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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 273-287
Nikita R.Nikam ◽  
Yogita M. Kolekar ◽  

Some ancient medications were used to make the hair care herbal shampoo powder. Organoglytics, powder characteristics, foam test, and physical evaluation were performed on Tulsi, Shikakai, Heena, Bahera, Amla, Neem, and Brahmi. Existing inspections will assist set standards and assessment criteria, which will undoubtedly aid to standardise the quality and purity of these herbal powder shampoos, due to the selection of drugs once the drugs are used together or jointly. We optimise the formula with the help of the Design of Experiments as per the Quality by Design approach. This paper illustrates broad theoretical as well as practical view of advanced screening design. In addition to the statistical concept‟s regression analysis, parato chart, residual diagnosis, main effect plot, interaction effect plot, design space and multiple response prediction.

2022 ◽  
Alok Behera ◽  
Chandrashekara C P

Abstract A field experiment was laid out on split-plot design with two uneven controls viz. four foliar concentrations of cow urine and jeevamrutha under natural farming which were compared with Organic farming (OF) and Recommended package of practices (RPP) given by UAS, Dharwad. The treatments were replicated thrice. The study revealed that RPP recorded significantly higher grain yield, straw yield, gross return, net return and B:C ratio than OF and natural farming practices. The grain yield reduction in the best treatment (cow urine @ 50 % + jeevamrutha @ 100 %) was 16 % lesser than RPP and 2 % higher than OF. However, the cost of cultivation in natural farming with cow urine @ 50 % + jeevamrutha @ 100 % was lesser to the extent of 6.91 and 30.42 % than RPP and OF. Our study indicates that the irrigated wheat can be grown under natural farming conditions profitably.

Aybegün Ton

The aim of present study was to determine the effects of different ethephon doses on grain yield and yield components of two faba bean cultivars. The experiment was established in 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 cropping season at Research Area of Field Crops Department, Agriculture of Faculty, Cukurova University Adana, Turkey. The field experiment was laid out in randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications on the basis split plot design with cultivars (Luz de Otono and Histal) in main plots and ethephon doses (0, 500, 1000, 1500 g ha-1) in sub plots. Plant height (cm), branches per plant, pods per plant, seeds per plant, seed yield per plant (g), 100 grain weight (g), seed yield (kg ha-1) were investigated. Differences among the cultivars and ethephon applications were significant for seed yield and it varied from 1782 to 3388 kg ha-1 in the mean of the years. Seed yield also decreased with increasing ethephon doses. Seed yield was higher in 2019/2020 (3355 kg ha) than 2020/2021 (1841 kg ha-1) where low rainfed and high temperature. The present results suggested that ethephon applications at inititation of flowering were not useful for seed production of faba bean.

Jurnal Agro ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 199-211
Titin Purnama ◽  
Hendri Hendri ◽  
Jumjunidang Jumjunidang ◽  
D Fatri ◽  
Andre Sparta

Pepaya Merah Delima berpotensi untuk dibudidayakan di lahan rawa lebak. Permasalahan lahan rawa lebak yaitu pH rendah dan ketersediaan hara dalam tanah rendah sehingga perlu diberikan pengapuran dan pemupukan tambahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan dosis kapur, pupuk P dan K terbaik untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan kualitas pepaya Merah Delima. Penelitian dilakukan di lahan rawa lebak TTP Siak, Kecamatan Sai Mandau (BPTP Riau) dari bulan Januari 2018 sampai Desember 2019. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terbagi dengan petak utama yaitu dua taraf dosis kapur (6 dan 9 t ha-1) dan anak petak kombinasi dari tiga taraf dosis pupuk P2O5 (100, 200, 300 g tan-1) dan tiga taraf dosis pupuk K2O (150, 300, 450 g tan-1), setiap perlakuan terdapat tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian kapur dosis 6 t ha-1 dan kombinasi P dan K dosis 300 g tan-1+ 300 g tan-1 berturut-turut, dapat meningkatkan produksi pepaya Merah Delima sampai 51% dengan rata-rata produksi 98,00 kg tan-1, jumlah buah rata-rata 95,45 tan-1, bobot buah 1.031,30 g buah-1, PTT 11,81 oBrix, dan kekerasan buah 55,08 kg cm-2. Pemberian kapur dan tambahan pupuk P dan K efektif untuk memperbaiki sifat lahan rawa lebak sehingga dapat meningkatkan hasil tanaman pepaya Merah Delima. Papaya CV. Merah Delima is potential to be cultivated on tidal swampland. The problems of tidal swampland are low degree of pH and low nutrient availability in the soil, thus it needs additional liming and fertilization. This study aimed to obtain the best dose of lime, also phosphorus and potassium fertilizers to increase the productivity and quality of papaya cv. Merah Delima. The study was conducted at TTP Siak, Sai Mandau district (BPTP Riau) from January 2018 to December 2019. The study used a Split Plot Design with the main plot was two doses of lime (6 and 9 t ha-1) and the subplot was combination of three doses of P2O5 fertilizer (100, 200, 300 g plant-1) and three levels of K2O fertilizer (150, 300, 450 g plant-1), with three replications. The results showed the application of lime at dose of 6 t ha-1 combined by P and  K fertilizer of 300 g plant-1 + 300 g plant-1, respectively, could increase papaya production up to 51%, whereas average production 98.00 kg plant-1, average number of fruits 95.45 plant-1, fruit weight 1,031.30 g fruit-1, TSS 11.81 °Brix, and fruit hardness of 55.08 kg cm-2. Application of lime and additional fertilizer into the tidal swampland are effective to improve its characteristics and able to increase the papaya Merah Delima production.

