Personalized Healthy Anti-COVID Menu Generator Chatbot Based on Prolog

George Pashev

It is a healthy diet that creates conditions for human life, ensuring the optimal functioning of all processes in the body. Of course, a healthy diet cannot be a protection against the penetration of infection into the body, but it is the balanced and full-fledged nature of the diet that creates the conditions for the formation of a timely and adequate immune response. In order to help consumers in getting more balanced and healthy diet, we created a personalized Healthy Menu Generator Chatbot, based on Prolog Knowledge base. The user request is constructed by user in a subset of English Language by using Request Fragments from a list. Cross-translation of the user request and its execution in the Prolog Execution Environment is extensively covered in the paper.

2015 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 685-695 ◽  
King Lam Hui ◽  
Lakshmi Balagopalan ◽  
Lawrence E. Samelson ◽  
Arpita Upadhyaya

T-cells are critical for the adaptive immune response in the body. The binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with antigen on the surface of antigen-presenting cells leads to cell spreading and signaling activation. The underlying mechanism of signaling activation is not completely understood. Although cytoskeletal forces have been implicated in this process, the contribution of different cytoskeletal components and their spatial organization are unknown. Here we use traction force microscopy to measure the forces exerted by Jurkat T-cells during TCR activation. Perturbation experiments reveal that these forces are largely due to actin assembly and dynamics, with myosin contractility contributing to the development of force but not its maintenance. We find that Jurkat T-cells are mechanosensitive, with cytoskeletal forces and signaling dynamics both sensitive to the stiffness of the substrate. Our results delineate the cytoskeletal contributions to interfacial forces exerted by T-cells during activation.

Open Biology ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 190183 ◽  
Jiaqi Tang ◽  
Zhenhua Xu ◽  
Lianfang Huang ◽  
Hui Luo ◽  
Xiao Zhu

In this review, we will summarize model organisms used by scientists in the laboratory, including Escherichia coli , yeast, Arabidopsis thaliana , nematodes, Drosophila , zebrafish, mice and other animals. We focus on the progress in research exploring different types of E. coli in the human body, and the specific molecular mechanisms by which they play a role in humans. First, we discuss the specific transcriptional regulation mechanism of E. coli in cell development, maturation, ageing and longevity, as well as tumorigenesis and development. Then, we discuss how the synthesis of some important substances in cells is regulated and how this affects biological behaviour. Understanding and applying these mechanisms, presumably, can greatly improve the quality of people's lives as well as increase their lifespan. For example, some E. coli can activate certain cells by secreting insulin-like growth factor-1, thus activating the inflammatory response of the body, while other E. coli can inactivate the immune response of the body by secreting toxic factors.

1990 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 72-82 ◽  
Robert Sparks

The relationship between sport and the modern state has been a focus of increased theoretical attention in recent years, particularly with respect to the role of sport in hegemony. At the same time there has been mounting interest in the significance of the body and bodily practices (including sports) as a site of political struggle. Yet, not much work has been done on the connection between these two projects. A monograph written in French and published in 1983 draws together many of these themes but has remained neglected in English-language sport sociology. This paper reviews Le corps programmé and discusses some of the book’s theoretical implications.

1987 ◽  
Vol 252 (3) ◽  
pp. R457-R461
E. Regoeczi

Unlike in the case of some other species, the plasma curve of iodine-labeled antithrombin III (I-AT-III) in rabbits requires fitting with a three-term exponential function for obtaining reliable estimates of the catabolic rate and distribution of I-AT-III among various body compartments (Carlson, Atencio, and Simon. J. Clin. Invest. 74: 191-199, 1984). To decide whether this phenomenon is referable to the host or the protein, the behavior of rabbit and human I-AT-III was comparatively analyzed in rabbits. Data obtained with rabbit I-AT-III confirmed the findings by Carlson and co-workers. Human I-AT-III assumed a distribution that closely paralleled that of homologous I-AT-III, thus suggesting that the pattern of distribution is determined by the host species rather than its AT-III. Rabbits metabolized human I-AT-III 1.61 times faster than homologous I-AT-III by an unknown mechanism not involving immune response; a facet that may prove useful for the identification of the sites of catabolism of AT-III. The exponent of the body weight was calculated for the relationship between species size and AT-III turnover. A value of 0.5 was obtained that is distinctly lower than the exponents found earlier for some other plasma proteins.

