we showed that the overexpression of miR-423-5p increases survival and decreases metastases formation in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions We provide evidence on the role of MALAT1 in PCa tumorigenesis and progression. Also, we identify a direct interaction between miR-423-5p and MALAT1, which results in the suppression of MALAT1 action in PCa.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Xinxin Li ◽  
Mengzhen Han ◽  
Hongwei Zhang ◽  
Furong Liu ◽  
Yonglong Pan ◽  

AbstractZinc finger proteins are transcription factors with the finger domain, which plays a significant role in gene regulation. As the largest family of transcription factors in the human genome, zinc finger (ZNF) proteins are characterized by their different DNA binding motifs, such as C2H2 and Gag knuckle. Different kinds of zinc finger motifs exhibit a wide variety of biological functions. Zinc finger proteins have been reported in various diseases, especially in several cancers. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide, especially in China. Most of HCC patients have suffered from hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) injection for a long time. Although the surgical operation of HCC has been extremely developed, the prognosis of HCC is still very poor, and the underlying mechanisms in HCC tumorigenesis are still not completely understood. Here, we summarize multiple functions and recent research of zinc finger proteins in HCC tumorigenesis and progression. We also discuss the significance of zinc finger proteins in HCC diagnosis and prognostic evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tianyi Cheng ◽  
Peiying Chen ◽  
Jingyi Chen ◽  
Yingtong Deng ◽  
Chen Huang

Breast cancer (BRCA) is the most common cancer in the world, of which incidence rate and mortality are the highest in women. Being responsible for the remodeling and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been regarded as one of the most important protease family related to tumorigenesis. It has been demonstrated that MMPs play crucial roles in some tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the potential roles of MMPs in tumorigenesis and progression of BRCA and its subtype remain elusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic study on MMPs via a series of database-based retrospective analysis, including TCGA, R Studio, GEPIA, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, cBioPortal, STRING, GeneMANIA and TIMER. As a result, many MMP family members were differentially expressed in patients with BRCA, e.g., the expressions of MMP1, MMP9, MMP11 and MMP13 were up-regulated, whereas the expression levels of MMP19 and MMP28 were down-regulated. MMP9, MMP12, MMP15 and MMP27 were significantly correlated with the clinical stages of BRCA, implying their important roles in the occurrence and development of BRCA. In addition, the survival analysis indicated that different expression pattern of MMPs exhibited distinct outcomes in patient with BRCA, e.g., patients with high expression of MMP2, MMP8, MMP16, MMP17, MMP19, MMP20, MMP21, MMP24, MMP25, MMP26 and MMP27 had a prolonged survival time, while the others (MMP1, MMP7, MMP9, MMP12 and MMP15) exhibited poor prognosis. Subsequent functional and network analysis revealed MMPs were mainly correlated with parathyroid hormone synthesis and secretion pathway, collagen metabolism, and their effect on the activities of serine hydrolase, serine peptidase and aminopeptidase. Notably, our analysis showed that the expression of MMPs was significantly correlated with the infiltration of various immune cells in BRCA, including CD8+T cells, CD4+T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, B cells, and dendritic cells, suggesting the close correlations between MMPs and immune functions. In short, our study disclosed MMPs play multiple biological roles in the development of BRCA, MMP1 and MMP9 might be used as independent prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for diagnosis and treatment for patients with BRCA.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Justa Friebus-Kardash ◽  
Petra Schulz ◽  
Sandy Reinicke ◽  
Cordula Karthaus ◽  
Quirino Schefer ◽  

Background: Chemerin plasma concentration has been reported to be positively correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the potential regulation of CRC tumorigenesis and progression has not yet been investigated in an experimental setting. This study addresses this hypothesis by investigating proliferation, colony formation, and migration of CRC cell lines in vitro as well as in animal models. Methods: In vitro, microscopic assays to study proliferation, as well as a scratch-wound assay for migration monitoring, were applied using the human CRC cell lines HCT116, HT29, and SW620 under the influence of the chemerin analog CG34. The animal study investigated HCT116-luc and HT29-luc subcutaneous tumor size and bioluminescence during treatment with CG34 versus control, followed by an ex-vivo analysis of vessel density and mitotic activity. Results: While the proliferation of the three CRC cell lines in monolayers was not clearly stimulated by CG34, the chemerin analog promoted colony formation in three-dimensional aggregates. An effect on cell migration was not observed. In the treatment study, CG34 significantly stimulated both growth and bioluminescence signals of HCT116-luc and HT29-luc xenografts. Conclusions: The results of this study represent the first indication of a tumor growth-stimulating effect of chemerin signaling in CRC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Ming-Ju Tsai ◽  
Wei-An Chang ◽  
Cheng-Hao Chuang ◽  
Kuan-Li Wu ◽  
Chih-Hung Cheng ◽  

Cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide, despite many advances being made in recent decades. Changes in the tumor microenvironment, including dysregulated immunity, may contribute to carcinogenesis and cancer progression. The cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) pathway is involved in several signal pathways, having various functions in different tissues. We summarized major findings of studies about the roles of the CysLT pathway in cancer. Many in vitro studies suggested the roles of CysLTs in cell survival/proliferation via CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R). CysLT1R antagonism decreased cell vitality and induced cell death in several types of cancer cells, such as colorectal, urological, breast, lung and neurological malignancies. CysLTs were also associated with multidrug resistance of cancer, and CysLT1R antagonism might reverse chemoresistance. Some animal studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of CysLT1R antagonist in inhibiting tumorigenesis and progression of some cancer types, particularly colorectal cancer and lung cancer. The expression of CysLT1R was shown in various cancer tissues, particularly colorectal cancer and urological malignancies, and higher expression was associated with a poorer prognosis. The chemo-preventive effects of CysLT1R antagonists were demonstrated in two large retrospective cohort studies. In summary, the roles of the CysLT pathway in cancer have been delineated, whereas further studies are still warranted.

