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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Reinier Xander A. Ramos ◽  
Jacqueline C. Dominguez ◽  
Johnrob Y. Bantang

Realistic single-cell neuronal dynamics are typically obtained by solving models that involve solving a set of differential equations similar to the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) system. However, realistic simulations of neuronal tissue dynamics —especially at the organ level, the brain— can become intractable due to an explosion in the number of equations to be solved simultaneously. Consequently, such efforts of modeling tissue- or organ-level systems require a lot of computational time and the need for large computational resources. Here, we propose to utilize a cellular automata (CA) model as an efficient way of modeling a large number of neurons reducing both the computational time and memory requirement. First, a first-order approximation of the response function of each HH neuron is obtained and used as the response-curve automaton rule. We then considered a system where an external input is in a few cells. We utilize a Moore neighborhood (both totalistic and outer-totalistic rules) for the CA system used. The resulting steady-state dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) neuronal patch of size 1, 024 × 1, 024 cells can be classified into three classes: (1) Class 0–inactive, (2) Class 1–spiking, and (3) Class 2–oscillatory. We also present results for different quasi-3D configurations starting from the 2D lattice and show that this classification is robust. The numerical modeling approach can find applications in the analysis of neuronal dynamics in mesoscopic scales in the brain (patch or regional). The method is applied to compare the dynamical properties of the young and aged population of neurons. The resulting dynamics of the aged population shows higher average steady-state activity 〈a(t → ∞)〉 than the younger population. The average steady-state activity 〈a(t → ∞)〉 is significantly simplified when the aged population is subjected to external input. The result conforms to the empirical data with aged neurons exhibiting higher firing rates as well as the presence of firing activity for aged neurons stimulated with lower external current.

Diabetology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-29
Rashid M. Ansari ◽  
Mark F. Harris ◽  
Hassan Hosseinzadeh ◽  
Nicholas Zwar

Objectives: The middle-aged population from rural areas of Pakistan is disproportionately at risk of developing and mismanaging their diabetes. The purpose of this study was to explore the self-management experiences of two focus groups in the middle-aged population with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in rural Pakistan. Methods: The study design is based on the exploratory research using a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit patients with diabetes from the metabolic outpatient clinics of medical centers in rural areas of Pakistan. The data were collected for two focus groups consisting of 20 persons (10 men and 10 women) with type 2 diabetes mellitus, ranging in age from 40 to 65 years, who were receiving diabetic care at a local health facility. Focus group discussions with a sample size of 10 participants each were all recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. The data were evaluated thematically. Results: Participants described diabetes management as emotionally, physically, and socially taxing. The analysis of the data indicated three major themes: (1) diabetes as a challenging disease; (2) understanding diabetes and its challenges; (3) following diabetes self-management practices. Throughout the session, participants discussed the impact of diabetes on their daily life. This study provided new insights into the experiences of the middle-aged population of Pakistan regarding their self-management of diabetes. Conclusions: Healthcare professionals should become involved in diabetes self-management education as soon as feasible to alleviate patient worry and establish better patient-centered, culturally sensitive professional abilities. Along with monitoring patients’ self-management, healthcare professionals should place a greater emphasis on patients’ understanding of the disease and its challenges and associated complications. It is recommended to establish diabetes support groups to encourage patients to share their experiences of diabetes self-management.

Patan Pragya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (02) ◽  
pp. 115-127
Kamala Bhandari

Population ageing is known as gradual increase in the proportion of the elderly population aged 60 years and above in the total population. In demographic process this study attempts to examine how demographic indicators i.e fertility and mortality explain the process of population ageing by subnational level in Nepal. In addition, the study also tries to assess the ageing parameters such as index of ageing, old age dependency ratio, and median age after 20 years to examine the speed of ageing process in population. This study follows descriptive and exploratory research design based on the existing data sheet of National Population Census, 2001 & 2011 and also uses other previous censuses' data collected by CBS to explore the trends in these demographic indicators and parameters. Based on almost all these indicators, this study suggests that Nepal is already in the process of population ageing. Fertility and mortality are declining with increasing in life expectancy. The growth rate of the old aged population is higher than the national population growth rate by over three-fold. Similarly, almost all the parameters of ageing seem gradually increasing over the year, which makes the conformation that greater proportion of elderly individuals in the population. This trend seems in all over the sub regions of the country but in different manner. As compared with other pace in process of population ageing is higher in Hill region and, province 3. At last study conclude population ageing is driven with the transition of the fertility and mortality where the level of fertility and mortality seems low with high life expectancy the proportion of aged population is higher and vice versa.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xing-Xuan Dong ◽  
Rui-Rui Wang ◽  
Jie-Yu Liu ◽  
Qing-Hua Ma ◽  
Chen-Wei Pan