2014 ◽  
Vol 62 (3) ◽  
pp. 348-361 ◽  
József Szabó ◽  
Emese Andrásofszky ◽  
Tamás Tuboly ◽  
András Bersényi ◽  
Andrea Weisz ◽  

The objective of this study was designed to test whether supplementation of the diet with arginine (Arg) or glutamine (Gln) or their combination influences the production, organ weights and humoral immune response of broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 6 treatment groups: control, Arg-0.5%, Arg-1%, Gln-0.5%, Gln-1% and Arg-0.5%+Gln-0.5%. Drinking water and feed were provided ad libitum. On day 18 of the experiment 50% of chickens in each treatment group were immunised with bovine serum albumin. Ten and 21 days after immunisation blood samples were collected to determine the anti-albumin IgY titre, interleukin 6 (IL6) and interferon gamma (IFNG) and to measure the weight of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. Arg or Gln supplementation of the diets influenced neither the production nor the organ weights until 18 days of age. Between 18 and 39 days of age both Arg (0.5% and 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 3.7%, 6.3% and 4.9%, respectively, while Gln-1% worsened it by 15%. Immunisation slightly (−0.79%) depressed the body weight gain of broilers fed the control diet, which was significantly improved by both Arg (0.5 or 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation. Immunisation increased the weight of the spleen, bursa and thymus and decreased that of the liver. Supplementation with 1% Gln depressed (−5.13%) the body weight gain of the immunised chickens but strongly stimulated the immune response. Supplementations with Arg and Gln did not influence the IL6 and IFNG level of the blood; however, on day 10 after immunisation these two parameters showed a negative correlation with each other. Regarding production, organ weights and immunity, Arg supplementation should be recommended in the grower phase, while Gln supplementation can be useful in pullets raised for egg production, where a good immune response to vaccinations is an important factor.

Katarzyna Renata Burzawa

The healing effects of horse riding have been known for a long time. These qualities were already recognized in ancient times - Hippocrates believed that riding a horse stimulates the functioning of the body, while Socrates noticed its impact on the exercise of the body and senses. In turn, Avicenna considered horse riding to be an excellent exercise for the body. In the sixteenth century, doctors confirmed the beneficial effects of horse riding, considering it useful for health. In 1750, Francisco Fuller mentioned horse riding in the first study of sports medicine, noticing its impact on the state of mind and human body (Bednarczyk 2015). The horse played a huge role in human life, and the nature of this relationship has changed over the years. The subject of the article focuses on the equestrian sport, which therapeutic effect takes place through the constant dialogue between the rider and the horse. This relationship is manifested in a special relationship of man and animal, which has an emotional character. The phenomenon of this interaction was presented in the Amazon narrative, which through riding and communing with these animals, has found a new dimension of life. The research was embedded in qualitative orientation, which allowed to understand a fragment of the narrator's reality and her experience of everyday life. 

Blood ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 132 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 2943-2943
Idit Sagiv Barfi ◽  
Debra K. Czerwinski ◽  
Tanaya Shree ◽  
Ronald Levy

Abstract In-situ vaccination is a local intervention in which immune enhancing agents are injected locally into one site of tumor, triggering a T cell immune response locally that then travels to attack cancer throughout the body. We have employed a preclinical strategy whereby the same syngeneic tumor is implanted at two separate sites in the body. One tumor is then injected with the test agents and the resulting systemic immune response, if any, is detected by the regression of the distant, untreated tumor. In this test for abscopal therapeutic effects, the combination of unmethylated CG-enriched oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) - a TLR9 ligand - and agonist anti-OX40 antibody has provided impressive results. This combination lead to durable disease control and long-term treatment-free survival in multiple mouse models of cancer. CpG induced myeloid cells to secrete cytokines, which subsequently induced OX40 expression on T cells. Thus, we hypothesized that administration sequence and timing may affect the anti-tumor responses of in-situ vaccination. In order to screen for the best sequence and timing we implanted A20 lymphoma tumors bilaterally in opposite sides of the abdomen of Balb/C mice. After tumors were established, one tumor was injected at the selected sequence and timing with the test agents and the resulting immune response was monitored by the measuring growth of the distant, untreated tumor. As opposed to our usual schedule of three injections, even a single injection of CpG (50µg) and anti-OX40 (8µg) resulted in a fully protective systemic immune response. In addition, the cured animals were protected from re-challenge with the same A20 tumor but not unrelated tumors. Decreasing the dose even further to 10µg CpG and 1µg anti-OX40 partially preserved the therapeutic response with a long-term survival of 60%. Concurrent administration of CpG and anti-OX40 resulted in eradication of both local and distant disease. Sequential administration of CpG followed by anti-OX40 preserved the therapeutic efficacy. However, the opposite order of anti-OX40 followed by CpG significantly attenuated the therapeutic effect. While CpG followed by a 24- or 48-hour-delayed anti-OX40 treatment preserved the therapeutic efficacy, a 72h delay in anti-OX40 administration resulted in reduced therapeutic effect. These data demonstrate the importance of the administration sequence for fully protective anti-tumor immune responses. Our data suggest that the anti-OX40 antibody should be administered at the same time as CpG or with only a slight delay but not in the reverse order. Low-dose radiotherapy (2×2 Gy) is an effective treatment for patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This treatment results in high response rates at the treated site. Since immune infiltrating cells in the tumor microenvironment are essential for in situ vaccination of CpG and anti-OX40 we aimed to assess the effect of adding radiation in our pre-clinical models of lymphoma. We found that the addition of 2x2 Gy radiation did not interfere with the induction of a protective immune response by of CpG and anti-OX40. Given the effectiveness of low dose radiotherapy for local control and its lack of interference with the immune related abscopal response in the pre-clinical model, we are including radiation in our current clinical trials. In addition, we have incorporated our findings in the preclinical model regarding dosing and scheduling of CpG and anti-OX40 antibody to the design of our current in situ vaccination lymphoma clinical trial. Figure. Figure. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