Li Gao ◽  
Ru Chen ◽  
Masahiro Sugimoto ◽  
Masanobu Mizuta ◽  
Lei Zhou ◽  

Disorders pertaining to 5-methylcytosine (m5C) modifications are involved in the pathological process of many diseases. However, the effect of m5C on the tumorigenesis and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. In this study, we integrated the genomic and clinical data of 558 OSCC samples to comprehensively evaluate m5C modification patterns. Based on 16 m5C methylation regulators, two m5C modification clusters were identified with distinct tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) characteristics and prognosis in OSCC. We then performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify m5C modification cluster-related modules. Genes in the selected module were chosen to construct the m5Cscore scoring system for evaluating m5C modification pattern in individual OSCC patients. Patients with a high m5Cscore had higher immune, stromal, and ESTIMATE scores; lower tumor purity score; lower immune activity; and higher tumor mutational burden. The overall survival rate and progression-free survival rate were markedly worse and the tumor recurrence rate was higher in OSCC patients with a high m5Cscore. Furthermore, patients with oral leukoplakia who also had a high m5Cscore had a higher risk of deterioration to OSCC. This study demonstrated that m5C modification patterns might affect the TIME in OSCC. m5Cscore may provide a new approach for predicting the prognosis and progression of OSCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mingwei Zhang ◽  
Hong Chen ◽  
Bo Liang ◽  
Xuezhen Wang ◽  
Ning Gu ◽  

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common glial tumour and has extremely poor prognosis. GBM stem-like cells drive tumorigenesis and progression. However, a systematic assessment of stemness indices and their association with immunological properties in GBM is lacking. We collected 874 GBM samples from four GBM cohorts (TCGA, CGGA, GSE4412, and GSE13041) and calculated the mRNA expression-based stemness indices (mRNAsi) and corrected mRNAsi (c_mRNAsi, mRNAsi/tumour purity) with OCLR algorithm. Then, mRNAsi/c_mRNAsi were used to quantify the stemness traits that correlated significantly with prognosis. Additionally, confounding variables were identified. We used discrimination, calibration, and model improvement capability to evaluate the established models. Finally, the CIBERSORTx algorithm and ssGSEA were implemented for functional analysis. Patients with high mRNAsi/c_mRNAsi GBM showed better prognosis among the four GBM cohorts. After identifying the confounding variables, c_mRNAsi still maintained its prognostic value. Model evaluation showed that the c_mRNAsi-based model performed well. Patients with high c_mRNAsi exhibited significant immune suppression. Moreover, c_mRNAsi correlated negatively with infiltrating levels of immune-related cells. In addition, ssGSEA revealed that immune-related pathways were generally activated in patients with high c_mRNAsi. We comprehensively evaluated GBM stemness indices based on large cohorts and established a c_mRNAsi-based classifier for prognosis prediction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
Tianxiang Chen ◽  
Runkun Liu ◽  
Yongshen Niu ◽  
Huanye Mo ◽  
Hao Wang ◽  

AbstractHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with poor clinical outcomes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are extensively involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of HCC. However, more investigations should be carried out on novel lncRNAs and their effects on HCC. Here we identified a novel lncRNA KDM4A-AS1, which was aberrantly overexpressed in HCC tissues, associated with unfavorable clinical features and poor prognosis of patients. KDM4A-AS1 promoted HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and contributed to HCC growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, KDM4A-AS1 was inversely modulated by miR-411-5p at the post-transcriptional level and facilitated Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) expression by competitively binding miR-411-5p, thereby activating the AKT pathway. KPNA2 silencing, miR-411-5p overexpression, and AKT inhibitor (MK2206) consistently reversed KDM4A-AS1-enhanced proliferation, mobility, and EMT of HCC cells. KDM4A-AS1 was identified as a novel hypoxia-responsive gene and transactivated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in HCC cells. In turn, KDM4A-AS1 regulated HIF-1α expression through the KPNA2/AKT signaling pathway. Hence, this study revealed a novel hypoxia-responsive lncRNA, KDM4A-AS1, which contributed to HCC growth and metastasis via the KDM4A-AS1/KPNA2/HIF-1α signaling loop. Our findings provide a promising prognostic and therapeutic target for HCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12853
Lidia Borkiewicz

Cancer development and progression rely on complicated genetic and also epigenetic changes which regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and regulation by lncRNAs alter protein expression by either promoting gene transcription or repressing it. The presence of so-called chromatin modification marks at various gene promoters and gene bodies is associated with normal cell development but also with tumorigenesis and progression of different types of cancer, including the most frequently diagnosed breast cancer. This review is focused on the significance of one of the abundant post-translational modifications of histone 3- trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3K27me3), which was shown to participate in tumour suppressor genes’ silencing. Unlike other reviews in the field, here the overview of existing evidence linking H3K27me3 status with breast cancer biology and the tumour outcome is presented especially in the context of diverse breast cancer subtypes. Moreover, the potential of agents that target H3K27me3 for the treatment of this complex disease as well as H3K27 methylation in cross-talk with other chromatin modifications and lncRNAs are discussed.

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