Total Lipid
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Xiaojie Ren ◽  
Chao Wei ◽  
Qi Yan ◽  
Xin Shan ◽  
Mengyun Wu ◽  

AbstractPrevious study found that the solvent extraction efficiency of lipid in microalgae could be greatly improved by washing algae cells before the second time extraction. Based on the "organic solvents–water–organic solvents" method, this research further studied the effect of four solvent systems (acetone, chloroform/methanol, chloroform/methanol/water, dichloromethane/methanol), two types of water treatment (vortex and ultrasonic), three water treatment time gradient (0 s, 30 s, 120 s) on the lipid extraction at three different microalgae growth stages (3rd day, 5th day, 9th day). The results show that the combination of water treatment type, treatment time and solvent is very important to the efficiency of lipid extraction. The total lipid extracted was generally increased by 10–30% after water treatment. Especially under the condition of 120 s vortex water treatment with dichloromethane/methanol as extraction solvent, the total lipid extracted increased by 61.14%. In addition, microalgae cells at different culture stages had different sensitivity to water treatment. In this study, under the combination of chloroform/methanol/water as extraction solvent and vortex water treatment for 120 s, the highest lipid yield was obtained on the ninth day of cell culture, which accounts 47.88% of the cell dry weight (478 mg/g cell dry weight). The changes of cell morphology and structure after water treatment were studied by scanning electron microscope, and it was found that water treatment could seriously destroy the cell membrane damaged by solvent, thus promoting the release of lipids. This study further optimizes the "solvent–water–solvent" lipid extraction method, which neither produces impurities nor damages the lipid quality, and can reduce the amount of organic solvent applied in the classical lipid extraction method with the same lipid yield, so it has a broad application prospect.

2021 ◽  
Robbie Martin ◽  
Steven W Wilhelm ◽  
Katarina A. Jones ◽  
Hector Castro ◽  
Shawn Campagna

This protocol is designed/used for extraction of total cellular lipids from cyanobacteria samples (either lab cultures or field samples) collected on polycarbonate filters for use in lipid analysis and quantification via mass spectrometry. Please contact Dr. Steven Wilhelm ([email protected]) or Robbie M. Martin ([email protected]) for additional information regarding this protocol. Modified from Guan, X. L., Riezman, I., Wenk, M. R., & Riezman, H. (2010). Yeast lipid analysis and quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods in Enzymology, 470, 369-391.

Onkar Singh Brraich ◽  
Navpreet Kaur ◽  
Swarndeep Singh Hundal

Fish production and fish processing waste have straight connection.  In India, the waste produced during the processing of fish is predicted to be approximate 3.6 million metric tonnes, 48 per cent of the total body weight of Indian and exotic major carps is thrown away as waste (non-edible ). The present research, it was conducted to compare the total lipid content (TLC) and fatty acid composition from the liver of captured and cultured fish, Labeo rohita  (Hamilton) having weight more than 500 gram during different months as well as to evaluate its nutritional quality. Maximum total lipid content (33.33±0.14%) was found in the liver of cultured fish in May month, while the minimum (15.26±0.24%) was in the liver of captured fish in the month of January. During the study, total lipid content was found to be considerably elevated in cultured than captured Fish, Labeo rohita  (Hamilton). The amount of three major groups of fatty acids namely polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids was found to be maximum in captured fish during the month of March 97.19±0.96%, 61.30±0.56% and 95.39±0.31% month of April respectively. Total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed to be highest (21.95±8.05%) in the waste of liver in cultured fish during the month of March. Hence, it is concluded that the processing waste (liver) of the captured and cultured, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) is a prosperous resource of the essential fatty acids i.e.  PUFAs and total lipids. Further, it is observed that captured species are rich in fatty acid composition as compared to cultured species. Food industries can manufacture by-products from these high nutritional value contents of   waste for human utilization. EPA and DHA also reduce the risk of various life threatening diseases.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Sana Fatima ◽  
Naila Malkani ◽  
Muhammad Muzammal ◽  
Asghar Ali Khan ◽  
Muhammad Usama

The current study aims to produce stable liposomes from total lipid extracts from bacteria. Liposomes are the small vesicles that are made up of lipids. On their structural basis, they can be considered as simplified cell structure of cell membrane. Structure of liposomes depends on the pH of preparation buffer, method of preparation and the environmental condition in which they are prepared. Liposomes have importance in the field of medicines for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. They mainly work as a vehicle for drug delivery. The objective of the current study was to make stable liposomes from two types of bacterial samples i.e., a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative strain. E. coli and Bacillus sp. were selected as representative of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Lipid extraction was performed by various methods, out of which the modified Bligh and Dyer method gave most effective results. Liposomes were prepared by extrusion and their stability and efficiency was tested by fluorescence spectrophotometer using OxanolVI. Our results showed that liposomes formed by lipids extracted from E. coli were more stable than the liposomes formed by lipids extracted from Bacillus sp. Keywords: liposomes, Lipids, diagnostic, therapeutic, purposes, fluorescence, Bacillus sp.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 371-379
Le Tat Thanh ◽  
Pham Thi Hue ◽  
Nguyen Van Tuyen Anh ◽  
Dam Duc Tien