2011 ◽  
Vol 106 (11) ◽  
pp. 796-803 ◽  
Johan Kuiper ◽  
Saskia de Jager

SummaryThe treatment of atherosclerosis is currently based on lipid lowering in combination with anti-inflammatory therapies that slow the progression of atherosclerosis. Still, we are not able to fully inhibit the formation or progression of atherosclerotic lesions. A very effective strategy in other disease pathologies is vaccination, in which the body is challenged with the culprit protein or micro-organism in order to create a highly specific humoral immune-response. Immunisation can typically be divided into active or passive immunisation. Active immunisation occurs naturally when the body is exposed to certain microbes or antigens, but also artificially in the case of vaccination. Exposure to a microbe or antigen will result in the production of (antigen specific) antibodies. Passive immunisation is defined as the transfer of humoral immunity (as a result of antibody transfer). Another mechanism to ensure immune-protection is tolerance induction. Immune tolerance occurs naturally to prevent immune responses to ‘self-antigens’, but can also be induced to non-self antigens. Acquired tolerance to foreign antigens is accompanied by suppression of cellular and/or humoral immune response to the introduced antigen. In its most effective way, vaccination can result in a lifelong protection against the targeted pathology, and therefore the development of an atherosclerosis-specific vaccination is of high importance in the future prevention of atherosclerosis. One of the difficulties in developing effective vaccination strategies for atherosclerosis is the selection of a specific antigen to target. So far vaccination strategies have been based on targeting of lipidantigens, inflammation-derived antigens, and recently cell-based vaccination strategies have been employed; but also the cardiovascular ‘side-effects’ of infection-based vaccines are worthy of our attention. This review describes the current status-quo on classical antibody associated vaccination strategies but also includes promising immunemodulation approaches that may lead to a clinical application.

2020 ◽  
Vol 22 (6) ◽  
pp. 415-427
Ann Anka ◽  
Helen Thacker ◽  
Bridget Penhale

Purpose This exploratory paper aims to examine the literature on the impact of COVID-19 on safeguarding adults practice. Design/methodology/approach A literature search was carried out in recently published articles to locate literature relating to COVID-19 and safeguarding adults in the UK and internationally. This included policy guidance and law, to describe the existing knowledge base, gaps in practice and areas that may require further research. Findings The findings suggest that measures to curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to remote working and virtual safeguarding practice. The findings highlight the need for empirical research into the impact of virtual safeguarding adults assessments and effective ways to support the needs and outcomes of those who may be at risk of or experiencing abuse and neglect while shielding, socially isolating or when working in an environment where social distancing is required. Research limitations/implications The paper is based on a review and analysis of published documents and not on other types of research. Originality/value Little is known about effective safeguarding adults practice in the era of shielding, self-isolation, social distancing and remote working. The paper adds to the body of knowledge in the field.

2015 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 691-695
Baghdad Science Journal

In the present research we the study the deposition of radioactive elements naturally and particularly radioactive radon gas in parts of the body of organisms which are of direct relevance to human life in the city of Baghdad as the samples which were collected from the bones and skin of some kinds of birds and chicken based on the principle that radioactive elements are concentrated always on the bones. We use of this as the exercise detector impact nuclear (CR-39), using the technology Cylindrical diffusion , the results indicated that the largest concentration of radon found in the bone bird Seagull tapered as it was (625 ± 37), and less concentration of radon gas in the chicken bones of Al-kafeel as it was (105 ± 10) as well as in chicken bones of Al-muriad to be reached (110±10) either in the skin reached the highest concentration in the skin of seagulls tapered(610 ± 20) and the lowest value in the skin local chicken as it was (90 ± 9) .

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