The Journal of Engineering Research [TJER]
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240
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1726-6742, 1726-6009

2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Author(s):  
Mazen Abuatayef ◽  
Abedelmajeed Kahail ◽  
Hassan Al-Najjar ◽  
Thaer AbuShbak

Reverse osmosis (RO) technology shows common popularity in the field of water treatment as an advanced stage to eliminate the residual biogenic elements and dissolved impurities after the traditional treatment processes. This article highlights the applicability of using RO membrane technology as a post-treatment stage to treat the discharged effluent from the Gaza wastewater treatment plant. The designed experimental model reveals optimal removal efficiency between 92 and 100% for a number of physical, chemical and biological pollutants. The RO membrane unit demonstrates significant removal efficiency compared to the sand filter where the RO removal efficiency for BOD, TSS, TDS, Fecal Coliform and NO3 were 100, 97.5, 92, 100 and 100%, respectively. The quality of reclaimed wastewater was idealistic where the contents of BOD, Fecal Coliform and NO3 in the permeate were nil, and the concentrations of TDS and TSS were 20 and 296 ppm, respectively. Practically, the results confirm that the wastewater with the reclaimed quality could be used for agricultural activities with no degree of restriction according to FAO’s guidelines water quality for irrigation. According to the Palestinian Standard (PS), the quality of reclaimed wastewater is high, class (A), and it could be used without restrictions to irrigate many crops and for the purposes of groundwater replenishment. Related to energy estimation and cost analysis, the numerical model and the market analysis study demonstrate the energy of 1.23 kWh and total cost, i.e. fixed and energy costs, of 0.58 USD to produce 1 m3 of reclaimed wastewater using the RO membrane in the Gaza Strip over a projected lifespan of 5 years.


2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Author(s):  
Abdulnasir Hossen ◽  
Sarah Qasim

The advancement of telecommunication technologies has provided us with new promising alternatives for remote diagnosis and possible treatment suggestions for patients of diverse health disorders, among which is the ability to identify Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) syndrome by means of Electrocardiograph (ECG) signal analysis. In this paper, the standard spectral bands’ powers and statistical interval-based parameters of the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) signal were considered as a form of features for classifying the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) database for OSA syndrome into 4 different levels. Wavelet packet analysis was applied to obtain and estimate the standard frequency bands of the HRV signal. Further, the single perceptron neural network, the feedforward with back-propagation neural network and the probabilistic neural network have been implemented in the classification task. The classification between normal subjects versus severe OSA patients achieved 95% accuracy with the probabilistic neural network. While the classification between normal subjects versus mild OSA subjects reached accuracy of 95% also. When grouping mild, moderate and severe OSA subjects in one group compared to normal subjects as a second group, the classification with the feedforward network achieved an accuracy of 87.5%. Finally, when classifying subjects directly into one of the four classes (normal or mild or moderate or severe), a 77.5% accuracy was achieved with the feedforward network.


2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Author(s):  
Haiyam Alayan ◽  
Mustafa Mohammed Aljumaily ◽  
Mohammed Abdulhakim Alsaadi ◽  
Mohd Ali Hashim

              The present work investigates the effect of the type of carbon precursor on the adsorptive proficiency of as-prepared carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) for the removal of methylene blue dye (MB) from aqueous media. A comparison study was applied to assess the growth of CNMs from the decomposition of methane (CNMY1) and acetylene (CNMY2) using response surface methodology with central composite design (RSM/CCD). The produced nanomaterials were characterized using FESEM, EDX, TEM, BET surface area, Raman, TGA, FTIR, and zeta potential. The as-prepared adsorbent displayed different morphologies and under the experimental conditions, 10 mg of CNMY1 and CNMY2 was responsible for 97.7 % and 96.80% removal of dye. The maximum adsorptive uptake predicted by Langmuir isotherm was about 250 and 174 mg/g for CNMY1 and CNMY2, respectively. The as-synthesized carbon nanomaterial in this study could be explored as a great potential candidate for dye-bearing wastewater treatment.


2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Mohamed S Saleh ◽  
Chaham Alalouch

The Omani construction industry has been recently witnessing a boosted expansion associated with the notable growth in population and economy. In comparison with its neighboring countries, the construction industry in Oman is criticized for the lack of sustainability practices. Recently, the government and professional bodies have taken proactive actions to promote sustainable construction practices. The Industrialized Building Systems (IBS) could play an important role in the Omani’s construction industry in the future due to its environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, the lack of evidence on the contribution of IBS to the Omani’s construction industry suggests that this approach is not yet at top of stakeholder’s agenda. This paper focuses on the potential contribution of IBS on sustainable construction practices in Oman. Through literature review, a comprehensive list of sustainability factors affecting IBS applications in the Omani construction industry was developed. A stakeholder survey of Omani construction industry including clients, engineers, and contractors was conducted to understand their perception on the importance of these factors. The statistical analysis revealed that the environment-related and the implementation-related factors are more important than the social-related factors. The Economic-related factors were not found to be significantly more important than any other group of factors. Moreover, Construction Time was found to be the most important and the most influential factor among the 62 factors considered in this study. The paper concludes with recommendations to promote and improve applications of Industrialized building system in the Omani construction industry.


