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2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 40-55
Author(s):  
Victor Ya. Porkhomovsky ◽  
◽  
Olga I. Romanova ◽  

The present publication expands the analysis of the Old Testament translations into different languages. This line of studies was initiated by the works of the late French scholar Philippe Cassuto and one of the authors of this publication. The purpose of the article is to look at the strategies applied in translating the Old Testament names of the Supreme Being into Latin (the Vulgate version) and modern Italian. This purpose is two-fold: by doing so, we also expand the data base of the Old Testament terms‘ renditions in different languages. The article provides the full nomenclature of the names of the Supreme God in the Old-Hebrew (Masoretic) text of the Old Testament, concentrates on their semantics and grammatical structure, and explains the contexts of their use. A canonical Russian-language translation is used as a reference base to illustrate the fate of the original names of the God in translation. The widely-accepted English-language translations of the Old Testament are included to provide a broader perspective on translation strategies applied to this particular aspect of the Old Testament texts. The analyzed Latin and six modern Italian-language translations demonstrate a considerable degree of uniformity in translating the names of God. The Latin and the Italian translations apply the philological strategy to translating the Holy Bible (as opposed to another option presented by the typology of the Bible translation – the ideological strategy). Notwithstanding the relative lexical uniformity of the translations, they demonstrate the differences between Catholic and Protestant versions. The analysis of the Italian translations of the Old Testament contributes to the typology of the Bible translation and ultimately makes an input to the general theory of translation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Enrico Petracca

Views of embodied cognition vary in degree of radicalism. The goal of this article is to explore how the range of moderate and radical views of embodied cognition can inform new approaches to rationality. In this exploration, Herbert Simon's bounded rationality is taken for its complete disembodiedness as a reference base against which to measure the increasing embodied content of new approaches to rationality. We use the label “embodied bounded rationality” to explore how moderate embodiment can reform Simon's bounded rationality while, on the opposite side of the embodied spectrum, the label “embodied rationality” is employed to explore how radical embodiment can more deeply transform the idea of what is rational. In between the two poles, the labels “body rationality” and “extended rationality” are introduced to explore how also intermediate embodiment can fruitfully inform the research on rationality.


Author(s):  
Ravi Kumar

Microscopy is a technique for making very small things visible to the unaided eye. An instrument used to make the small things visible to the naked (unaided) eye is called a microscope. Scanning electron microscopy is discussed in light of its principles, advantages, and applications. Comparisons of this system are made with the light microscopic and transmission electron systems. A cross section of pertinent literature on the scanning electron microscope, its development and use, has been integrated into the initial sections to provide a reference base for this general field. A detailed literature view on the use of this system in the field of wood science has also been included.


Author(s):  
Samir Hadj-Miloud ◽  
Kaddour Djili

Background: The main objective of this research is to apply fuzzy logic to four Solonchaks, in order to determine their degree of remoteness or rapprochement with their central taxonomic concept. Therefore, we identify their possible seasonal taxonomic variation on the criteria established by World Reference Base (WRB). Methods: We have studied the seasonal evolution of salinity in a region of Algeria (Case of Rélizane), during two years 2012 and 2013 by applying fuzzy logic on the four soils. Result: The results reveal that the salinity increased during the dry period for all soils and it decreased during the wet period. On the taxonomic level, the application of fuzzy logic on the four soils revealed that the Solonchaks indices (Is) are always significantly higher than those of Calcisols indices (Ic). The four profiles have a similar behavior regarding the variation of Is. Indeed, when the salinity increases the soils come closer to the central taxonomic concept of the Solonchaks. Likewise, when the salinity decreases the soils move away from their central taxonomic concept. Consequently, they approach the central taxonomic concept of Calcisols. Thus, the variation of Isis closely related to the seasonal variation of salinity. Fuzzy logic, exhibited high precision concerning the membership value between soils over time. The application of fuzzy logic for other soil classifications in the world is possible.


Author(s):  
Margarita A. Krivova

The paper considers the dependence of the prevention of erroneous actions of the companys personnel at work on the degree of training. A scheme of safe human actions when a problem situation occurs has been designed, it is used to develop a technology for training safe actions. This scheme allowed creating comprehensive teaching techniques using a simulator based on concept-oriented pedagogical tests and instructions on safe performance of work with the help of standard-oriented pedagogical tests. A mini-alternative methodology is proposed for the development of skills and abilities to ensure safe work. To assess the effectiveness of this training method, an efficiency criterion is proposed. The authors present a concept of training for safe operations, taking into account the risks, and defining the employees responsibilities in case of emergences. The developed organizational structure of the instructions on safe operations with the use of computer technology includes the blocks that characterize the test activity, the reference base, extra materials and tests. The system of safe operation training has been tested at a number of enterprises in the Samara region and received a positive assessment from specialists.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 26-35
Author(s):  
O. A. Kozlova ◽  
A. A. Protasova

