mutual benefit
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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 107-119
Akhmad Kusuma Wardhana

Islam regulates economic life for the benefit of all. Waqf can be a solution in creating mutual benefit in society. This study aims to analyze the comparison between the practice of waqf for both Muslims and non-Muslims. This study uses qualitative methods. Samples in this study are the Islamic Hospital of endowments and the Gates Foundation. Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytical methods. The results show that the Gates Foundation and UNISMA use funds from their business management to distribute to the public. If UNISMA distributes waqf funds for business development and to achieve goodness, the gates foundation is entirely donated to the public. The difference in the company's financial scale is this division.

Indra Kusumawardhana

The vast majority of international relations scholars interpret world politics in the era of Covid-19 pandemic in accordance with realism by emphasizing on conflicts and the tendency of states to pursue their national interests. However, contemporary global politics shows complexity that cannot be understood from single perspective. This article seeks to interpret world politics in the era of Covid-19 pandemic using eclecticism approach by incorporating realism, liberalism, and constructivism. This article argues that the lanscape of global politics in the era of Covid-19 pandemic is characterized by three different features; conflicts and the pursuit of national interests, international cooperations based on the mutual benefit, and solidarity to help others dealing with the impact of Covid-19 pandemic. This finding implies that understanding international relations requires interperspective collaboration instead of debates and maintaing theoretical exclusivism.

Al-Ahkam ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 22
Fatihani Baso ◽  
Andi Yaqub ◽  
Kamaruddin Kamaruddin ◽  
Yuniarni Ayu Kurnia

The aim of the study are to discuss the causes of the emergence of the practice of unwritten agreements in Kota Bangun and to analyze unwritten agreements through the principles contained in the Sharia Economic Law Compilation. The author uses the type of field research and data collection techniques in the form of observation and interviews. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. Data analysis was carried out by data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions. The results showed that the cause of the emergence of the practice of unwritten agreements in Kota Bangun were due to a high sense of trust, close relationships (known people/neighbours), compassion, mutual need and local community habits. The principles that are used to examine this case are based on the principles contained in the Compilation of Sharia Economic Law, which consists of 13 principles, namely the principle of endeavor (voluntarily), the principle of trust (keeping promises), the principle of Ikhtiyati (prudence), the principle of Luzum (not Change), the principle of mutual benefit, the principle of taswiyah (equality), the principle of transparency, the principle of ability, the principle of taysiir (convenience), the principle of good faith, the principle of halal causes, the principle of al-hurriyyah (freedom) and the principle of al-Kitabah (written).

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-46
Mark R. H. Gotham

While it is encouraging to see renewed attention to 'openness' in academia, that debate (and its interpretation of the F.A.I.R. principles) is often rather narrowly defined. This paper addresses openness in a broad sense, asking not so much whether a project is open, but how open and to whom. I illustrate these ideas through examples of my own ongoing projects which to seek to make the most of a potential symbiosis between academic and wider musical communities. Specifically, I discuss how these communities can both benefit from – and even work together on building – highly accessible and interoperable corpora of scores and analyses when ambitious openness is factored into decision making from the outset.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (54) ◽  
pp. 225-241
Oleksandr Koliadych ◽  

The article provides a historical digression on I. Vernadsky's development of foreign trade concepts, and considers its most significant factors, in particular the economic ones (freedom, mutual benefit, measure of needs, strength of economic law) and political ones (geopolitical influence, consolidation). The purpose of the article is to reveal the significance and relevance of I. Vernadsky’s views on the economic and political aspects of foreign trade and assess the scientist's contribution to the development of conceptual foundations of foreign trade based on historical sources. The theoretical basis of the research is the multi-directional application of the concept of foreign trade and the interpretation of foreign trade policy as a tool for successful economic development. The historical and economic methods of analysis, and the problem-personified approach to the study of the history of economic ideas are used. The author applies the tools of systematic approach for the layout of the studied by I. Vernadsky tools for the government’s activities in the field of customs policy and foreign trade. It is shown that I. Vernadsky was critical of the interpretation of an objective, and equivalent exchange and put forward the idea of the urgency of its participants’ needs, emphasizing the subjective nature of any exchange operations. At the same time, the scientist condemned the violent nature of external relations and exchange. Emphasis is placed on an important place in the study of foreign trade issues by I. Vernadsky – the influence of both economic and non-economic factors, in particular the nation’s level of education the and its connection with the level of trade. Also, in the article are highlighted the attitude of I. Vernadsky to the relationship of peoples, which is determined by the ratio of the size of their foreign trade. In return, asymmetry in trade can trigger the operation of the law of counteraction, which demonstrates the scientist's position on trade wars and their inevitability in the event of violence, expansion and robbery. It is emphasized that I. Vernadsky’s liberalism and policy of free trade in the issue of foreign trade should be implemented in conditions of low taxes and tariff duties. High duties not only minimize the mutual benefit of the parties in foreign trade, but also, according to the scientist, set up producers of individual countries against each other. This leads to a foreign policy confrontation between the two countries and international tensions. I. Vernadsky’s research of foreign trade issues in the XIX century is also relevant for the beginning of the XXI century, in particular, the idea of the importance of preventing neo-protectionism, trade conflicts and wars.

