Developmental Level
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Autism ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 136236132110455
Meagan R Talbott ◽  
Sarah Dufek ◽  
Greg Young ◽  
Sally J Rogers

This study investigated the feasibility of recruiting and assessing infants with prodromal autism characteristics in the first year of life via telehealth. Participants included 41 infants (Mage = 10.51 months, 51.2% female, 80.5% White) whose parents had concerns about social communication delays or autism. All infants met concerns criteria on a social communication screener. Infants were subsequently assessed via telehealth using the Telehealth Evaluation of Development for Infants protocol, wherein parents are coached through a series of semi-structured interactions from which key measures of autism characteristics, communication, developmental level, and clinical best estimates of autism spectrum disorder likelihood are scored. Parents completed online questionnaires and surveys measuring the acceptability of the telehealth visits. Across both parent report and examiner-derived measures, infants demonstrated high scores on measures of purported autism traits, decreased communication skills, and delayed achievement of developmental milestones. Caregivers’ acceptability ratings were uniformly positive. Results highlight the potential for telehealth to expand the scope of studies of emerging autism beyond infant sibling designs and to increase families’ access to early evaluation services. Lay abstract Many families seeking early evaluations for autism spectrum disorder face long waitlists, must often travel to centers with appropriate expertise, and are frequently told by providers to “wait and see.” This results in significant stress for families and delayed supports to infants and their caregivers who could benefit. This study evaluated whether telehealth could be used to identify and evaluate infants with early autism spectrum disorder characteristics in the first year of life. In this study, we evaluated 41 infants via telehealth using a standard set of probes and scored behavior related to social communication, play, imitation, and other developmental domains. We found the majority of infants demonstrated elevated likelihood of autism spectrum disorder on both parent-reported questionnaires and examiner-rated behavior. Caregiver ratings of the overall utility of the protocol used in this study were high. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility for telehealth-based approaches to evaluate infants’ with elevated likelihood of autism spectrum disorder in the first year of life, which could help to improve families’ access to care and to expand our capacity to conduct studies evaluating possible intervention supports.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (8) ◽  
pp. 657
Donna S. Zhukovsky ◽  
Cathy L. Rozmus ◽  
Rhonda Robert ◽  
Eduardo Bruera ◽  
Robert J. Wells ◽  

Understanding the symptom and illness experience of children with advanced cancer facilitates quality care; yet, obtaining this understanding is complicated by the child’s developmental level and physical and psychological health factors that affect communication. The purpose of this study was to describe the symptom and illness experience of English- and Spanish-speaking children with advanced cancer as described by the child and parent. We conducted hermeneutic phenomenological, descriptive, and interpretive interviews with eligible children and parents. The interdisciplinary research team analyzed transcripts hermeneutically until consensus on theme labels was reached. Four themes and associated subthemes were identified from the interviews of the 10 child–parent dyads: 1. symptoms disrupt life (path to diagnosis, life is disrupted), 2. isolation (lack of understanding, family separations/relationships), 3. protection, and 4. death is not for children. Children and parents readily described the impact symptoms and cancer treatment had on their lives and relationships. These findings underscore the salient aspects of daily life disrupted by cancer. With a deeper understanding of symptom burden and its interference, relationship and communication implications, and anticipatory grief, the treating team may better optimize care for children and their families living with advanced cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (B) ◽  
pp. 687-691
I Gusti Ayu Trisna Windiani ◽  
Ni Kadek Wiwik Agustini ◽  
I. Gusti Agung Ngurah Sugitha Adnyana ◽  
Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih ◽  
Ni Luh Sukma Pratiwi Murti

BACKGROUND: Preschool age is an important period for growth and development. Malnutrition that occurs during this period can have negative impacts on growth, cognitive development, and academic performance in children. AIM: The objective of the study is to know the association between nutritional status and the risk of developmental disorder in preschool children in Denpasar. METHODS: An observational analytic study with a cross-sectional design and cluster sampling method was conducted on children under 5 years old who attended Early Childhood Education in Denpasar Bali in 2019. RESULTS: From 468 samples, the median age was 5 years old (range, 1–5), the majority of children were well-nourished (52.6%), and caretaken by parents (82.9%). Child development was prescreened using an Indonesian child development pre-screening questionnaire/Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP) that had 75% sensitivity, 99.16% specificity, 85.71% positive predictive value,and 98.33% negative predictive value compared to Capute Scale test as a gold standard. It showed that the majority of participants had an appropriate developmental stage (91.3%), followed by doubtful (5.3%) and possible deviations (3.4%). The results of the bivariate analysis showed that malnutrition was significantly related to the risk of developmental delay (PR 2; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 1.05-3.97). The result of multivariate analysis for variables that were considered to be significant as a risk for developmental disorder showed that malnutrition was related to the possibility of developmental disorder (PR 2; CI 95%, 1.04–3.95). Caretakers other than parents and lack of physical activity were not significantly related to the risk of developmental disorder. CONCLUSION: Malnutrition was found to be significantly associated with the risk of developmental disorder in preschool children. Further prospective study by standard assessment tools is required to evaluate the association between nutritional status and developmental level in children.

