Free Testosterone
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hyung Eun Shin ◽  
Jeremy D. Walston ◽  
Miji Kim ◽  
Chang Won Won

ObjectiveThe association of free testosterone (FT) with sarcopenia and its components is well known in men but incompletely understood in women. We examined the association of baseline FT with the prevalence and incidence of sarcopenia and its components in community-dwelling older adults.DesignCross-sectional and longitudinal analysis from the prospective population-based Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study.MethodsA total of 1,879 community-dwelling older adults aged 70–84 years were enrolled for cross-sectional analysis and 1,583 subjects who participated in the 2-year follow-up survey were included for longitudinal analysis. Baseline FT levels was measured by radioimmunoassay. Skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and physical performance tests were measured at baseline and after 2-year follow-up. Sarcopenia was defined by the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS).ResultsContinuous FT levels was positively associated with the prevalence of sarcopenia in men (odds ratio [OR]=0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.89–1.00)] and women (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42–0.99) after adjusting for multiple confounders. In prospective analysis, low FT levels was associated with a decrease in handgrip strength in women (β=-0.61; p=0.010) and a reduction in Timed “Up and Go” (TUG) test (β=0.53; p=0.008) in men after 2 years. No significant correlations were found between FT levels and the incidence of sarcopenia.ConclusionsLow levels of FT may be a significant determinant of decreases in muscle strength in women and declines in physical performance in men after 2 years. Low FT do not predict loss of muscle mass in both men and women.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257186
Author(s):  
Liv Guro Engen Hanem ◽  
Øyvind Salvesen ◽  
André Madsen ◽  
Jørn V. Sagen ◽  
Gunnar Mellgren ◽  
...  

Objective Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, with potential effects on offspring both genetically and through altered intrauterine environment. Metformin, which ameliorate hormonal disturbances in non-pregnant women with PCOS is increasingly used in pregnancy. It passes the placenta, and the evidence on potential consequences for offspring endocrine development is scarce. We explore the potential effects of maternal PCOS status and intrauterine metformin exposure on offspring steroid hormone levels. Design This is a follow-up study of 5–10 years old children from the PregMet-study–a randomized controlled trial comparing metformin (2000 mg/day) to placebo during PCOS pregnancies. Of the 255 children invited, 117 (46%) were included. Methods There was no intervention in this follow-up study. Outcomes were serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, SHBG, cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol and calculated free testosterone converted to gender-and age adjusted z-scores from a Norwegian reference population. These were compared in i) placebo-exposed children versus children from the reference population (z-score zero) by the deviation in z-score by one-sample t-tests and ii) metformin versus placebo-exposed children by two-sample t-tests. Holm-Bonferroni adjustments were performed to account for multiple endpoints. Results Girls of mothers with PCOS (n = 30) had higher mean z-scores of androstenedione (0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 1.06), p<0.0001), testosterone (0.76 (0.51 to 1.00), p<0.0001), and free testosterone (0.99 (0.67 to 1.32), p<0.0001) than the reference population. Metformin-exposed boys (n = 31) tended to have higher 11-deoxycortisol z-score than placebo-exposed boys (n = 24) (mean difference 0.65 (95% CI 0.14–1.17), p = 0.014). Conclusion Maternal PCOS status was associated with elevated androgens in 5- to 10-year-old daughters, which might indicate earlier maturation and increased risk of developing PCOS. An impact of metformin in pregnancy on steroidogenesis in children born to mothers with PCOS cannot be excluded. Our findings need confirmation in studies that include participants that have entered puberty.


