Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
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41
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Published By Journal Of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences And Research

2581-5520

Author(s):  
Priyadarshini Soni ◽  
Lubhan Singh ◽  
Prabhat Singh ◽  
Sokindra Kumar

Today most common psychiatric problem across the world is depression and stress is main source of ailment. According to World health organization, it will be the main cause of morbidity by 2020 in the world. Depression can critically affects the quality of life  as it is characterized by many symptoms like unhappy feeling, lack of interest and pleasure, down energy, inadequacy, regret feeling, slow-down of thoughts or reduction in physical movement, speech can affects, altered appetite or sleep, sad,  and increase the risk of suicide. Human body is inadequate to produce tryptophan which is a crucial amino acid; therefore it must be required from diet. After absorption, L-tryptophan crosses the BBB (Blood brain barrier) by non-specific L-type amino acid transporter and act as precursor to various metabolic pathways in central nervous system (CNS). Kynurenine is an important pathway that is associated with tryptophan (TRP) metabolism, where it develops a lot of metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), anthranilic acid (AA), kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) known as kynurenines. It is already reported previously that disturbance in neuroprotective and neurotoxic metabolites leads to many psychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the role of kynurenine pathway metabolites in depression.   


Author(s):  
Vikas Sharma ◽  
Chandana Majee ◽  
Rahul Kaushik ◽  
Divya Sharma ◽  
Sunita Kumari ◽  
...  

There is another general wellbeing emergencies undermining the world with the rise and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection started in bats and was transmitted to people through yet obscure go-between creatures in Wuhan, Hubei territory, China in December 2019. There are more than 48,15,484 infected cases all around the globe. This can be transmitted from one to another very quickly only by coughing or sneezing or direct contact with infected person. World Health Organization also has stated that there is no future course of this virus is available till now. As a preventive measure the complete stop on outgoings i.e. lockdown is surrendered. The lockdown all over the country or all around the globe is becoming a huge crisis for the economy and of countries the life cycle of the humans. The lockdown has affected all the businesses, works, private sectors as well as government sectors. The impact of lockdown on the pharmaceutical industries can be a great boon if its taken positively. Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV 2, wuhan, transmitted, crisis, lockdown, impact.


Author(s):  
Aruna Pai ◽  
Jvln Seshagiri Rao ◽  
Madhu J Rajendra ◽  
Ashish S Jain

Introduction: The present study aims at evaluating anti oxidant activity and inhibition of topical application of Terminalia chebula cream in ultraviolet –B-induced psoriasis in rats. Materials &Methods: The seeds of Terminalia chebula were dried and powder was extracted with chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and deionized water by cold maceration method. Total phenolic content, total tannin content and total triterpenoid content was determined by different methods. Anti oxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH method and reducing power assay. Cream formulation of the optimized extract was prepared by hot fusion method. Psoriasis was induced by irradiatiating for 30 min at a vertical distance of 20 cm with UV light (385 nm) on the skin. Severity index, hydroxyproline content and epidermal thickness was determined. Results and Discussion: Total Phenol (mg gallic acid/ g) content, Total Tannins (mg catechin/ g) content and  Total triterpenoid (mg ursolic acid/ g) content was found to be significant for water extract.The reducing ability of water extract was always higher than methanol extract at all the concentrations. Conclusion: We concluded that cream containing 0.1% water extract of Terminalia chebula seeds possess antioxidant activity along with potent antipsoriatic activity. Further, application of Terminalia chebula cream resulted in decrease in relative epidermal thickness of animal skin as well as other histopathological features. The present investigation aims at the development of potent phytomedicine for treatment of psoriasis from the Terminalia chebula plant.


Author(s):  
Anchal Srivastava ◽  
Amresh Gupta ◽  
Arpita Singh

A liposome is the drug delivery system which is used for the administration of various types of drugs or active substance(1) are essential for the treatment of various types of disease. A liposome is a very effective drug delivery system to Target the active medicament to an effective part of the body without entrapping or affecting the other body part that's why it is also called the targeted drug delivery system. Liposomes are available in various sizes to the range for treatment to various types of disease as the carrier for targeted the medicament or drug to active site at a predetermined rate & time range, without affecting the other body part for the treatment of a particular disease. they are colloidal spheres of cholesterol non-poisonous surfactants, sphingolipids, glycolipids, long-chain unsaturated fats, and even layer proteins and active atoms or it is also called vesicular system. (2) this review discusses the advantages and disadvantages, various methods of preparation, evaluation, etc.