Vietnam's sea is assessed to be very diverse and rich in seaweed species. It is about 1000 different species of seaweed, of which more than 800 species have been identified, classify into genus, families, classes, phylums, and continuously updated from the 1950s to the present. Previous studies by Vietnamese and international scientists have shown that lipids from seaweed contain many valuable active ingredients such as acids C20: 4n-6 (AA), C20:5n-3 (EPA), C22:6n-3 (DHA), prostaglandin E2… In this study, fatty acids were converted to methyl esters and identified by gas chromatography using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) with column Cap Mao Equity 5 (Merck, L×ID 30m×0.25 mm, df 0.25 µm). From the total lipid of 50 of Vietnamese seaweed, we have identified 30 fatty acids, in which, C16:0, C18:1n-9, C20:4n-6 (AA) fatty acids have the high content, and C20:5n-3 (EPA), C22:6n-3 (DHA), C22:5n-3 (DPA) fatty acids have the high bioactivities. By the method of PCA main component analysis, from the dataset of fatty acids, we have identified 8 main fatty acids with high correlation and used to represent the distribution of seaweed species on the two-way plane. Three phylums were classified by different fatty acid groups with the high reliability. In the detail, the distribution of the phylum Phaeophyta depends on the content of 3 fatty acids including C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 và C20:4n-6, the phylum Rhodophyta depends on C15:0, C16:0, C18:0 fatty acids, and the phylum Chlorophyta depends on C18:1n-7, C18:3n-6 fatty acids. This method can may help provides more chemical data in the taxonomy of Vietnamese seaweed species.

10.4194/afs19 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 01 (01) ◽  
Büket Buşra Dağtekin

In the present study, proximate composition and meat yield of discarded fish Tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna Linnaeus, 1758), brown comber(Serranus hepatus Linnaeus, 1758) and Scaldfish (Arnoglosus laterna Walbaum, 1792) caught in Mersin Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean) by bottom trawlers were investigated. The highest protein values and the lowest total lipid and ash values were recorded during spring in three species (P<0.05). Meat yield was found to be different significantly among spring and autumn samples (P<0.05). Mean meat yield of tub gurnard, brown comber and scaldfish were 50.94%, 53.85% and 64.56%, respectively. Results of study show that although these species are considered to be discarded, they can be considered as food or additive for various living groups due to their high nutritional quality, thus they can contribute significantly to the food requirement and economy of the country. Thus, both the ecological balance in the marine environment will be protected and economic losses will be prevented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
Rafael de Araújo Lira ◽  
Lucas de Paula Corrêdo ◽  
Jimmy Soares ◽  
Mariana Machado Rocha ◽  
Antonio Teixeira de Matos ◽  

ABSTRACT: The harvesting process is a current challenge for the commercial production of microalgae because the biomass is diluted in the culture medium. Several methods have been proposed to harvest microalgae cells, but there is not a consensus about the optimum method for such application. Herein, the methods based on sedimentation, flocculation, and centrifugation were evaluated on the recovery of Chlorella sorokiniana BR001 cultivated in a low-nitrogen medium. C. sorokiniana BR001 was cultivated using a low-nitrogen medium to trigger the accumulation of neutral lipids and neutral carbohydrates. The biomass of C. sorokiniana BR001 cultivated in a low-nitrogen medium showed a total lipid content of 1.9 times higher (23.8 ± 4.5%) when compared to the biomass produced in a high-nitrogen medium (12.3 ± 1.2%). In addition, the biomass of the BR001 strain cultivated in a low-nitrogen medium showed a high content of neutral carbohydrates (52.1 ± 1.5%). The natural sedimentation-based process was evaluated using a sedimentation column, and it was concluded that C. sorokiniana BR001 is a non-flocculent strain. Therefore, it was evaluated the effect of different concentrations of ferric sulfate (0.005 to 1 g L-1) or aluminum sulfate (0.025 to 0.83 g L-1) on the flocculation process of C. sorokiniana BR001, but high doses of flocculant agents were required for an efficient harvest of biomass. It was evaluated the centrifugation at low speed (300 to 3,000 g) as well, and it was possible to conclude that this process was the most adequate to harvest the non-flocculent strain C. sorokiniana BR001.

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