Galina Zavadska

Musical practice constantly lays down requirements to a musician’s hearing. An important tendency of a contemporary musical thinking is the intensification of the timbral beginning, which now starts to come to the foreground as one of the most significant expressive and form-developing means. Timbre hearing is one type of harmonic hearing (Teplov, 1947) and one of the most essential components at teaching a contemporary musician’s hearing, though in the teaching practice it has not been adequately reflected as yet. The development of the ability of hearing to perceive the expressive sense of a timbre sounding is a vital condition for achieving professionalism in a musician’s musical-performing activity. The precondition for a successful development of musical hearing, including that of timbre, is the process of diagnosticating its actual developmental level, which will help a teacher to organize a student’s musically-practical activity.The paper offers criteria and indicators for identifying the developmental level of musician’s timbre hearing.Research Aim: to study the theoretical basis of timbre hearing and to develop criteria and indicators of its development.Research methods: monitoring, modelling. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Lu Sen ◽  
Zhang Yang ◽  
Zhang Caihong ◽  
Wu Chengliang

Abstract Although the economy of a county that is linked to surrounding towns and rural areas constitutes a multiple basic economic unit within China's national economy, it usually exhibits independent characteristics and functions. Consequently, a county's economy plays a critical role in the overall economic development of a country's national economy. We created an evaluation index system based on entropy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of county economy across the entire Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. We found serious imbalances in the development of these counties, with county economies within Beijing and Tianjin being more advanced than those in Hebei Province. Furthermore, there were marked differences between county economies within prefecture-level cities of Hebei Province. The developmental level of counties in cities like Langfang, Tangshan and Chengde was relatively high. Conversely, the level of development of counties in Hengshui, Baoding, Xingtai and Handan was lower. Moreover, there were imbalances among cities in relation to county economic development, especially in Langfang, with smaller differences being found in Hengshui and Qinhuangdao. We analysed and identified the factors influencing differences between counties before providing recommendations.

Desiré Carioti ◽  
Marta Franca Masia ◽  
Simona Travellini ◽  
Manuela Berlingeri

AbstractCross-cultural studies have suggested that reading deficits in developmental dyslexia (DD) can be moderated by orthographic depth. To further explore this issue and assess the moderating role of orthographic depth in the developmental cognitive trajectories of dyslexic and typical readers, we systematically reviewed 113 studies on DD that were published from 2013 to 2018 and selected 79 in which participants received an official DD diagnosis. Each study was classified according to orthographic depth (deep vs. shallow) and participant age (children vs. adults). We assessed the difference between DD and control groups’ performance in reading tasks and in a wide range of cognitive domains associated with reading (phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN), short-term working memory (WM), and nonverbal reasoning), including age and orthographies as moderators. We found an age-by-orthography interaction effect in word reading accuracy and a significant effect of age in pseudoword reading accuracy, but we found no effect of age and orthographic depth on the fluency parameters. These results suggest that reading speed is a reliable index for discriminating between DD and control groups across European orthographies from childhood to adulthood. A similar pattern of results emerged for PA, RAN, and short-term/WM. Our findings are discussed in relation to their impact on clinical practice while considering the orthographic depth and developmental level.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 610
Elizabeth Maria Doerr ◽  
Barbara Carretti ◽  
Enrico Toffalini ◽  
Silvia Lanfranchi ◽  
Chiara Meneghetti

Background. The analysis of developmental trajectories of visuospatial abilities in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) remains an unexplored field of investigation to examine in depth. The study aimed to fill such a gap by examining changes in two visuospatial abilities: spatial visualization (the ability to manage spatial stimuli) and mental rotation (the ability to rotate spatial stimuli). Method. Eighty-seven participants with DS, aged between 7 and 53 years (forty-seven males and forty females), completed spatial visualization and mental rotation tasks. Changes in these two abilities were analyzed in relation to chronological age and developmental level, the latter derived from Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices. Results. Chronological age was linearly associated with spatial visualization performance, whereas mental rotation performance increased until 14 years of age and then decreased. Developmental level was linearly associated with increased performance in spatial visualization, the trend in mental rotation was segmented with an increase after 5 years of age. Furthermore, developmental trajectories in mental rotation depended on the rotation degree. Conclusion. Chronological age explains a modest quote of variance. Developmental level better describes changes in spatial visualization and mental rotation of individuals with DS.