Purpose of the research. The purpose of this research is to study the problems of the features of teaching technologies of modern artificial neural networks for carrying out the procedure of unambiguous authentication of students according to a pre-formed reference base of digital biometric characteristics of the authorized users in the field of distance educational technologies.In the modern world, artificial neural networks are successfully used in both applied and scientific fields. The problem of authenticating a human personality, implemented using artificial neural networks, finds practical application in solving problems such as the protection of state and corporate information resources, robotics, access control systems, information retrieval, control systems, etc., and is already beginning to find application in the field of distance educational technologies. In March 2021, the Government of the Russian Federation developed a decree on the basis of which higher educational institutions are allowed to use distance learning technologies. Conducting remotely activities of intermediate and final certification, as well as monitoring the current progress of both distance learning students and full-time and part-time students with a temporary transition to distance learning in a pandemic, the problem of identifying the student’s personality arises in order to achieve unambiguous recognition of the authorized users for the purpose of reliable assessment of learning outcomes, which can be solved using modern technologies of artificial neural networks.Materials and methods. Methods of reviewing scientific literature on the research topic, methods of collecting, structuring and analyzing the information obtained were used as materials and methods.Research results. The results of the study allow us to draw the following conclusions: to solve the problem of authenticating students in distance education systems it is first necessary to form the actual base of biometric characteristics of the authorized users, which will be compared with the biometric data of the identified users, and for the recognition procedure, the neural network must be trained in advance on special trainers datasets. The identification procedure must be repeated several times during a session to ensure that the identity of the authorized user is verified.Conclusion. Realizing the set goal to study the problematics of learning technologies of modern artificial neural networks for carrying out the procedure of unambiguous authentication of students according to a pre-formed reference base of digital biometric characteristics of authorized users in the field of distance learning technologies, and relying on the results obtained in the course of generalization and analysis of existing experience and our own studies, the authors identified two independent stages in the algorithm for the implementation of the task of identifying the student’s personality: the formation of a reference base of digital biometric characteristics of authorized users and user authentication according to the previously formed reference base, and also revealed that when training a neural network, it is necessary to take into account a sufficiently large number of different attributes affecting it. With an insufficient number of training sets (datasets), neural networks begin to perceive errors as reliable information, which, as a result, will lead to the need to retrain neural networks. With a sufficiently large number of training sets (dataset), more versions of dependencies and variability appear, which makes it possible to create rather complex machine learning models of neural networks, in which retraining takes the main place.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 ◽  
Author(s):  
Iris del Carmen Morales-Espinoza ◽  
Carlos Alberto Ortiz-Solorio ◽  
Ma. Del Carmen Gutiérrez-Castorena ◽  
Edgar Vladimir Gutiérrez-Castorena

La Etnoedafología tiene como objeto de estudio que los productores conozcan la naturaleza y capacidad productiva de sus tierras con el enfoque de potenciar su productividad sustentable de cosechas con relación al mercado. El objetivo de la presente investigación es determinar los tipos de uso de la tierra relacionados con las cadenas productivas agropecuarias. La presente investigación se llevó a cabo en el ejido Santa Cruz de Guadalupe, Nombre de Dios, Durango. Los productores fueron entrevistados sobre sus tierras, manejo, rendimientos y conocimiento de cadenas productivas. En cada clase de tierra se excavó un perf il modal representativo y se determinaron en campo y laboratorio sus propiedades edáf icas para su caracterización y clasif icación científ ica con la WRB (World Reference Base versión actualizada, 2015). Los productores reconocen 14 clases de tierras, las cuales se integran en cinco grupos de referencia (Kastañozems, Phaeozems, Calcisols, Solonetz y Regosols). El ejido tiene 48 tipos de uso de la tierra que se describen por las variables de: uso mayor (ganadería, agricultura de riego y de temporal); tipo de productor (propietario o arrendatario); tipos de labranza (convencional, vertical con subsoleo o la combinación de ambas); sistema de cultivos (mono y policultivos y rotaciones), y el producto obtenido. En el ejido se manejan 11 cultivos, de los cuales sólo el maíz-silo y cebada corresponden 100% a las cadenas productivas, dejando a un lado otros productos como frijol, alfalfa. El estudio etnoedafológico permite la integración de conocimientos desde el inicio de la producción a través en los diferentes tipos de uso de la tierra hasta el mercado f inal, y logra identif icar con detalle las articulaciones de las cadenas productivas de la zona de estudio.


2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (6) ◽  
pp. 365-372
Author(s):  
E. A. Sidorova ◽  
O. N. Vaganova ◽  
A. Yu. Slastenin

The article substantiates the necessity of supplementing the existing estimate of the track position in the plan by the difference of adjacent bending arrows with an estimate of deviations from the fixed initial position, which ensures the constancy of the characteristics of a single-radius curve or the components of a multi-radius curve along their entire length. As a fixed initial position of the reference base (base position), it is proposed to accept the design position or the position of the track after the repair performed according to the project, and in the absence of the project, the calculated position obtained using verified programs. The question of determining the values of the deviation of the position of the curves at individual points from the base position and their ranking for different variants of recording the curves is considered. As possible options for surveying are considered Geodetic measurement methods using Cartesian and polar coordinate systems, methods of obtaining information from transformed data from sensors of track measuring cars, as well as the classical method of measuring the arrows of the bend of a curve.The article presents the results of calculating the indicators of the interaction between the track and the rolling stock (frame and horizontal transverse forces, lateral deflections of rails) when modeling the motion of a freight car along curves, the parameters of which were obtained on the basis of analysis of data from experimental sections. The calculation results are correlated with the analyzed data on the presence of deviations from the base position in the curves.


Geoderma ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 384 ◽  
pp. 114819
Author(s):  
Tereza Zádorová ◽  
Jan Skála ◽  
Daniel Žížala ◽  
Aleš Vaněk ◽  
Vít Penížek

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