cultivation technique
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2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012033
N Pramayudi ◽  
D Bakti ◽  
M C Tobing ◽  

Abstract The mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus is one of the important insect pests in papaya (Carica papaya L.). The high potential for damage caused by this pest poses a threat to the production of papaya in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of P. marginatus attack on papaya by observing variables such as plant varieties, planting seasons and cultivation methods. The area of observation plots was about 2.000 m2. The cultivation technique applied was monoculture with a spacing of 2.5 m x 2.5 m. Thirty plots of plants were collected from each plot of plants using diagonal sampling technique. The total number of leaves and the number of leaves attacked were recorded. Damage intensity was determined based on the category: no attack (score 0), mild 1-25% (score 1), moderate 26-50% (score 2), severe 51-75% (score 3), and very severe 76-100% (score 4). The attack intensity was higher in the dry season than rainy season. The results show that attack was higher in the dry season that rainy season. The intensity of the attack was also higher in Thai varieties both in the rainy and dry seasons. More intensive pest control shall be applied in the dry season and in the introduced varieties.

Amrit Sharma ◽  
Shaurav Sharma ◽  
Pankaj Kumar Yadav ◽  
Bibek Sodari

Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) is an alternative cultivation technique to the conventional Transplanted Rice (TPR). In this method, seeds are directly sown to the field without the necessity of nursery raising and transplanting. DSR can generally be divided into dry-DSR (sowing dry seeds in dry soil), wet-DSR (sowing pre-germinated seeds in moist soil) and water-seeding (sowing dry or pre-germinated seeds in standing water). This helps in saving water alongside the labour and results in early harvest due to quick crop establishment. DSR is proved to be sustainable and eco-friendly since it emits less methane than in TPR. However, there are few constraints associated with DSR such as weed infestation, crop lodging and nutrient loss. If these major issues are fixed, DSR can result in greater economic returns as compared to TPR. In absence of puddling, the soil structure can be maintained which leads to greater yields of succeeding crops. This technique has been successfully practiced in many countries like Srilanka, Malaysia and USA. In developing nations like Nepal, irrigation and labour constraints can be tackled by adopting direct-seeding for rice cultivation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 538-542
Natalia Protopopova ◽  
Kseniia Krylova ◽  
Elena Druzhinina ◽  
N Boldonova ◽  
Albina Labygina ◽  

The article provides an analysis of clinical, anamnestic and laboratory parameters for patients of young reproductive age who participated in IVF programs and have cryopreserved embryos. The main reasons for embryo cryopreservation were prevention of OHSS, "thin" endometrium and "previous IVF failures." It has been found that the patients from the group of transfer cancellation due to prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation had a higher ovarian reserve, a larger number of eggs, fresh and frozen embryos, and shorter shelf life of frozen embryos. All embryos were of the best quality (corresponding to the day of cultivation); the “post-thaw cultivation” technique was applied. During stimulation, lower amounts of gonadotropins were used. Patients with thin endometrium and previous IVF failures demonstrated slow growth of follicles, which required a higher course dose of gonadotropins with the addition of LH-containing preparations. Regardless of the group, in most cases, frozen/thawed embryos were transferred at the blastocyst stage (Day 5). The pregnancy rate was high in patients at risk of OHSS and with thin endometrium (48.6%, 48.0%). Patients with IVF failures had a lower pregnancy rate; this is due to endometrial pathology in the medical history, a smaller number of antral follicles, oocytes, fresh and frozen embryos, and longer shelf life of frozen embryos.

Miguel Ángel Velázquez Carmona ◽  
Raquel Méndez-Arenas ◽  
Cintya Valerio Cárdenas ◽  
Patricia De la Cruz-Burelo ◽  
María L. Silíceo-Rodríguez

Objective: To produce Serrano peppers using a new cultivation technique that mixes the best of hydroponic cultivation and traditional cultivation. Design/methodology/approach: We set up a growing system where the Serrano pepper grew from seedling to its full-fledged state, in a growbag containing sand (as support material), potassium polyacrylate (as water retention material), and a nutrient solution for vegetable gardens, under greenhouse conditions. The humidity level of the growbag is controlled by adding as much water with nutrient solution as needed. This technique has generated 100% harvestable plants (total: 20 plants); more than 90% of the water can be saved in comparison to regular and hydroponic cultivation. Results: Once the harvest began, at least 22.857 kg of Serrano pepper were obtained in 3 m2 of soil in a system with a pyramidal structure in which the 20 plants were placed. If we extrapolated this data, approximately 93,000 kg of Serrano pepper could be harvested from a 1 ha system. Study Limitations/implications: This technique tries to tackle the water access limitations that may exist in some areas of Mexico. However, it does not mitigate the initial costs of a greenhouse system. Nevertheless, this technique can be reused up to 10 times without requiring maintenance. Findings/conclusions: Experience has shown that hydroponic crops are truly profitable, despite their vast water requirements, which is precisely what prevents their global expansion. However, our modification of this method saves more than 90% of the water, using potassium polyacrylate as a retention agent and sand as a support material. Therefore, this technique could be implemented even in places where water is scarce