2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Author(s):  
Musa Lewis Mathunjwa ◽  
Trayana Djarova ◽  
Ina Shaw ◽  
Brandon Stuwart Shaw

Background: Various training protocols have been used in combat sports, including Taekwondo (TKD), to rapidly improve performance and to avoid injury by balancing the exercise intensity and the athletes’ metabolic tolerance and hormonal response. However, little is known about such metabolic responses in previously-trained individuals. Objectives: To investigate the effects of a concurrent TKD plus resistance (RT) training program on post-exercise blood biomarkers of physiological stress in previously-trained individuals. Methods: Twenty-eight (16 males: 12 females) previously-trained individuals aged 20 - 26 years were matched by gender and randomly divided into either moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercising group (MODG) or a high-intensity exercising group (HIG). The MODG performed TKD training at a target training intensity of 55 - 70% (weeks 1 - 2) and 70 - 85% (weeks 3 - 4) maximum heart rate (HRmax) and RT training for four sets of 10 - 15 repetitions for each of the 13 whole-body RT exercises. The HIG performed TKD training at a target training intensity of 85 - 100% (weeks 1 - 2) and 95 - 100% (weeks 3 - 4) HRmax and RT training for five sets of 10 - 15 repetitions for each of the 13 whole-body RT exercises. A structured taekwondo tasks (sTT) test was conducted before and after the training period. Results: Significant post-exercise improvements were found for total testosterone (P = 0.02), free testosterone (P = 0.01), C/T ratio (P = 0.03) and lactate (P = 0.03) in the mixed gender HIG. With regards to the specific gender effects, post-exercise improvements were found in S-CPK in the male MODG and HIG, with improvements in uric acid only in the male HIG. In turn, post-exercise improvements were found for total testosterone, testosterone binding globulin, free testosterone in the female MODG and HIG, with post-exercise improvements in S-CPK and uric acid in the female HIG only. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that even a short period of concurrent taekwondo and resistance training improves adaptation and post-exercise responses to physiological stress, and such adaptation may even be more marked in previously-trained female athletes. Thus, this mode of training may provide a novel exercise training modality to rapidly improve an individuals’ capacity to exercise, especially in situations of plateau, while avoiding overtraining and an increased concomitant chance of illness and musculoskeletal injury.


2021 ◽  
Vol 206 (Supplement 3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward J Choi ◽  
Linda Huynh ◽  
Farouk el Khatib ◽  
Raymond Carillo Ceja ◽  
Maxwell Towe ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Suchada Indhavivadhana ◽  
Matinuch Kuichanuan ◽  
Thanyarat Wongwananuruk ◽  
Kitirat Techatraisak ◽  
Panicha Chantrapanichkul ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared between hyperandrogenemia and non-hyperandrogenemia in Thai women with PCOS, and to identify factors significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in this PCOS population.Methods: Thai PCOS women were conducted during 2010-2018. Patients were categorized into the non-hyperandrogenemia group or the hyperandrogenemia group defined by total testosterone >0.8 ng/mL or free testosterone >0.006 ng/mL or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) >350 mcg/dL. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical blood data were collected and analyzed.Results: 520 PCOS women were included. 22.6% had metabolic syndrome and 75.0% had hyperandrogenemia. Free testosterone cut-off to define hyperandrogenemia for determining metabolic syndrome in PCOS yielded the highest sensitivity (88.9%) and the highest negative predictive value (90.8%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% in hyperandrogenemia and 9.2% in non-hyperandrogenemia. Factors significantly associating with metabolic syndrome in Thai PCOS women were age, BMI, free testosterone, and DHEA-S.Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was to be significantly higher in hyperandrogenemia women than in their non-hyperandrogenemia counterparts. Older age, higher BMI, higher free testosterone, and lower DHEA-S were all identified as factors significantly associated with metabolic syndrome.


