deposition processes
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2022 ◽  
Sergey Grachev ◽  
Quentin Hérault ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Matteo Balestrieri ◽  
Hervé Montigaud ◽  

Abstract By combining the well-known grid reflection method with a digital image correlation algorithm and a geometrical optics model, a new method is proposed for measuring the change of curvature of a smooth reflecting substrate, a common reporter of stress state of deposited layers. This tool, called Pattern Reflection for Mapping of Curvature (PReMC), can be easily implemented for the analysis of the residual stress during deposition processes and is sufficiently accurate to follow the compressivetensile-compressive stress transition during the sputtering growth of a Ag film on a Si substrate. Unprecedented resolution below 10-5m-1can be reached when measuring a homogeneous curvature. A comparison with the conventional laser-based tool is also provided in terms of dynamical range and resolution. In addition, the method is capable of mapping local variations in the case of a non-uniform curvature as illustrated by the case of a non-homogeneous Mo film under high compressive stress. PReMC offers interesting perspectives for in situ accurate stress monitoring in the field of thin film growth.

Tobias Hauser ◽  
Raven T. Reisch ◽  
Tobias Kamps ◽  
Alexander F. H. Kaplan ◽  
Joerg Volpp

AbstractAcoustic emissions in directed energy deposition processes such as wire arc additive manufacturing and directed energy deposition with laser beam/metal are investigated within this work, as many insights about the process can be gained from this. In both processes, experienced operators can hear whether a process is running stable or not. Therefore, different experiments for stable and unstable processes with common process anomalies were carried out, and the acoustic emissions as well as process camera images were captured. Thereby, it was found that stable processes show a consistent mean intensity in the acoustic emissions for both processes. For wire arc additive manufacturing, it was found that by the Mel spectrum, a specific spectrum adapted to human hearing, the occurrence of different process anomalies can be detected. The main acoustic source in wire arc additive manufacturing is the plasma expansion of the arc. The acoustic emissions and the occurring process anomalies are mainly correlating with the size of the arc because that is essentially the ionized volume leading to the air pressure which causes the acoustic emissions. For directed energy deposition with laser beam/metal, it was found that by the Mel spectrum, the occurrence of an unstable process can also be detected. The main acoustic emissions are created by the interaction between the powder and the laser beam because the powder particles create an air pressure through the expansion of the particles from the solid state to the liquid state when these particles are melted. These findings can be used to achieve an in situ quality assurance by an in-process analysis of the acoustic emissions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
pp. 136-161
E. V. Ivanova ◽  
O. V. Levchenko ◽  
E. A. Ovsepyan ◽  
D. G. Borisov ◽  
T. F. Zinger

On August 6, 2021, the chief researcher of the IO RAS, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor Ivar Oskarovich Murdmaa turned 90 years old. The main focus of I.O. Murdmaa is the study of bottom sediments of seas and oceans, their lithology, mineralogy, deposition processes, facies and formations, the theory of oceanic sedimentogenesis. He first distinguished marine volcanoterrigenous sediments and described the facies variability of modern sediments of island arcs. Ivar Murdmaa is known for his studies in mineralogy of oceanic sediments, processes of pelagic sedimentogenesis and associated iron-manganese nodules formation. Studying sediment formation in rift zones of mid-ocean ridges, he identified a new genetic type of sediments named edaphogeonus sediments, elaborated mineralogical criteria for their recognition and formation processes. In recent years I.O. Murdmaa is actively developing the theoretical concept of "sedimentosphere", paying special attention to a new direction – the study of the erosion-accumulative activity of bottom currents and the formation of contourites.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11689
Mritunjaya Parashar ◽  
Anupama B. Kaul

During recent years, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown remarkable progress. The emergence of various thin film deposition processes to produce perovskite films, notably using solution processing techniques, can be credited in part for this achievement. The engineering of chemical precursors using solution processing routes is a powerful approach for enabling low-cost and scalable solar fabrication processes. In the present study, we have conducted a systematic study to tune the equimolar precursor ratio of the organic halide (methylammonium iodide; MAI) and metal halide (lead iodide; PbI2) in a fixed solvent mixture of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF):dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The surface morphology, optical characteristics, and crystallinity of the films produced with these four distinct solutions were investigated, and our analysis shows that the MAI:PbI2 (1.5:1.5) film is optimal under the current conditions. The PSCs fabricated from the (1.5:1.5) formulation were then integrated into the n-i-p solar cell architecture on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates, which exhibited a PCE of ~14.56%. Stability testing on this PSC device without encapsulation at 29 °C (ambient temperature) and 60% relative humidity (RH) under one-sun illumination while keeping the device at its maximum power point showed the device retained ~60% of initial PCE value after 10 h of continuous operation. Moreover, the recombination analysis between all four formulations showed that the bimolecular recombination and trap-assisted recombination appeared to be suppressed in the more optimal (1.5:1.5) PSC device when compared to the other formulations used in the n-i-p PSC architecture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 945 (1) ◽  
pp. 012041
Motoki Ubara ◽  
Yusuke Uchiyama ◽  
Taichi Kosako