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
pp. 540-554
Venkataravana Nayaka GV ◽  
Prabhakara Reddy G ◽  
Mahender Kumar R

Shortage of water in rice cultivation is major problem in India. To safeguard and sustain food security in India, it is quite important to increase the productivity of rice under limited water resources. To investigate the performance of rice cultivars under the best method of irrigation and system of cultivation in new condition an experiment was conducted to study the "productivity and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars under different irrigation regimes and systems of cultivation" on clay loam soils of Indian Institute of Rice Research (IIRR), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana during the kharif seasons of 2017 and 2018. The treatment comprised of two irrigation regimes viz., AWD and saturation as main plot treatments, three establishment methods viz., system of rice intensification, drum seeding and TP as subplot treatments and four cultivars namely DRR Dhan 42, DRR Dhan 43, MTU-1010 and NLR-34449 as sub-sub plot treatments summing up to 24 treatment combinations laid out in split-split plot design with three replications. Among the irrigation regimes, AWD irrigation practice recorded higher grain yield (5755, 5952 and 5854 kg ha-1 in 2017, 2018 and pooled means, respectively) than saturation. Among the different systems of cultivation, the SRI recorded significantly higher grain yield (5953, 6129 and 6041 kg ha-1 during 2017, 2018 and in pooled means, respectively) over the TP method. Among the different rice cultivars, DRR Dhan 43 registered remarkably higher grain yield than other cultivars during 2017 and 2018.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 3031-3039

The present experiment was conducted at private farm during 2018/19 and 2019/20 seasons. The investigated area lies within the extremely arid belt, having long hot summer and short warm winter. The main goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on yield components of wheat, using split plot design with three replications. Sowing methods in main plot were broadcasting method, row spacing 10, 15 and 20 cm apart). Nitrogen fertilizer levels in sub plot were 60, 75 and 90 kg N fed-1 (fed = 4200 m-2). The increase percentage due to row spacing at 20 cm apart (M4) compared to broadcasting method (M1) were (23.30 & 26.74%) for spike length; (5.11 & 6.94 %) for 1000 grain weight and (8.02 & 7.74%) for grain yield and according ally (3.07 & 3.08%) for harvest index in both seasons, respectively. Overall, from the present study the sowing method in rows with 20 cm apart and the optimum N fertilizer rate (90 kg fed-1) for durum wheat production in the soils of Qasir, Dakhala oasis on silt loam soil was the best treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 415-429
Elżbieta Szyngiel

