conventional heating
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 525
Claudia Feberero ◽  
Cintia Virumbrales ◽  
Carlos Sedano ◽  
Lorena Renedo ◽  
Samuel Suárez-Pantiga ◽  

A straightforward and transition metal-free one-pot protocol to synthesize halobenzo[b]furans has been developed employing simple and easily available starting materials such as O-aryl carbamates and alkynylsulfones. The fine-tuning of the different steps involved was key to achieving a successful one-pot procedure. Initially, a directed ortho-lithiation process, which uses the carbamate as the directed metalation group, was crucial in providing access to O-2-alkynylaryl N,N-diethyl carbamates by a direct alkynylation of the o-lithiated carbamate, with arylsulfonylalkynes as electrophilic reagents. Cyclization of the generated o-alkynylaryl carbamates was successfully accomplished through a strategy involving in situ carbamate alkaline hydrolysis under conventional heating or microwave irradiation, coupled with a subsequent heterocyclization step delivering the desired benzo[b]furans. A wide variety of new halobenzo[b]furans has been synthesized and their utility has been demonstrated by their further transformation.

Karol Jaśkiewicz ◽  
Mateusz Skwarski ◽  
Paweł Kaczyński ◽  
Zbigniew Gronostajski ◽  
Sławomir Polak ◽  

AbstractThe article covers experimental research on the forming of products made of 7075 aluminum alloy. This aluminum alloy grade is characterized by high strength, but due to its low formability in T6 temper, its use in the stamping processes of complex structural elements is limited. The authors have manufactured a U-shaped element at an elevated temperature and determined the optimal parameters of the process. Conventional heating of the sheet and shaping it at the temperature of 100 and 150 °C allowed to obtain a product of high strength similar to the T6 state, above 540 MPa. Due to the excessive springback of the sheet during forming, these products were characterized by a large deviation of the shape geometry, exceeding the allowable values of + / − 1 mm. Only the use of an alternative method of heating the sheet to temperatures of 200 and 240 °C (between plates at 350 °C, heating time 2 min, heating rate 1.8 °C/s) allowed to obtain a product that meets both the strength and geometric requirements. The determined optimal process’ parameters were later transferred to the stamping process of elements of a more complex shape (lower part of the B-pillar). The sheet was heated up and formed in the previously pre-heated tools. In the subsequent series of tests, the heating method and the blank’s temperature were being analyzed. In the case of the foot of the B-pillar, it was necessary to lower the initial blank temperature to 200 °C (heating in a furnace with a temperature of 340 °C, heating speed 0.5 °C/s). The appropriate combination of the process parameters resulted in the satisfactory shape deviation and reaching the product’s strength comparable to the strength of the material in as-delivered T6 temper. Using electron microscopy, it was verified that the structure of the finished product contained particles MgZn2 that strongly strengthen the alloy. The obtained results complement the data on the possibility of using 7075 aluminum alloy to produce energy-absorbing elements of motor vehicles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 84-87
Luthfi Ahmad Muchlashi

This study aims to compare conventional heating with microwave irradiation in order to obtain the optimal method for 3-amino-2-(2-chlorophenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one synthesis. For the compound to be completely synthesised, one needs to carry out much heating for a long period of time. 10 hours are required for the reaction using conventional heating; yet it takes only 5 minutes using microwave with 800 watts of power. It was found in this study that there was an improvement in percent yields of 3-amino-2-(2-chlorophenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one, 87 %  using microwave irradiation compared to 79 % using reflux. Therefore, microwave-assisted method is a quicker, higher yielding method for 3-amino-2-(2-chlorophenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one synthesis.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 209
Rui Miao ◽  
Xiaoou Hu ◽  
Yao Yu ◽  
Qifeng Zhang ◽  
Zhibin Lin ◽  

