etiological agents
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Megha Pande ◽  
Suresh Kumar ◽  
Y.K. Soni ◽  
N. Prasad ◽  
N. Chand ◽  

Background: Repeat breeding syndrome (RBS) associated with sub-clinical uterine infection (UI) remains to be a major reproductive problem faced by Indian farmers. Present study documents its diagnosis, prevalent etiological agents, antibiogram pattern and efficacy of the treatment at field level. Methods: Seventy-eight RBS affected bovines were selected. The cervical mucous (CM) was collected for study of its characteristics, white-side test, endometrial cytology, microbial examination and antibiogram. The treatment protocol was developed and the animals’ response to the treatment was assessed. Result: The overall incidence of RBS was found to be 12.9% and the cases associated with uterine infection (RBS/UI+ve) and without uterine infection (RBS/UI-ve) were 44.87% and 55.13%, respectively. The mean scores of CM character, odour, pH and number of polymorphonuclear cells in RBS/UI +ve were 2.09±1.39, 1.14±0.12, 8.49±0.08 and 12.46±0.96, respectively, and differed significantly (P less than 0.05) from RBS/UI-ve cases. The microbial examination revealed the presence of gram negative bacilli, Trueperella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and yeast infection. Antibiogram studies recorded the response of Tetracyclin as best (48.57%) followed by Cephalexin (22.86%), Chloramphenicol (20.0%) and Streptomycin (8.57%). The RBS/UI+ve cases were treated individually, on one-to-one basis, obeying antibiogram. The infection appeared to be considerably controlled and overall success rate was observed in the form of confirmed pregnancy in 71.43% cases. Thus, it was concluded that prompt diagnosis using endometrial cytology and antibiogram guided therapeutic approach may aid for effective management of RBS/UI +ve cases, under field conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Sujit K. Debnath ◽  
Rohit Srivastava

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a contagious virus that spreads exponentially across the world, resulting in serious viral pneumonia. Several companies and researchers have put their tremendous effort into developing novel vaccines or drugs for the complete eradication of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. Bionanotechnology plays a vital role in designing functionalized biocompatible nanoparticulate systems with higher antiviral capabilities. Thus, several nanocarriers have been explored in designing and delivering drugs and vaccines. This problem can be overcome with the intervention of biomaterials or bionanoparticles. The present review describes the comparative analysis of SARS infection and its associated etiological agents. This review also highlighted some nanoparticles that have been explored in the treatment of COVID-19. However, these carriers elicit several problems once they come in contact with biological systems. Often, the body’s immune system treats these nanocarriers as foreign particles and antigens. In contrast, some bionanoparticles are highlighted here with their potential application in SARS-CoV-2. However, bionanoparticles have demonstrated some drawbacks discussed here with the possible outcomes. The scope of bioinspired nanoparticles is also discussed in detail to explore the new era of research. It is highly essential for the effective delivery of these nanoparticles to the target site. For effective management of SARS-CoV-2, different delivery patterns are also discussed here.

Gábor Ternák ◽  
Károly Berényi ◽  
Balázs Németh ◽  
Ágnes Szenczi ◽  
István Kiss

Hematological malignancies are considered the fifth most common cancer in the world. Several risk factors and probable etiological agents have been suspected in the pathomechanism of those malignancies as infections, chemicals, irradiation, etc., and recently, the contribution of the altered gut flora, dysbiosis, was identified also as a possible additional factor to the existing ones. Host, and external factors, like antibiotics, which were identified as a major disruptor of the "normal" gut flora, influence the composition of the microbiome. Considering the several-fold differences in antibiotic consumption patterns and the incidence of hematological malignancies in European countries, the hypothesis was raised that the dominant consumption of certain antibiotic classes might influence the incidence of different hematological malignancies through the modification of gut flora. Comparisons were performed between the average antibiotic consumption databases reported yearly by ECDC (2009-2019) and the incidence rate of Hodkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia (LEU) estimated for 2020 in 30 European countries. Applying Spearman calculations, significant positive correlation has been found between the incidence of HL and tetracycline (J01A) consumption (r = 0.399, p = 0,029), NHL and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.580, p = 0,001), MM and tetracycline (r = 0.492, p = 0.006), penicillin (J01C) (r = 0.366, p = 0.047), narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.574, p = 0.001), while strong, significant negative correlation has been recorded between NHL and cephalosporin (r = -0,460, p = 0,011), and quinolone (r = -0,380, p = 0,038). The incidence of LEU did not show any positive or negative association with any antibiotic classes. It is concluded that certain antibiotic classes, in addition to other putative factors, might promote or inhibit the development of different hematological malignancies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 30-33
I. V. Shipitsyna ◽  
E. V. Osipova