Abstract The topography of the seafloor is essential for determining physical phenomena such as ocean currents, favorable habitats for marine organisms, optimal vessel navigation, and so on. Prevailing currents and waves, as well as associated shear stresses acting on the ocean floor, are responsible for the formation of typical topographic features including sea caldrons and sandbanks through erosion of bedrock and sediments and their deposition processes. In the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), the most extensive semi-enclosed estuary in Japan, tidal currents affect pronouncedly the formation of seafloor topographic features; however, they have not been fully studied, particularly from a hydrodynamic viewpoint. This study aims to understand bathymetric formation under the predominance of tidal currents in the SIS. A 3-D high-resolution SIS circulation model based on the JCOPE2-ROMS system in a triple-nested configuration was utilized to examine the detailed hydrodynamic processes for the topography formations. A high correlation between the bottom shear stress and the scour depth of the erosive areas was observed, demonstrating that local tidal forcing has continuously been exerted on the seafloor to erode. A diagnostic sediment budget analysis was then conducted for sediments typical of the SIS, that is, gravel, sand, and clay, using the modeled circulation field. The horizontal divergence of the residual flows indicates consistency between divergence (convergence) and erosion (deposition). The sediment budget model also shows that these sediments are generally transported from deep to shallow areas in eroded terrains to form deposited terrains fringing the eroded terrains, whereas sedimentation tendency differs largely from location to location.

Hydrology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 174
Maja Radišić ◽  
Josip Rubinić ◽  
Igor Ružić ◽  
Andrijana Brozinčević

The Plitvice Lakes National Park is inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. The lake system is composed of 16 cascading lakes of different sizes separated by tufa barriers, which are the park’s key phenomenon. The lakes are characterized by highly diverse trends of the characteristic hydrological indicators—mean annual water levels, discharges, and tufa barrier growth. The analyses carried out in this paper identified that in the period before the early 1990s, Kozjak Lake had a trend of decreasing discharges, together with a trend of increasing water levels and growing tufa barriers. In contrast to this, in the period after 2001, a trend of increasing discharges was recorded, as well as a trend of decreasing water levels and decreasing tufa barriers. A potential cause of the barriers decreasing in size were the extremely high discharges during the last decade, which resulted in increased erosion of the tufa barriers. Losses of water due to the sinking from the lake system as well as the upper Korana course were confirmed, and it was identified that during the analyzed period the losses had not changed significantly. It was determined that the losses of water from Kozjak Lake occurred during low-water periods; however, they depended not only on the quantity of water flowing through the lakes but also on the hydrological conditions underground. The analyses carried out and the methodological procedures used in the analyzed area of the Plitvice Lakes are useful examples for the performance of analyses at similar lakes in karst formed by tufa deposition processes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (04) ◽  
pp. 335-361
A.M. Goriachko ◽  
M.V. Strikha ◽  

In this paper, the novel cold electron emitters based on nanostructured SiC layers covering the Si(001) substrate have been proposed. Their main advantage is an extremely simple and cost-effective manufacturing process based on the standard microelectronics-grade silicon wafers with no ultra-high vacuum required and no complicated chemical deposition processes or toxic chemicals involved. It integrates within a single technological step both the SiC growth and nanostructuring the surface in the form of nanosized protrusions, which is extremely beneficial for cathode applications. A simple mathematical model predicts field emission current densities and turn-on electric fields, which would allow practical device applications. According to our estimations, emission currents in the milli-Amp range can be harvested from one square centimeter of the cathode surface with electric field close to 107 V/m. So, the nanostructured SiC can be the promising material for the cold electron emitters.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1441
Alexey Shcherbakov ◽  
Daria Gaponova ◽  
Andrey Sliva ◽  
Alexey Goncharov ◽  
Alexander Gudenko ◽  

A computer model has been developed to investigate the processes of heat and mass transfer under the influence of concentrated energy sources on materials with specified thermophysical characteristics, including temperature-dependent ones. The model is based on the application of the volume of fluid (VOF) method and finite-difference approximation of the Navier–Stokes differential equations formulated for a viscous incompressible medium. The “predictor-corrector” method has been used for the coordinated determination of the pressure field which corresponds to the continuity condition and the velocity field. The modeling technique of the free liquid surface and boundary conditions has been described. The method of calculating surface tension forces and vapor recoil pressure has been presented. The algorithm structure is given, the individual modules of which are currently implemented in the Microsoft Visual Studio environment. The model can be applied for studying the metal transfer during the deposition processes, including the processes with electron beam spatial oscillation. The model was validated by comparing the results of computational experiments and images obtained by a high-speed camera.

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