A thermoelectric module is a device that converts electrical energy into thermal energy through a mechanism known as the Peltier effect. A Peltier device has hot and cold sides/substrates, and heat can be pumped from the cold side to the hot side under a given voltage. By applying it in buildings and attaching it to building envelope components, such as walls, as a heating and cooling device, the heating and cooling requirements can be met by reversing the voltage applied on these two sides/substrates. In this paper, we describe a novel, panelized, ground source, radiant system design for space heating and cooling in buildings by utilizing the Peltier effect. The system is equipped with water pipes that are attached to one side of the panel and connected with a ground loop to exchange heat between the cold/hot sides of the thermoelectric module and the underground region. The ground loop is inserted in boreholes, similar to those used for a vertical closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system, which could be more than a hundred meters deep. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the developed panel system applied in buildings. The results show that: (1) the average cooling Coefficients Of Performance (COP) of the system are low (0.6 or less) even though the ground is used as a heat sink, and thus additional studies are needed to improve it in the future, such as to arrange the thermoelectric modules in cascade and/or develop a new thermoelectric material that has a large Seebeck coefficient; and (2) the developed system using the underground region as the heat source has the potential of meeting heating loads of a building while maintaining at a higher system coefficient of performance (up to ~3.0) for space heating, compared to conventional heating devices, such as furnaces or boilers, especially in a region with mild winters and relatively warm ground.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 177
Francisco Javier Gutiérrez Gutiérrez Ortiz ◽  
Francisco López-Guirao ◽  
Francisco José Jiménez-Espadafor ◽  
José Manuel Benjumea

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a promising technology for the valorization of wet biomass with a high-water content, which has attracted increasing interest. Many experimental studies have been carried out using conventional heating equipment at lab scale, where researchers try to obtain insight into the process. However, heat transfer from the energy source to the fluid stream entering the reactor may be ineffective, so slow heating occurs that produces a series of undesirable reactions, especially char formation and tar formation. This paper reviews the limitations due to different factors affecting heat transfer, such as low Reynolds numbers or laminar flow regimes, unknown real fluid temperature as this is usually measured on the tubing surface, the strong change in physical properties of water from subcritical to supercritical that boosts a deterioration in heat transfer, and the insufficient mixing, among others. In addition, some troubleshooting and new perspectives in the design of efficient and effective devices are described and proposed to enhance heat transfer, which is an essential aspect in the experimental studies of SCWG to move it forward to a larger scale.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Jamal Houssaini ◽  
Mohammed Naciri Bennani ◽  
Hamid Ziyat ◽  
Said Arhzaf ◽  
O. Qabaqous ◽  

The self-condensation reaction of acetone, producing diacetone alcohol (DAA), is of great industrial importance. It was used to study the catalytic activity of Mg-Al catalysts synthesized by the coprecipitation method. For this purpose, we synthesized Mg-Al based hydrotalcite with a molar ratio of 3, obtained either after conventional heating or after microwave irradiation with of 100 W for three minutes. Structural and chemical properties of the obtained catalysts were characterized, using different techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and specific surface area of the catalysts were determined by the methylene blue (MB) adsorption method. Also, these catalysts were tested in the self-condensation reaction of acetone at 273 K in the liquid phase without solvent, a reaction which requires very high catalytic activity. The microwave treatment improves the catalyst activity, and the conversion of acetone to diacetone alcohol increases from 13.2 to 18.3% after 8 h of reaction. Moreover, the microwave-treated hydrotalcite catalyst, calcined at 723 K and rehydrated under a flow of N2, is the most active and gives conversion of acetone of 52% under the same reaction conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Pedro Ferreira-Santos ◽  
Anna Barbara Duca ◽  
Zlatina Genisheva ◽  
Beatriz Nunes Silva ◽  
Filomena De Biasio ◽  