Abstract Background The effect of tea consumption on metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains controversial. The objective of this study is to examine the prospective association of tea consumption with 5-year incident MetS among aged population in China. Methods This analysis included 3005 Chinese adults aged 60 years or older who were free of MetS at baseline examination. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Information regarding tea consumption was collected via an interviewer-administrated questionnaire. The prospective associations between tea consumption at baseline and 5-year incident MetS, as well as its individual components, were assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the 3005 participants free of MetS at baseline, 406 participants (cumulative incidence: 13.5%) developed MetS at the 5-year follow-up examination. In multiple logistic regressions, 5-year cumulative incidence of MetS was found to be higher in those who drank tea more than 5 times per week as compared with non-habitual drinkers (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05-1.82; P = 0.02). This relationship still existed in men (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.01; P = 0.05) when stratified by gender. Among the five major components of MetS, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in men, while high body mass index, elevated blood pressure and the presence of diabetes mellitus were significant in women. Conclusions High-frequent tea consumption increased the risk of MetS among older Chinese adults. These findings may add novel knowledge to the current studies regarding the controversial effect of tea consumption on cardiovascular and metabolic health among the aged population.

Debarati Dhar ◽  

My paper seeks to explore the linkage between new media and the Urban Marginals with special emphasis on the ageing population in Kolkata. Conventional use of media for ageing has made the aged population a passive victim to be duped by the media messages. Given the structural locations and positions, mass media is of no use where the considerations are for younger populations. Although the ageing population may be a marginal category keeping in view the larger media ecology, new media provides the potential to the aged population to be inclusive of urban governance provided they have access and availability. With the help of substantive details, my paper would seek to address the idea of ‘precarity’ associated with the aged population and their way of coping with such precarity with the help of new media in Kolkata. This paper would provide a select reading of samples (qualitative data) from different regions of Kolkata. Through substantive details my paper would provide insights about a vulnerable population, otherwise, neglected in the making of urban governance.

Nazgol Motamed-Gorji ◽  
Ali Jafari ◽  
Seyed Farzad Mohammadi ◽  
Elham Ashrafi ◽  
Roqayeh Aliyari ◽  

Stefano Orlando ◽  
Claudia Mosconi ◽  
Carolina De Santo ◽  
Leonardo Emberti Gialloreti ◽  
Maria Chiara Inzerilli ◽  

Background: Heat waves are correlated with increased mortality in the aged population. Social isolation is known as a vulnerability factor. This study aims at evaluating the correlation between an intervention to reduce social isolation and the increase in mortality in the population over 80 during heat waves. Methods: This study adopted a retrospective ecologic design. We compared the excess mortality rate (EMR) in the over-80 population during heat waves in urban areas of Rome (Italy) where a program to reduce social isolation was implemented, to others where it was not implemented. We measured the mortality of the summer periods from 2015 to 2019 compared with 2014 (a year without heat waves). Winter mortality, cadastral income, and the proportion of people over 90 were included in the multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The EMR in the intervention and controls was 2.70% and 3.81%, respectively. The rate ratio was 0.70 (c.i. 0.54–0.92, p-value 0.01). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of the interventions, with respect to the controls, was 0.76 (c.i. 0.59–0.98). After adjusting for other variables, the IRR was 0.44 (c.i. 0.32–0.60). Conclusions: Reducing social isolation could limit the impact of heat waves on the mortality of the elderly population.

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