2021 ◽  
Ilyas Chattha

The Punjab Borderland offers a fascinating insight into how the new international boundary between India and Pakistan was made, subverted, and transformed. Dispelling the established historiographical narratives of an increasingly militarised border that presents as the epitome of animosity and a classic example of inter-state tension, this book offers a corrective to these accounts by bringing out narratives of border crossings and social relations built on mutual benefit and trust. It conceptualises the making of the vast contraband as an analytical tool, not merely as borderland societies' modes for evading the state imposition of a partitioned geography on their local lifeworld, but as a catalyst for enabling social mobility and political empowerment for the population involved and a thriving market for consumption in the urban centres. It reveals a 'bottom-up' history of the Punjab border and the invention of the borderland society, narrating a story with local meanings and transnational dimensions.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Giulio Toscani ◽  
Gerard Prendergast

Purpose In an arts organisation context, this paper aims to further the understanding of service relationships by developing a framework explaining how sponsored arts organisations could better manage their relationships with sponsors to facilitate mutual benefit and relationship persistence. Design/methodology/approach Grounded theory methodology was applied to sponsorship of arts organisations through interviews with the managers of arts organisations worldwide who had been involved in seeking and managing sponsorship relationships. Findings Reciprocity was found to be the key factor in successful sponsorship relationships, but emotional reference to reputation was also important. Together they link uncertainty in the complex sponsorship environment with an arts organisation’s artistic ambitions. Practical implications This study extends the understanding of service relationships by shedding light on the sponsorship relationship from the sponsored organisation’s point of view and in particular highlighting the role of reciprocity in managing the relationship with their sponsor. Originality/value Understanding the moderating roles of reciprocity and reputation in sponsorship relationships helps to explain key facets of such relationships which can partially negate sponsor benefits and threaten a sponsorship’s continuation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1476718X2110596
Maree Stanley ◽  
Penny Allen ◽  
Terry-Ann Tunks ◽  
Melinda Davenport ◽  
Jennifer Cartmel

Intergenerational playgroups purposively bring older people, young children and their caregivers together to engage in play and develop reciprocal relationships. Intergenerational research focuses on the benefits for participants, with much less known about how these programmes sustain. This paper discusses and explores programme sustainability through the examination of two playgroups established through Playgroup Queensland’s Ageless Play programme. Through qualitative interviewing with playgroup practitioners and participants we aimed to understand how each of these playgroups had sustained beyond 3 years. The findings included the importance of mutual benefit for stakeholders, knowledge and skills of the playgroup facilitator and use of strategies to ensure ongoing interaction and engagement within the group. These findings are important for ensuring the continuation of intergenerational playgroup programmes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 244
Hui Hou ◽  
Junyi Tang ◽  
Bo Zhao ◽  
Leiqi Zhang ◽  
Yifan Wang ◽  

A reasonable plan for charging stations is critical to the widespread use of electric vehicles. In this paper, we propose an optimal planning method for electric vehicle charging stations. First of all, we put forward a forecasting method for the distribution of electric vehicle fast charging demand in urban areas. Next, a new mathematical model that considers the mutual benefit of electric vehicle users and the power grid is set up, aiming to minimize the social cost of charging stations. Then, the model is solved by the Voronoi diagram combined with improved particle swarm optimization. In the end, the proposed method is applied to an urban area, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can yield optimal location and capacity of each charging station. A contrasting case is carried out to verify that improved particle swarm optimization is more effective in finding the global optimal solution than particle swarm optimization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 917 (1) ◽  
pp. 012002
R Effendi ◽  
T Puspitojati ◽  
D Poedjowadi

Abstract Community-based forest management (CBFM) is a forest management system that is carried out by communities and forest companies with a mutual benefit principle.One of them is to bring benefits to the community from the plants cultivated. Each combination of plants yields a different income.The research aims (a) to calculate the profit of pineapple and turmeric cultivation under forest stands in the Forest District of Kediri, (b) to calculate the profit sharing between communities and companies, and (c) the value of forest product fees of pineapple and turmeric. Data were collected through observation and interviews and employ benefit-cost analysis. Shared profit was calculated based on cooperation agreements and the fee was calculated based on the prevailing tariff. The results of the study showed (1) the profit of the pineapple business was IDR 18,800,000 per ha per season, of which IDR 12,635,000 was for the community, IDR 5,415,000 was for the company’s profit share IDR 750,000 was for forest product fees. (2) the profit of the turmeric business was IDR 13.600.000 per ha per season, of which IDR 9,205,000 was for the community, IDR 3,945,000 was for the company profit share, and IDR 450,000 was for forest product fees.

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