Tomislav Topolovčan

Poštovane čitateljice i poštovani čitatelji,Međunarodna znanstvena i umjetnička konferencija Učiteljskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu „Suvremene teme u odgoju i obrazovanju“ održana je od 15. do 17. studenoga 2019. godine u Zagrebu, kao središnji događaj obilježavanja stote obljetnice Fakulteta. Bila je to prilika za sagledavanje rezultata stoljetne posvećenosti Fakulteta razvoju interdisciplinarnih obrazovnih znanosti, kao znanstveno utemeljen putokaz za daljnja postignuća i izazove novoga stoljeća.Prepoznata potreba unaprjeđivanja interdisciplinarnog razumijevanja i znanstvenih uvida u svu složenost obrazovanja i s njime povezanim konceptima, urodila je razvojem 12 katedri Učiteljskog fakulteta koje su na konferenciji združeno ili samostalno vodile 10 simpozija. To su: Pedagogija i psihologija: od ispravljanja nedostataka do poticanja osobnih snaga i vrlina, Bioetika i izazovi suvremenog odgoja i obrazovanja, Metodički pristupi odgoju i obrazovanju, P(r)oučavanje hrvatskoga jezika, književnosti, dramske i medijske kulture, Trendovi i izazovi u učenju i p(r)oučavanju stranih jezika, Uloga i mogućnosti informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije (IKT) u predškolskom i osnovnoškolskom obrazovanju te obrazovanju učitelja, Novi izazovi u nastavi matematike, Kineziološki trendovi u odgoju i obrazovanju, Istraživanje odnosa likovnih i vizualnih umjetnosti u odgoju i obrazovanju te Perspektive suvremenoga glazbenog odgoja i obrazovanja.Sadržajnosti i kvaliteti Konferencije pridonijeli su brojni aktivni sudionici iz Hrvatske iz svijeta koji su tijekom konferencije predstavili dvjestotinjak radova među kojima je bilo iznimno teško izabrati ograničen broj radova za ovaj specijalni broj Hrvatskog časopisa za odgoj i obrazovanje.Znanstveni radovi objavljeni u ovom radu oslikavaju izuzetnu raznolikost i izazovnost suvremenog odgoja i obrazovanja prepoznatljivu u bogatstvu znanstvenih disciplina iz kojih autori polaze u analizi, problematiziranju i istraživanju tema kojima su posvećeni. Objedinjeni u ovom broju, radovi i njihovi autori ostavljaju trag recentne razine razvoja obrazovnih znanosti i otvaraju prostor za daljnja promišljanja i oblikovanje budućih znanstvenih istraživanja obrazovanja. Gostujuća urednica specijalnog izdanjaDejana Bouillet, Učiteljski fakultet, Sveučilište uZagrebu --- Respected readers,The International Scientific and Art Conference Contemporary Themes in Education of the Faculty of Teacher Education of the University of Zagreb was held in Zagreb from 15 - 17 November 2019, as the central event of the Faculty’s centennial celebration. It was an opportunity to observe the results of a hundred-year-old dedication of the Faculty to developing interdisciplinary educational sciences, as a scientifically grounded guideline for further achievements and challenges of the new century.The pronounced need for the improvement of interdisciplinary understanding and scientific insights into the overall complexity of education and associated concepts has borne twelve departments of the Faculty of Teacher Education, which jointly or independently hosted ten symposia at the Conference. They are: Pedagogy and Psychology: From Amending Drawbacks to Enhancing Personal Strengths and Virtues; Bioethics and the Challenges of Contemporary Education; Methodical Approaches to Education; Education and Research in the Croatian Language, Drama and Media Culture; Trends and Challenges in FL Education and Research; The Role and Scope of ICT in Preschool and Primary Education and Teacher Education; New Challenges in Mathematics Teaching; Kinesiological Trends in Education; Research of the Relations in Fine and Visual Arts in Education; The Perspectives of Contemporary Music Education.Numerous Croatian and international lecturers have contributed to the content and quality of the Conference by presenting about two hundred works in its course, making it exceptionally hard to choose a limited number of prime works for this special issue of the Croatian Journal of Education.The scientific works published in this issue paint the exceptional diversity and challenges of contemporary education mirrored in the abundance of scientific disciplines from which the authors set out to analyse, problematize and research the themes they are dedicated to. Integrated in this issue, the works and their authors make their mark with the cutting-edge developmental level of educational sciences and open a space for further reflection and design of future scientific research on education. Guest editor of the special issueDejana Bouillet, Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 227-233
Grażyna Pazera ◽  
Marta Młodawska ◽  
Jakub Młodawski ◽  
Kamila Klimowska

Objectives: Munich Functional Developmental Diagnosis (MFDD) is a scale for assessing the psychomotor development of children in the first months or years of life. The tool is based on standardized tables of physical development and is used to detect developmental deficits. It consists of eight axes on which the following skills are assessed: crawling, sitting, walking, grasping, perception, speaking, speech understanding, social skills. Methods: The study included 110 children in the first year of life examined with the MFDD by the same physician. The score obtained on a given axis was coded as a negative value (defined in months) below the child’s age-specific developmental level. Next, we examined the dimensionality of the scale and the intercorrelation of its axes using polychoric correlation and principal component analysis. Results: Correlation matrix analysis showed high correlation of MFDD axes 1–4, and MFDD 6–8. The PCA identified three principal components consisting of children’s development in the areas of large and small motor skills (axis 1–4), perception (axis 5), active speech, passive speech and social skills (axis 6–8). The three dimensions obtained together account for 80.27% of the total variance. Conclusions: MFDD is a three-dimensional scale that includes motor development, perception, and social skills and speech. There is potential space for reduction in the number of variables in the scale.

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