Introduction. To date, a significant number of works have been published devoted to the analysis of the sensitivity of the leading causative agents of osteomyelitis to modern drugs, however, in the available literature there are no data on a comparative analysis of the antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from the osteomyelitis focus from the association and in monoculture. Purpose of the work: to compare the resistance profiles of the leading causative agents of osteomyelitis, depending on the bacterial composition of the focus of infection.Materials and methods. The study included 216 clinical isolates, of which 114 were isolated as part of two-component associations, 102 – in a monoculture from pathological material in patients with chronic osteomyelitis who were treated in the purulent department of National Medical Scientific Centre of Traumatology and Orthopedics n.a. academician G.E. Ilizarov (Kurgan, Russia) from 2018 to 2020. To analyze the resistance profiles, depending on the type of microorganism, modern drugs used in the clinic for the treatment of osteomyelitis were taken into account.Results and its discussion. Effective drugs against P. aeruginosa strains isolated from the association were polymyxin and meropenem, and in monoculture–polymyxin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tobramycin; in relation to strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from the association, it was imipenem, in monoculture – amikacin. S. aureus strains isolated both from the association and in monoculture were highly susceptible to antibacterial drugs.Conclusion. The analysis of the sensitivity of the leading causative agents of osteomyelitis, isolated in monoculture and from the association, to the antibacterial drugs used in the clinic, showed significant differences in the resistance profiles between the groups: for S. aureus strains, 4 antibiotics tested out of 13, for P. aeruginosa strains – 7 out of 13, for K. pneumoniae strains – 12 out of 16. The tested antibacterial drugs were less active against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains isolated from associations. In contrast, the percentage of resistant strains of K. pneumoniae was higher among monocultures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (2) ◽  
pp. 137-147
Mohammad Zakerin Abedin ◽  
Laila Jarin ◽  
Donald James Gomes

An attempt was made to analyze the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for a cytological and biochemical profile to identify etiological agents from children with suspected acute bacterial meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 371 suspected meningitis cases were examined, and the highest bacterial meningitis was found in 52(14.0%) cases in this study. Among a total of 371 samples of CSF, 272(73.3%) were crystal clear, 52(14.0%) were moderately turbid, 47(12.7%) highly turbid. The total leukocyte cell count of the CSF was proportionate to the turbidity. In the case of crystal clear CSF’s, total leukocyte counts (TLC) were normally ranging from <5 to 45 per mm3 with predominant lymphocytes. Moderately turbid fluid showed 46 to 500 cells per mm3 and highly turbid fluid showed from 501 to more than 10,00 cells/mm3. In the latter cases, differential counts demonstrated polymorphonuclear predominance. In addition, about 100% (52 cases) of positive and 12.5% (40/319) of negative cases had CSF protein concentration >100 mg/dL. CSF protein concentration greater than 100 mg/dl and sugar level below 40 mg/dl were considered as suspected bacterial meningitis in this study. Surprisingly, the C-Reactive Protein (CRP) values were found to be >40 mg/dL in both culturally positive and negative cases. Most of meningitis positive cases showed increased total cell counts as well as protein concentration, and decreased serum sugar concentrations. J. Asiat. Soc. Bangladesh, Sci. 47(2): 137-147, December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Zahra Rafat ◽  
Elahe Sasani ◽  
Yahya Salimi ◽  
Samaneh Hajimohammadi ◽  
Mohammad Shenagari ◽  

In HIV-infected pediatrics, oral candidiasis (OC) is a global issue of concern due to its association with dysphagia, malnutrition, and mortality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis are the first to determine the prevalence of OC in HIV-infected pediatrics worldwide. We searched international (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase) databases for studies published between January 2000 to May 2020 reporting the epidemiologic features of OC in HIV-infected pediatrics. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to select eligible studies. Data were extracted and presented according to PRISMA guidelines. The results of the meta-analysis were visualized as a forest plot. Heterogeneity was also analyzed using the I2, and τ2 statistics. The publication bias was evaluated using Egger test. The literature search revealed 1926 studies, of which 34 studies met the eligibility criteria, consisting of 4,474 HIV-infected pediatrics from 12 different countries. The overall prevalence of OC among HIV-infected pediatrics was 23.9% (95% CI 17.3–32.0%), and Candida albicans was the most prevalent etiologic agent. Pseudomembranous candidiasis was the predominant clinical manifestation in HIV-infected pediatrics suffering from OC. Thirty articles involving 4,051 individuals provided data on HIV treatment status. Among the 4,051 individuals, 468 (11.53%) did not receive HIV treatment. The data from 11 articles demonstrated that HIV treatment was significantly associated with a reduction in oral Candida colonization or infection. In contrast, others showed the opposite relationship or did not report any statistical data. A high level of I2 (I2 = 96%, P &lt; 0.01) and τ2 (τ2 = 1.36, P &lt; 0.01) was obtained among studies, which provides evidence of notable heterogeneity between studies. OC is approximately frequent in HIV-positive children. Therefore, efforts should be made to teach dental and non-dental clinicians who care for HIV-infected pediatrics to diagnose and treat this infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Carolina Firacative ◽  
Luciana Trilles ◽  
Wieland Meyer

The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes are the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised people, but also immunocompetent hosts or those with unrecognized risk factors [...]