The article discusses the film adaptation of Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, which is a reference to Jane Austen’s novel, and the problem of zombie characters as a factor modifying the reality of its original version. The analysis was carried out with reference to the plot design of the film, the way of creating heroes and the costumes within the framework of a costume movie in which the story was embedded. The aim of the article is to identify the causes and consequences of introducing undead characters to the world created by Jane Austen. The reasons for this treatment were the popularity of the zombie motif in popular culture, the tendencies to experiment with the reinterpretation of works considered classic and repeatedly processed earlier into the language of cinema, as well as an attempt to adapt them to the requirements of a contemporary recipient seeking strong impressions. In addition, the world of zombies is a manifestation of the popular aspirations to achieve an economic profit. Consequences of completing the world with the undead epidemic theme include changes in the current social order, brutalization and sexualization of relations between characters, as well as a return to the traditional film narration about women, presented primarily as aesthetic objects and a source of interest for male characters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 85
Sri Minarsih ◽  
Sri Karyaningsih ◽  
Samijan Samijan ◽  
Agus Supriyo ◽  
Yulis Hindarwati ◽  

<p>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa </em>L.) is the most important and strategic food crop in Indonesia, but low productivity in tidal paddy fields is a serious problem that must be overcome. The application of ameliorant would be worthy to increase the growth and yield of rice in tidal paddy fields. The study aimed to investigate the effect of ameliorant application on growth and yield of rice varieties in tidal paddy fields. The study was arranged in a split plot design with five replications. Rice varieties tested were Inpari 34, Dendang, Inpara 9, Inpari 35, and Ciherang as the main plot, and ameliorant types studied were humic acid, gypsum, zeolite, and organic fertilizer as the subplot. The results showed that the use of different rice varieties and amelioran types significantly increased the growth and yield of rice. Inpara 9 produced 7.6 t.ha-1 dry milled grain (DMG) or increased by 33.3% compared to Ciherang variety. Humic acid application at 25 kg ha-1 increased grain yield by 21.3% higher than that without ameliorant treatment. The best treatment to increase the growth and yield of rice in tidal paddy field was a combination of humic acid 25 kg.ha-1 and Inpari 34 which produced the DMG of 8.6 t ha-1 or 41% higher compared to Ciherang without ameliorant.</p>

2021 ◽  
Hesti Lestari Tata ◽  
Hani Sitti Nuroniah ◽  
Diandra Ajeng Ahsania ◽  
Haning Anggunira ◽  
Nurul Hidayati ◽  

In order to facilitate hydrological restoration efforts, initiatives have been conducted to promote tree growth in degraded and rewetted peatlands in Indonesia. For this initiatives to be successful, tree seedlings need to be able to survive flooding episodes, with or without shade. We investigated the survival of different shading and water levels under controlled conditions in a nursery, with artificial rainwater and with peat soils as the medium. The research focused on the fllowing questions (i) whether trees can grow on flooded peat soils; and (ii) which plant traits allow plants to cope with inundation, with or without shade. The four tree species compared ( Shorea balangeran, Cratoxylum arborescens, Nephelium lappaceum, and Durio zibethinus ) include two natural poineer and two farmer-preferred fruit trees. The experiment used as a split-split plot design with 48 treatment combinations and at least 13 tree-level replicates. The study found that S. balangeran and C. arborescens developed adventitious roots to adapt to the inundated conditions. D. zibethinus, S. balangeran and N. lappaceum grew best under moderate (30%) shading levels, while C. arborescens grew best in full sunlight.

2021 ◽  
Vol 117 (4) ◽  
pp. 1
Mohammad-Mehdi SOHANI ◽  
Sadollah HOOSHMAND ◽  
Ali AALAMI ◽  
Habibullah SAMIZADEH

<p class="042abstractstekst">Roots play an important role in wheat grain yield, especially under drought stress conditions. To investigate root characteristics under drought stress conditions in bread wheat, 90 lines F10 obtained from the crossing (‘Yecora Rojo’ × ‘Chinese Spring’) randomly with the parents of the population were examined. The study was conducted in the form of a split-plot design with a randomized complete block base in three conditions including: 1. no stress, 2. application of drought stress at the beginning of the vegetative stage, and 3. application of drought stress at the beginning of the reproductive stage. The results showed, interaction between genotype and condition of drought was significant for all root-related traits, except shallow root dry mass, at the level of 1 % probability. The response of root-related traits to different types of drought stress was very complex. The longest root length, decrease for 13.3 % was during stress at the beginning of the vegetative stage in comparison to non-stress conditions, while the same trait increased for 4.9 % during stress at the beginning of the reproductive stage, comparison to non-stress conditions. The results of principal component analysis under non-stress conditions showed that by considering the distribution of genotypes compared to the first two components, genotypes can be identified that have more yield with the proper root condition and vice versa.</p>

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