Author(s):  
Manouchehr Iranparvar ◽  
Firouz Amani ◽  
Md. Javad Naghizadeh

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that its association with low level of testosterone has already been shown in many studies. Considering the role of testosterone hormone in impotency, fatigue, and bone mass deficiency this study aimed to evaluate the total and free testosterone levels and clinical signs of hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, sixty-five diabetic male patients aged 35-70 years were randomly selected and enrolled to the study. The necessary information such as patient demographics, BMI, past medical history, drug history, and history of smoking, education level and employment were completed by a checklist. Then, the patients were evaluated for total and free testosterone levels and symptoms related to decreased testosterone, hypogonadism symptoms by ADAM questionnaire. Finally, the data were statistical analyzed by spss version 21.Results: The mean age of patients was 57.12±4.7 years with age range of 38-69 years. According to the ADAM questionnaire, 51 (78.4%) of the patients were positive and 14 (21.6%) were negative. 16 (24.6%) of all patients had hypogonadism. Among ADAM positive patients, 46 (90.1%) had erectile dysfunction and 33 (64.7%) had decreased libido. Most people (75%) with hypogonadism had BMI more than 30.Conclusions: Testosterone levels are commonly found low in diabetic men, most of whom have symptoms of hypogonadism. Body mass index is known as an independent risk factor for hypogonadism in T2D men. There was also a significant correlation between free testosterone levels and hypogonadism. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Milina Tančić-Gajić ◽  
Miodrag Vukčević ◽  
Miomira Ivović ◽  
Ljiljana V. Marina ◽  
Zorana Arizanović ◽  
...  

BackgroundDisrupted sleep affects cardio-metabolic and reproductive health. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represents a major complication of obesity and has been associated with gonadal axis activity changes and lower serum testosterone concentration in men. However, there is no consistent opinion on the effect of obstructive sleep apnea on testosterone levels in men.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the influence of obstructive sleep apnea on total and free testosterone levels in severely obese men.Materials and methodsThe study included 104 severely obese (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) men, aged 20 to 60, who underwent anthropometric, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and sex hormone measurements. All participants were subjected to polysomnography. According to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) patients were divided into 3 groups: &lt;15 (n = 20), 15 - 29.9 (n = 17) and ≥ 30 (n = 67).ResultsThere was a significant difference between AHI groups in age (29.1 ± 7.2, 43.2 ± 13.2, 45.2 ± 10.2 years; p &lt; 0.001), BMI (42.8 ± 5.9, 43.2 ± 5.9, 47.1 ± 7.8 kg/m2; p = 0.023), the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (55%, 82.4%, 83.6%, p = 0.017), continuous metabolic syndrome score (siMS) (4.01 ± 1.21, 3.42 ± 0.80, 3.94 ± 1.81, 4.20 ± 1.07; p = 0.038), total testosterone (TT) (16.6 ± 6.1, 15.2 ± 5.3, 11.3 ± 4.44 nmol/l; p &lt; 0.001) and free testosterone (FT) levels (440.4 ± 160.8, 389.6 ± 162.5, 294.5 ± 107.0 pmol/l; p &lt; 0.001). TT level was in a significant negative correlation with AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), BMI, MetS and siMS. Also, FT was in a significant negative correlation with AHI, ODI, BMI, age, MetS and siMS. The multiple regression analysis revealed that both AHI and ODI were in significant correlation with TT and FT after adjustment for age, BMI, siMS score and MetS components.ConclusionObstructive sleep apnea is associated with low TT and FT levels in severely obese men.


2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (1) ◽  
pp. 87-99
Author(s):  
Katarzyna Domaszewska ◽  
Jakub Kryściak ◽  
Tomasz Podgórski ◽  
Alicja Nowak ◽  
Małgorzata Barbara Ogurkowska