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Magdalena Florek ◽  
Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal ◽  
Anna Wzorek ◽  
Katarzyna Włodarczyk ◽  
Maja Marynowska ◽  

Fungi belonging to the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex (CNGSC) are etiological agents of serious and not infrequently fatal infections in both humans and animals. Trees are the main ecological niche and source of potential exposition concerning these pathogens. With regard to epidemiology of cryptococcosis, various surveys were performed worldwide, enabling the establishment of a map of distribution and genetic structure of the arboreal population of the CNGSC. However, there are regions, among them Central and Eastern Europe, in which the data are lacking. The present study shows the results of such an environmental study performed in Wrocław, Poland. The CNGSC strains were detected in 2.2% of the tested trees belonging to four genera. The obtained pathogen population consisted exclusively of C. neoformans, represented by both the major molecular type VNI and VNIV. Within the tested group of isolates, resistance to commonly used antimycotics was not found, except for 5-fluorocytosine, in which about 5% of the strains were classified as a non-wild type.

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (12) ◽  
pp. 755-759
Elena Vital`evna Naumkina ◽  
E. N. Kravchenko ◽  
L. V. Kuklina

Serogroup B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) are one of the main etiological agents responsible for the occurrence of severe perinatal infections in both postpartum women and newborns. The experience of microbiological diagnostics of infections caused by streptococcus serogroup B (GBS) according to the data of the microbiological laboratory of the perinatal center is generalized. In the study of biomaterial from patients, the proportion of positive cultures of Streptococcus agalactiae was 2.2% in cervical samples, 8.8% in vaginal contents, 6.6%; 2.8% and 0.7% in amniotic fluid, placenta and urine, respectively. In 57% of cases, GBS was released at a concentration of more than 5 lg / ml and in 73% of cases as part of polymicrobial associations with other opportunistic microorganisms. In the biomaterial from newborns, GBS was found in 2.5% of positive findings in blood samples, 4.6% in tracheobronchial lavages and 2.7% in detachable skin of the armpit when taking material immediately after childbirth and 1, 1% and 0.7%, respectively, during examination in the second stage of nursing. 5 cases of GBS isolation in newborns ended in early neonatal mortality with definitive diagnoses of congenital pneumonia and IUI of newborns, while there was only partial coincidence of the results of microbiological studies of the genital tract of the mother and biomaterials from the newborn. Relatively frequent findings of GBS in newborns of the high-risk group in intensive care unit indicate intrauterine infection with this pathogen. The examination of smears from the cervical canal is not informative in relation toGBS infection in comparison with the examination of the vaginal contents and recto-vaginal smears. The results of the introduction of microbiological screening and its effectiveness in real practice to prevent the development of early and late forms of GBS infections in newborns require further analysis.

Dariusz Chojeta ◽  
Iwona Smarz-Widelska ◽  
Malgorzata M. Koziol

Abstract Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of infection in both hospitalized and outpatient settings. The etiology is mostly bacterial, and the typical causative agent is uropathogenic Escherichia coli. There is a noticeable increase in drug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the study was retrospective analyses of etiological agents of UTI and their antibiotic resistance patterns in Nephrology Unit patients. Material and methods. An infection was diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms and positive results of urine culture, carried out over 26 months. The clinical material was tested by using the VITEK system, the drug susceptibility of the emerged pathogens was identified. Results. The most common etiological agents of UTI were Gram-negative rods: Escherichia coli (51.23%), Klebsiella spp. (19.3%) and Proteus spp. (13.68%). The analysis of drug resistance profiles of these pathogens showed a high percentage of strains resistant to broad-spectrum penicillins and fluoroquinolones. At the same time, it seems that E. coli isolates presented the most favorable pattern of drug susceptibility in this comparison. Conclusions. The alarming tendency of increasing drug resistance among pathogens causing UTIs to antibiotics such as penicillins or fluoroquinolones prompts a careful choice of drugs in empirical therapies. The most appropriate practice in this regard seems to be meticulous control of nosocomial infections and making therapeutic decisions based on the knowledge of local microbiological data.

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