Я.Д. Фандеева ◽  
Н.В. Федосова

Использующаяся на сегодняшний день в хозяйствах Магаданской области система кормопроизводства не покрывает потребностей животноводческого комплекса в полной мере и в большинстве случаев ограничивается выращиванием силосных культур, корнеплодов и однолетних трав, в частности овса. Посевы однолетних кормовых трав позволяют получать в благоприятные по погодным условиям периоды довольно высокие урожаи, но отличаются крайне нестабильной продуктивностью по годам, что исключает их использование как основу для развития системы регионального кормопроизводства. В статье приводится анализ результатов многолетних исследований, проводимых в ФГБНУ «Магаданский НИИСХ», по разработке адаптивных технологий кормопроизводства аборигенных многолетних трав и формированию на их основе устойчивых, продуктивных и долголетних лугов. В основу региональной практики вошли пять видов дикорастущих многолетних злаковых трав: арктагростис широколистный (Arctagrostis latifolia (R. Brown) Griseb.), бекмания восточная (Beckmannia syzigachne (Steudal) Fern.), лисохвост тростниковый (Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. (A. ventricosus Pers.), колосняк мягкий (Leymus mollis (Trinius) Hara), арктомятлик высокий (Arctopoa altus). Характерной особенностью этих видов, наряду с высокими качественными и количественными показателями продуктивности, является их приспособленность к суровым условиям Севера. Использование аборигенных трав в системе местного кормопроизводства позволит значительно сократить материальные затраты на регулярную закупку кормов и семян кормовых трав, увеличить экологический ареал эффективного луговодства за счёт их высокой способности к адаптации в сложных местных условиях на фоне снижения антропогенного воздействия на окружающую среду. Формирование лугов на основе долголетних, нередко длиннокорневищных северных экотипов многолетних трав, создающих плотную дернину, с густым высоким травостоем с преобладанием при регулярной подкормке вегетативных побегов, наряду с обеспечением отрасли животноводства полноценными кормами собственного производства позволит защитить почву от деградации, воздействия водной и ветровой эрозии. Currently the sphere of forage production doesn’t fully satisfy the needs of animal husbandry in the Magadan region and mostly provides silage, root crops and perennial grasses such as oats. Annual crops produce rather high yields but only under favorable conditions. This article reports on the long-term investigation conducted at the Magadan Agricultural Research Institute. The aim was to develop a cultivation technique for wild perennial grasses to obtain stable and high-productive swards. Five wild gramineous were used in the experiment: Arctagrostis latifolia (R. Brown) Griseb., Beckmannia syzigachne (Steudal) Fern., Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. (A. ventricosus Pers.), Leymus mollis (Trinius) Hara, Arctopoa altus. Along with high forage quality and productivity these species are well adapted to severe northern environment. Introduction of wild grasses into local forage production system is able to reduce significantly purchase costs for forage and seeds, broaden the area of grassland management due to their high resistance, and decrease anthropogenic impact on the environment. Northern ecotypes of perennial grasses often have long roots forming dense sod layers and tall swards with high proportion of vegetative shoots under regular fertilization. These qualities can protect soil from degradation as well as water and wind erosions.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 264
Luca Ricci ◽  
Valeria Agostino ◽  
Debora Fino ◽  
Angela Re

Gas fermentation by acetogens of the genus Clostridium is an attractive technology since it affords the production of biochemicals and biofuels from industrial waste gases while contributing to mitigate the carbon cycle alterations. The acetogenic model organisms C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum have already been used in large scale industrial fermentations. Among the natural products, ethanol production has already attained industrial scale. However, some acetogens are also natural producers of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), a platform chemical of relevant industrial interest. Here, we have developed a lab-scale screening campaign with the aim of enhancing 2,3-BDO production. Our study generated comparable data on growth and 2,3-BDO production of several batch gas fermentations using C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum grown on different gas substrates of primary applicative interest (CO2 · H2, CO · CO2, syngas) and on different media featuring different compositions as regards trace metals, mineral elements and vitamins. CO · CO2 fermentation was found to be preferable for the production of 2,3-BDO, and a fair comparison of the strains cultivated in comparable conditions revealed that C. ljungdahlii produced 3.43-fold higher titer of 2,3-BDO compared to C. autoethanogenum. Screening of different medium compositions revealed that mineral elements, Zinc and Iron exert a major positive influence on 2,3-BDO titer and productivity. Moreover, the CO2 influence on CO fermentation was explored by characterizing C. ljungdahlii response with respect to different gas ratios in the CO · CO2 gas mixtures. The screening strategies undertaken in this study led to the production of 2.03 ± 0.05 g/L of 2,3-BDO, which is unprecedented in serum bottle experiments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 192
Rommy Andhika Laksono