Abstract The aim of the research was to present the importance of measuring the impulse of force in assessing exercise capacity in professional rowers and canoeists rather than conducting traditional physiological and biochemical analyses. A group of 20 athletes (12 rowers and 8 canoeists) underwent progressive intensity exercise tests in two testing sessions (before and after a training period). During the tests, maximal aerobic capacity, impulse of strength, metabolic indices, and markers of skeletal muscle damage were assessed. Total testosterone, free testosterone, cortisol, interleukin 1,6, and creatine kinase were evaluated in venous blood. The impulse of force at the ventilatory threshold and at the maximum load was correlated with free testosterone and a total testosterone/cortisol ratio during exercise (p ≤ 0.05) and was negatively correlated with cortisol concentration (p ≤ 0.05) in the first testing session (before training intervention). Values were positively correlated with concentration of total testosterone, free testosterone and total testosterone/cortisol, and free testosterone/cortisol ratios during exercise (p ≤ 0.05) in the second testing session (after training intervention). Biochemical indices of overtraining were correlated with maximum oxygen uptake in each session and with the impulse of force at the ventilatory threshold and the maximum load of exercise. Thus, there is an indirect relationship between maximal aerobic capacity and the impulse of force. The measurement of the impulse of force can become a simple and effective method for evaluating the overall exercise capacity of rowers because of its relationship with indices of the load and changes in hormonal indices of anabolic and catabolic processes during exercise. Therefore, it may constitute a replacement for the traditional laboratory measurement of VO2max in highly qualified rowers and canoeists.


2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
O Somova ◽  
H Ivanova ◽  
N Sotnyk ◽  
K Kovalenko ◽  
I Feskova

Abstract Study question To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) testicular injections on spermogram parameters of men with severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). Summary answer The PRP testicular injections have beneficial effects on spermatogenesis and enhance sperm concentration and motility in infertile men with OAT. What is known already The use of PRP therapy in assisted reproductive technologies is debatable. Despite the recent evidence of its positive effects in promoting endometrial and follicular growth, data from clinical studies are limited. There are only a few papers on the effectiveness of PRP therapy in the treatment of male infertility and sexual dysfunction. In more detail, the influence of PRP on spermatogenesis was carried out only on experimental animals. Although the mechanisms of its action have not yet been clarified, it is assumed that PRP, containing many biologically active molecules, realizes its effect through the tissue regeneration and cell proliferation. Study design, size, duration This prospective study included 68 men (34.6±5.2) years old with severe OAT (≤4 million/ml, motility ≤30%, normal sperm morphology ≤1%) receiving hormonal and antioxidant (AO) therapy during 6 months before in vitro fertilization cycles. 33 of them were injected once with autologous PRP (0.5 ml in each testicle). Spermogram and testosterone level were analyzed before the treatment and in 3, 4 and 6 months after it. Participants/materials, setting, methods Sperm concentration, motility and morphology in ejaculate of 33 men of PRP group were compared with those in the group of 35 men without PRP within 6 months of starting the treatment. Total and free testosterone level were measured in blood serum. PRP was prepared by centrifuging the patient’s own blood in the anticoagulant-containing tubes. The final concentration of platelets in the obtained sample was 950.000 – 1.250 000 cells in 1 ml. Main results and the role of chance 4 months after the PRP injection, sperm concentration and motility increased in 18 of 33 men of the PRP group compared with the baseline (before the treatment) – 4.2 (1.0;6.9) vs 1.4 (0.1;3.4) mln/ml (p &lt; 0.05) and 36.7 (30.6;45.8) vs 17.7 (6.7;28.2) % respectively (p &lt; 0.05).The maximum increase in sperm motility (but not in sperm concentration!) was observed in 24 men in 6 months – 49.6 (39.6;56.4) % (p &lt; 0.05). Percent of morphologically normal spermatozoa in ejaculate slightly increased only in 12 men in that time period from 0-1 % to 1-2%. The total testosterone level was 2.4 times higher than the baseline (31.6±7.2 vs 13.2±4.3 nmol/l, p &lt; 0.05), the free testosterone level was 1.8 times higher (14.5±3.5 vs 7.9±3.0 pgl/ml, p &lt; 0.05). Unlike the PRP group, in the group of men without PRP treatment, the sperm parameters did not changed compared with the baseline in 4 months after the starting hormonal and AO treatment. A significant increase of sperin concentration was observed only in 17 of 35 patients in 6 months. Sperm motility and percent of morphologically normal spermatozoa after the treatment did not differ from the baseline. Changes in the testosterone levels were similar to changes in PRP group. Limitations, reasons for caution Only young and middle-aged men were considered in the study. Large randomized controlled studies are required to confirm the PRP therapy efficacy and safety of f various fertility disorders. There are also no standardized protocols for PRP preparation. Wider implications of the findings PRP therapy may have great potential for the treatment of male infertility and improving spermatogenesis. Optimization of methods of PRP preparation and dosage of testicular injections can enhance reproductive outcomes in assisted reproductive technologies. Trial registration number not applicable