Eggplants contain a multitude of biocompounds with nutritional and/or biological activities. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional, chemical and bioactive value of red eggplant from Rotonda, Italy. Ohmic heating (OH) was compared to conventional heating, as different solvents were used (water, ethanol 30, 50, and 90% and methanol) for biocompounds extraction. Extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and its toxicity was assessed in cells, L929 and Caco-2. The nutritional characterization of Rotonda's eggplant demonstrated that it is rich in carbohydrates (65%), fiber (12.5%), proteins (13%), lipids (7.6%) and minerals. Potassium is the mineral with the highest concentration in the red eggplant (27.24 mg/g). Phenolic composition of the obtained extracts was dependent on the extraction method, as well as on the solvent. The use of OH method increased the extraction of biocompounds, especially when using 50% of ethanol as solvent. The main phenolic compounds found in the extracts of this eggplant variety were ellagic acid, p-coumaricic acid, epicatechin, narginin, taxifolin and kaempferol. Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with the total amounts of phenolics. Red Eggplant extracts showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and S. enterica), however, they did not demonstrate activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The extracts obtained did not show cytotoxic effects in fibroblast and colorectal studied cells. Ohmic heating is a sustainable technology that increases the extraction yield of biocompounds, with reduced energy consumption and the resulting extracts show low toxicity and high biological activity.

Wei Wei ◽  
Zhushan Shao ◽  
Pengju Zhang ◽  
Hongliang Zhang ◽  
Junxi Cheng ◽  

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 8018
Anna Nowicka ◽  
Marcin Zieliński ◽  
Marcin Dębowski ◽  
Magda Dudek

One of the most effective technologies involving the use of lignocellulosic biomass is the production of biofuels, including methane-rich biogas. In order to increase the amount of gas produced, it is necessary to optimize the fermentation process, for example, by substrate pretreatment. The present study aimed to analyze the coupled effects of microwave radiation and the following acids: phosphoric(V) acid (H3PO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and sulfuric(VI) acid (H2SO4), on the destruction of a lignocellulosic complex of maize silage biomass and its susceptibility to anaerobic degradation in the methane fermentation process. The study compared the effects of plant biomass (maize silage) disintegration using microwave and conventional heating; the criterion differentiating experimental variants was the dose of acid used, i.e., 10% H3PO4, 10% HCl, and 10% H2SO4 in doses of 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.40 g/gTS. Microwave heating caused a higher biogas production in the case of all acids tested (HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4). The highest biogas volume, exceeding 1800 L/kgVS, was produced in the variant with HCl used at a dose of 0.4 g/gTS.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2920
Zina T. Alkanan ◽  
Ammar B. Altemimi ◽  
Asaad R. S. Al-Hilphy ◽  
Francesco Cacciola ◽  
Salam A. Ibrahim

Ohmic-vacuum combination heating is a common method used in the food industry as a concentration process. In the present study, an OH-VC combination heating system was developed for producing tomato paste at temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C and pressure of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 bar and electric field of 1.82, 2.73, and 3.64 V/cm using a central composite design. The effects of heating conditions on the quality and sensory evaluation of tomato paste were also evaluated. Each combination of temperature, pressure, and the electric field was quantified for specific energy consumption, energy efficiency, and productivity. A decrease of 35.08% in the amount of acid ascorbic and lycopene content 19.01%, using conventional heating compared to ohmic-vacuum heating under optimized conditions, was attained. The results also highlighted an increase in the amount of HMF (69.79%) and PME (24.33%) using conventional heating compared to ohmic-vacuum heating under optimized conditions. Ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, productivity, energy efficiency was higher than conventional heating; on the other hand, HMF, PME, pH, SEC were lower than conventional heating at the applied OH-VC process. No significant effects between OH-VC and conventional heating on the TSS were observed. In addition, OH-VC heating was highly efficient in the inhibition of bacterial growth. Further, a minor effect on the sensory properties of tomato paste with OH-VC heating compared to the conventional treatment. The obtained results indicate a strong potential for an OH-VC combination heating system as a rapid-heating, high-efficiency alternative for saving electrical energy consumption and preserving nutritional value.

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