Author(s):  
Akanksha Gupta ◽  
Abhishek K Tripathi ◽  
Pushpraj S Gupta

Background: Bauhinia variegata Linn. is a native plant of Asia and China. B. variegata is found in tropical regions of the world. It belongs to family Leguminosae. It is used for diarrhea, hemorrhoids, constipation, piles, edema, leprosy, wounds, tumors, etc.  Objective: The objective of the present study was to perform extraction of B. variegata flower and isolation of active constituents from the extract. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extraction of B. variegata flower was performed using the Soxhlet apparatus. The isolation of active constituents from the extract was performed using chromatographic techniques. In column chromatographic studies, n-hexane- [dichloromethane (DCM)] (2:8) was used as an eluting system and further purified through thin layer chromatography (TLC). Compound A and B were isolated through chromatographic techniques, then the molecular formula and characterization of these compounds were carried out with mass and infrared (IR) spectral analysis. Results and Discussion: The percentage yield of B. variegata ethanolic extract (BVE) was found to be 20.8% w/w. The different fractions were F1 having 12.5 grams with n-hexane, F2 (17.1 grams) with CH2Cl2, F3 (21.2 grams) with EtOAc, and F4 (13.4 grams) with EtOH. Compound A and B were isolated from the solvent fractions of n-hexane-DCM (2:8) and EtOAc-DCM (1:9), respectively. The compound A was characterized as 3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one. The compound B was characterized as 3-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one. Conclusion: Thus, B. variegata flowers possess active components that need to identify their biological activities.


Author(s):  
Khalid Akbar ◽  
Taj Mohammad Khaksar

The presence of one or more contaminants (harmful substances) in the atmosphere in a specific quantity, for such duration, which is injurious or tends to be injurious to human health, welfare, animal, or plant life is called air pollution. Air pollutants are of commonly two types, which are produced through natural pollutants; they include dust (crustal material), sea salts, biological material, pollen, spores or plant-animal debris, volcanic eruptions (which release a very large quantity of gases and particles into the atmosphere), periodic forest fires, thunderbolts, wind erosion, and low concentration ozone. Other types of pollutants are produced in human-made (technical) environments, like mobile sources (cars, trucks, airplanes, marine engines, etc.) or point sources (factories, electric power plants, etc.). The high level of air pollution is a big problem all over the world and also in Afghanistan, and all residents of this country are severely exposed to this ever-worsening situation. Air pollution and other extraordinary environmental problems are factors that threaten the livelihood of millions of Afghans, as a study report shows that 60% of Kabul’s residents are exposed to increased levels of harmful toxins, such as, nitrous oxides and sulfur dioxide. According to the State of Global Air report, more than 26,000 afghan deaths could be attributed to pollution in 2007, but United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) documented nearly 3,500 civilian casualties from the war for the same time period, so air pollution is killing more Afghans than war because they burn anything possible to get energy and heat they need. Result of air sampling in major urban centers of Afghanistan shows high amounts of particulate matters (PM), benzo-a-pyrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from vehicle exhaust emission. The highest concentrations were founded in Kabul and Mazar-e-Sharif (13.6 ng/m3 ). The absence of industrial parks, nonconformity of environmental protection rules, especially by industries, urbanization, degradation of fertile lands, deforestation, seasonal winds, drought, internal migration, and low knowledge about pesticides and herbicides use, are factors that boost the severity of air pollution in Afghanistan. In Afghanistan, women are more exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution because they spend more time at home due to their cultural rules; also, women have responsibility for household activities, working in the kitchen to prepare food, they are exposed to poor sanitation and contaminated water supplies, they clean and sweep rooms and yards with inadequate protection equipment, which are significant sources of dust, so they are often exposed to high levels of smoke and dust for long periods.


Author(s):  
Khoshal Janatzai ◽  
Mohammad Rahman Seddiqi

Background: The presence of gall stones in the biliary system, especially in the gallbladder, can cause serious problems. Objective: The aim of the present study was to study the pattern and frequency of acute inflammation of the gall bladder on patientsaged 30 to 80 years in Khost Teaching Hospital in the year 2019.Material and Methods: In this retrospective research, the patients who were suffering from gall bladder inflammation, and all 51 patients who have been referred to the surgical department of Khost Teaching Hospital for gallbladder inflammation in the last year 2019, and their ages are 30 to 80 years old, were involved after taking prior government approvals. Results and Discussion: According to pathology, in this study from a total of 51 patients, 90% of causes were stones for acute inflammation of gall bladder (GB), hydrops type of GB was 4%, and inflammatory calculus cases were 6%. Compared to other surgical cases, GB-inflammation corresponds to 4%. The occurrence of the disease is in the age of 41 to 50 years and is most common in the female gender.We have done for all cases, open surgery, and in four cases, included cholecystectomy common bile duct (CBD) exploration was also done. Complications were rare and occurred as bile leakage and bleeding. That mortality is less. 48 (94%) causes of inflammation were stones and hydrops type, and 3 (6%) causes were without stones. Conclusion: This research shows that gallbladder inflammation is more common in urban areas, and the inflammation of the gallbladder is more common in the presence of stones than in non-stones.