The demand for lettuce in Indonesia still cannot be fulfilled because lettuce production in Indonesia is still very low according to data from the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency in 2019. To meet the needs of lettuce at the request of the community and the market, an intensive cultivation technique is needed, namely the aeroponic system. The purpose of this study was to get the right timing of nutrition to produce the highest production of green lettuce plants in an aeroponic system. The research method used is an experimental method with the environmental design used is a Single Factor Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of 6 treatments repeated 4 times. The treatments consisted of t1 (5 minutes off, 30 seconds on), t2 (10 minutes off, 30 seconds on), t3 (15 minutes off, 30 seconds on), t4 (20 minutes off, 30 seconds on), t5 (25 minutes off, 30 seconds on), t6 (non-stop). Analysis of the data used is the F test at 5% level and to find out which treatment is the best, DMRT further test is carried out at the 5% level. The results showed that the t6 treatment gave better growth and yields than other treatments. At the age of 42 days after observation, the average plant height was 29.4 cm; the average number of leaves 15.22; the average diameter of the rods is 14.11 mm; mean root length 10.34 cm; 2003 mean leaf area, 59 cm2 ; and the average fresh weight was 670.1 g.

Evgeny Alekseevich Melchenkov ◽  
Aleksey Vladimirovich Myshkin ◽  
Vera Veniaminovna Kalmykova ◽  
Aleksandr Pavlovich Vorob’yov ◽  
Arthur Alekseevich Archibasov

With the development of commercial sturgeon breeding, creating hybrid forms of sturgeon fish in order to obtain a larger volume of gourmet marketable products is of increasing interest to fish farmers. The choice of objects for creating hybrid forms for commercial cultivation depends on the conditions and biotechnologies of intensive fish culture. One of the widely used technologies that can several times reduce the time for growing objects and receive viable juveniles and marketable products year-round is the technology using recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). With this cultivation technique, the advantage is given to species with high adaptive capabilities and growth intensity. The most popular objects for hybridization and creation of hybrid forms are beluga, sterlet, Siberian and Russian sturgeon, etc. Beluga is the largest representative of the sturgeon family. It reaches commodity weight (3–5 kg) against the background of natural temperatures within 2–3 years. The Sterlet is a pure freshwater form. It is an excellent object for cross-breeding with other sturgeon species, in particular with beluga to obtain a bester hybrid. The Siberian sturgeon grows most intensively at a temperature of 15–25°C, however, the growth persists at lower temperatures (1–10°C). The Russian sturgeon in artificial conditions reaches a marketable weight of 1.5–3.0 kg in the second-third years of cultivation. In order to facilitate the orientation of fish farms, fish farmers engaged in the production of commercial products, the article discusses the creation of hybrid forms of sturgeon fish in domestic and foreign aquaculture, provides their brief fish-breeding and biological characteristics when grown in fish farms of various types. Knowledge of the fish-breeding and biological characteristics of sturgeon fish species hybrids when grown in specific conditions will make it possible to successfully introduce them into the practice of commercial cultivation. English version of the article is available at URL:

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 093-101
Serge Kouadio N'GONIAN ◽  
Auguste-Denise Mambé BOYE ◽  
Junior Kévin Borel AKA

In Côte d'Ivoire, cassava production is carried out by small-scale planters who use very few technical means and local cultivars that are not very productive and susceptible to diseases. The objective of this study is to maximize the recovery of cassava cuttings after planting. To this end, ten substrates of single, double, triple and quadruple composition were made from soil supplemented with sawdust, chicken droppings, carbonized rice husks and NPK 10 18 18 to regenerate dehydrated cassava Bocou 1 and Yavo mini-cuttings. The recovery rate of the mini-cuttings was evaluated as well as the agro-morphological parameters of the seedlings for 21 days. Results showed that the recovery rate was very high on the carbonized rice husk substrate (86.5% in Bocou 1 and 85.5% in Yavo). In addition, the substrates significantly influenced the growth parameters of the seedlings. Thus, the substrate composed of carbonized chicken-bale soil had the highest number of leaves, with 6 leaves per plant in Bocou 1 and 10 leaves in Yavo, with an average height ranging from 10.99 ± 1.22 (Bocou 1) to 20.23 ± 1.16 (Yavo). The results of this study will help orient the actors of the cassava sector towards a new cultivation technique.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (38) ◽  
Nurfatini Radzlin ◽  
Suhaila Mohd Omar ◽  
Kok Jun Liew ◽  
Kian Mau Goh ◽  
Iffah Izzati Zakaria ◽  

Roseovarius sp. strain PS-C2 is a bacterium that was isolated from Sekinchan Beach in Selangor, Malaysia, using an ex situ cultivation technique. Here, we present a high-quality annotated draft genome of strain PS-C2 and suggest potential applications of this bacterium.

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