2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
O Somova ◽  
H Ivanova ◽  
N Sotnyk ◽  
K Kovalenko ◽  
I Feskova

Abstract Study question To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) testicular injections on spermogram parameters of men with severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). Summary answer The PRP testicular injections have beneficial effects on spermatogenesis and enhance sperm concentration and motility in infertile men with OAT. What is known already The use of PRP therapy in assisted reproductive technologies is debatable. Despite the recent evidence of its positive effects in promoting endometrial and follicular growth, data from clinical studies are limited. There are only a few papers on the effectiveness of PRP therapy in the treatment of male infertility and sexual dysfunction. In more detail, the influence of PRP on spermatogenesis was carried out only on experimental animals. Although the mechanisms of its action have not yet been clarified, it is assumed that PRP, containing many biologically active molecules, realizes its effect through the tissue regeneration and cell proliferation. Study design, size, duration This prospective study included 68 men (34.6±5.2) years old with severe OAT (≤4 million/ml, motility ≤30%, normal sperm morphology ≤1%) receiving hormonal and antioxidant (AO) therapy during 6 months before in vitro fertilization cycles. 33 of them were injected once with autologous PRP (0.5 ml in each testicle). Spermogram and testosterone level were analyzed before the treatment and in 3, 4 and 6 months after it. Participants/materials, setting, methods: Sperm concentration, motility and morphology in ejaculate of 33 men of PRP group were compared with those in the group of 35 men without PRP within 6 months of starting the treatment. Total and free testosterone level were measured in blood serum. PRP was prepared by centrifuging the patient’s own blood in the anticoagulant-containing tubes. The final concentration of platelets in the obtained sample was 950.000 – 1.250 000 cells in 1 ml. Main results and the role of chance 4 months after the PRP injection, sperm concentration and motility increased in 18 of 33 men of the PRP group compared with the baseline (before the treatment) – 4.2 (1.0; 6.9) vs 1.4 (0.1; 3.4) mln/ml (p &lt; 0.05) and 36.7 (30.6; 45.8) vs 17.7 (6.7; 28.2)% respectively (p &lt; 0.05).The maximum increase in sperm motility (but not in sperm concentration!) was observed in 24 men in 6 months – 49.6 (39.6; 56.4)% (p &lt; 0.05). Percent of morphologically normal spermatozoa in ejaculate slightly increased only in 12 men in that time period from 0–1% to 1–2%. The total testosterone level was 2.4 times higher than the baseline (31.6±7.2 vs 13.2±4.3 nmol/l, p &lt; 0.05), the free testosterone level was 1.8 times higher (14.5±3.5 vs 7.9±3.0 pgl/ml, p &lt; 0.05). Unlike the PRP group, in the group of men without PRP treatment, the sperm parameters did not changed compared with the baseline in 4 months after the starting hormonal and AO treatment. A significant increase of sperin concentration was observed only in 17 of 35 patients in 6 months. Sperm motility and percent of morphologically normal spermatozoa after the treatment did not differ from the baseline. Changes in the testosterone levels were similar to changes in PRP group. Limitations, reasons for caution Only young and middle-aged men were considered in the study. Large randomized controlled studies are required to confirm the PRP therapy efficacy and safety of f various fertility disorders. There are also no standardized protocols for PRP preparation. Wider implications of the findings: PRP therapy may have great potential for the treatment of male infertility and improving spermatogenesis. Optimization of methods of PRP preparation and dosage of testicular injections can enhance reproductive outcomes in assisted reproductive technologies. Trial registration number Not applicable


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