Author(s):  
Abhijit Mohan Kanavaje ◽  
Vipul Ajit Sansare

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, this disease has spread rapidly around the globe. On 11 March 2020, WHO declared Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic and reiterated the call for countries to take immediate actions and scale up the response to treat, detect and reduce transmission to save people’s lives. As of 3 April 2020, according to the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW), a total of 2301 COVID-19 cases (including 55 foreign nationals) have been reported in 29 states/union territories. These include 156 who have been cured/discharged,1 who has migrated, and 56 deaths in India. Considering the potential threat of a pandemic, scientists and physicians have been racing to understand this new virus and the pathophysiology of this disease to uncover possible treatment regimens and discover effective therapeutic agents and vaccines. The objective of this review article was to have a preliminary opinion about the disease, the ways of treatment, and prevention in this early stage of this outbreak.


Author(s):  
Baitullah Abdali ◽  
Khoshal Janatzai

Background: The urinary tract stones include renal (nephrolithiasis), ureter (ureterolithiasis), and urinary bladder stones (cystolithiasis). The knowledge of the mineral composition of the urinary tract stone is important for the treatment, patient education, and to develop preventative strategies. Aim: This study aims to characterize the proportion of different types of urinary tract stones and their chemical composition in Khost province. Material and Methods: A retrospective, the hospital-based study design was used. The stones were analyzed using simple qualitative biochemical tests. A total of 63 patients were included in this study from Sept 2016 to Aug 2019. The stones were checked for the presence of calcium, magnesium, ammonium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid, and cystine. Results: The results obtained showed the incidence of the kidney (48 stones), ureteric (4 stones), urinary bladder (11 stones) at the age group of 18-75 years (mean 56.2). The incidence in men was higher than women, male to female ratio being 3:1. The chemical analysis of overall stones has shown that 88.21% had mixed compositions, and 11.79% presented a unique composition. The majority of stones obtained from women was cystine (70%) and oxalate (72%) stones, whereas the majority of stones in men were that of calcium oxalate (76%) and uric acid (74%) stones. Eight of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, five were pure uric acid, 7 were pure cystine, and 43 were mixed stones. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 32 samples (43 of total), calcium was present in 36 samples, uric acid was seen in 17, phosphate was present in 23, and cysteine was present in 14 stones. Conclusion: This study showed that the most common type of mineral composition found in different urinary stones is calcium oxalate (81%), followed by cystine and uric acid. Further broader and large scale studies are required to assess the mineral base of the urinary tract stones in Afghanistan to develop preventive strategies and promote public awareness about dietary recommendations.


Author(s):  
Royal Patel ◽  
Aarti Tiwari ◽  
Sanjana Chouhan

Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine and inflammatory disorder in women associated with oligo-anovulatory infertility and cardiometabolic disorder. Insulin plays a vital role in PCOS; it is also responsible for regulating the action of ovarian and liver metabolic enzymes and also involved in the production of Androgens. The hyperandrogenism prevalence nearly (70-80%). In PCOS, the target tissue is controlled by sex hormone-binding globulin(SHBG) because this is a type of protein produced by hepatic and tightly bind with testosterone and as well as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol.[3] Currently study reported, associated with rs6259 polymorphism with link SHBG level and PCOS in most Indian women, nearly 3-5%. The PCOS cases associated with isolated functional adrenal hyperandrogenism and the remaining case of PCOS maybe lack clinical evidence of steroids secretory dysfunction. Most of the females are obese in PCOS; the treatment approaches of PCOS are towards improving insulin tolerance reduce the level of androgen and maintain the normal menstrual cycle and regulate proper fertility. Nonpharmacological approaches are also helpful, like proper exercise, weight management, and maintain healthy diets. The etiology is still unclear, not clear, and has no cure. Some studies reported dysregulation of the gut microbiome and played the crucial role played in Pathogenesis in PCOS.


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