2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Author(s):  
Sady A. Tayh ◽  
Rana A. Yousif ◽  
Qais S. Banyhussan

For a long time, bitumen has been utilized as the essential material for asphalt pavement construction. The factors of increasing axle loads, increasing traffic movement, critical climate conditions and many forms failures in construction have steered many researchers to seek some methods to enhance the asphalt binder properties. Even though various types of modifiers have been utilized in strengthening asphalt concrete, fibers have attracted the most attention due to their high and desirable characteristics. It is realized that the good distribution of the modifier in asphalt binder can generate a strong network in the interior structure of the blend, causing bitumen mastic to be more coherent. In this study, a laboratory investigation of the rheological and physical properties of various grades of bitumen modified by two types of fibers was conducted. Three grades of asphalt were used in this study (60-70 penetration grade, 80-100 penetration grade and PG-76 grade) with two types of fibers with different percentages- Cellulose oil palm fiber (COPF) (0.15, 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, and 0.75%) by weight of asphalt and carbon fiber (0.75, 1.25, 1.75, 2.25, and 2.75%) by weight of asphalt. The results showed enhancement in physical performance of the modified bitumen in terms of the decrease in penetration values, as well as a rise in the softening point and viscosity values. The fibers’ modified asphalt binders showed improved rheological properties and can raise the grade of asphalt depending on the base asphalt type.


2019 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 77
Author(s):  
M Mohammadzaheri ◽  
Reza Tafreshi ◽  
Zurwa Khan ◽  
Hamidreza Ziaiefar ◽  
Mojataba Ghodsi ◽  
...  

This paper initially reviews existing empirical models which predict head or pressure increase of two-phase petroleum fluids in electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), then, proposes an alternative model, a fully connected cascade (FCC in short) artificial neural network to serve the same purpose. Empirical models of ESP are extensively in use; while analytical models are yet to be vastly employed in practice due to their complexity, reliance on over-simplified assumptions or lack of accuracy. The proposed FCC is trained and cross-validated with the same data used in developing a number of empirical models; however, the developed model presents higher accuracy than the aforementioned empirical models. The mean of absolute prediction error of the FCC for the experimental data not used in its training, is 68% less than the most accurate existing empirical model.


2019 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 87
Author(s):  
M.H. Albadi ◽  
H.M. Soliman ◽  
M Al-Maamari ◽  
A Al-Kasbi

The use of power system stabilizers (PSSs) to damp power system swing mode oscillations is of extreme practical importance. This manuscript presents an approach to the stabilization of a single machine infinite bus system (SMIB). The proposed control is based on the notch-filter approach to cancel the poles near to the imaginary axes. The approach is based on the root locus method. Application to Barka II power station connected to the main interconnected system of Oman is presented. The peak load at summer is considered as the system is near to instability. The Barka SMIB is modeled as a fourth order non-linear system. A linearized model is then obtained using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results validate the proposed design for the PSS.


2019 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 103
Author(s):  
E.S.A. Bayoumi ◽  
A.G. Asran ◽  
M.A. Eliwa ◽  
M.A. Alkersh

This paper investigates the effects of construction errors during the implementation of reinforced concrete T-beams. These errors are classified into two main sections. The first focuses on the position and ratio of reinforcing bars, while the other is related to the concrete strength.  A total of ten specimens of T-beams were tested to assess the effect of the possible defects in the construction sites, viz. impact of misplacement of slab reinforcement, irregular arrangement of slab reinforcement, the change in bar diameter of slab reinforcement and the effect of casting method of concrete on the structural behavior of T-beam sections. The results indicated that the faulty placement of slab reinforcement leads to a lower bending moment capacity of the slab (brittle behavior) and the steel strain of slab decreases as the height of slab reinforcement decreases. The irregularity of the reinforcing bars in concrete slab affects the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab. Also, it was found out that well-arranged distribution of reinforcement improves the ductile behavior of the slab and reduces the corresponding deflections.


2019 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 115
Author(s):  
Khalid Alzebdeh ◽  
M. Al-Siyabi ◽  
Ali Al-Nuaimi ◽  
Mohammad Khadem

This paper reports findings of a study that captures cost estimation practices and techniques prevalent in the construction industry in Oman.  It also identifies the success and risk factors that are encountered in the cost estimation process. Eighty structured questionnaires were distributed to some professionals working in construction projects, selected randomly from large and medium size enterprises across the Sultanate. A response rate of 56% was achieved. The results showed that the unit rate method, the use of historical data and benchmarking are the most common methods used for cost estimation. Success and risk factors as reported by respondents were analyzed and ranked accordingly. The main sources of risk were reported by respondents as “Unclear reading and understanding of specifications”, “Lack of clear documents of the project scope of work”, and “Unavailability of Resources”. This study provides an insight understanding of revealed practices and techniques and globally share the findings with researchers and professionals.


2019 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 130
Author(s):  
Upadhyaya Suhas ◽  
Gumtapure Veershetty

The present work deals with the development of thermodynamic model of low temperature basic Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system and a chevron plate heat exchanger evaporator sub-model using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). Work output is evaluated using the ORC thermodynamic model, while the evaporator sub-model calculates the total surface area of the heat exchanger. Using these mathematical models, the effect of evaporation pressure, expander inlet temperature and pinch point temperature difference (PPTD) on the network output and evaporator cost are studied. In addition to this, the effect of plate spacing and plate width of chevron plate heat exchanger on pressure drop and evaporator cost are analyzed in detail. Finally, thermodynamic and geometric optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm to identify the optimum parameters at which the network output is maximized and pressure drop in the evaporator is minimized. Sensitivity analysis showed that optimum evaporator pressure existed at which network output is maximum. Thermodynamic optimization showed that work output was maximum (5.03 kW) at evaporator pressure of 5.77 bar. No improvement in the work output was seen with increase in PPTD and expander inlet temperature. Increase in plate width and plate spacing led to increase in evaporator cost and decrease in pressure drop.


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