scientific validity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Boghuma K. Titanji ◽  
Marta Gwinn ◽  
Vincent C. Marconi ◽  
Yan V. Sun

AbstractDespite significant advances in the treatment and care of people with HIV (PWH), several challenges remain in our understanding of disease pathogenesis to improve patient care. HIV infection can modify the host epigenome and as such can impact disease progression, as well as the molecular processes driving non-AIDS comorbidities in PWH. Epigenetic epidemiologic studies including epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) offer a unique set of tools to expand our understanding of HIV disease and to identify novel strategies applicable to treatment and diagnosis in this patient population. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge from epigenetic epidemiologic studies of PWH, identify the main challenges of this approach, and highlight future directions for the field. Emerging epigenetic epidemiologic studies of PWH can expand our understanding of HIV infection and health outcomes, improve scientific validity through collaboration and replication, and increase the coverage of diverse populations affected by the global HIV pandemic. Through this review, we hope to highlight the potential of EWAS as a tool for HIV research and to engage more investigators to explore its application to important research questions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 13-17
Author(s):  
Reshmi A ◽  
Thara Lakshmi S

The quality control of herbal medicines has become a major concern to health authorities, health care providers and the manufacturing industries at every stage of production. The standardization of raw drugs and formulations with the help of modern analytical tools increase their scope, acceptance and scientific validity. The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines largely depend on their quality. Neelibhringadi keratailam is an excellent hair growth promoting oil widely prescribed and marketed in Kerala. All the ingredients in the formulation are best hair growth promoters. The knowledge of hair products, their mode of action, efficacy and ingredients has become more relevant today. Neelibhringadi keratailam manufactured by GMP certified Ayurvedic companies in Kerala was assessed by evaluating and comparing the physico chemical parameters of market samples of Neelibhringadi keratailam with that of prepared Neelibhringadi keratailam. Physico chemical parameters such as Acid value (AV), Iodine value (IV), Refractive index (RI) Saponification value (SV), Specific gravity (SG), Weight per milliliter, HPTLC, ICP-MS and microbial contamination of market samples were evaluated and compared with those of prepared sample. Neelibhringadi keram was prepared and its physicochemical analysis was done and compared with market samples. Analysis of the market samples showed significant variation in physicochemical analytical parameters, colour and consistency from the prepared samples.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 507-527
Author(s):  
Andrej A. Kibrik

This article presents the Program for the Preservation and Revitalization of the Languages of Russia proposed by the Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences (the Program). The Program is based on knowledge accumulated in linguistics in domains such as linguistic diversity, language endangerment, and language preservation methods. According to a recent assessment, there are 150 to 160 languages of Russia. This number of languages, even though quite high, is manageable for a national language preservation Program. Languages are rapidly becoming extinct worldwide, and Russia is no exception to this trend. The following terms are used to categorize languages according to risk of extinction: safe languages, endangered languages, severely endangered languages, and nearly extinct languages. There are several important humanitarian and scientific reasons for engaging in language preservation. The central idea of the Program is to boost intergenerational language transmission wherever feasible. Various approaches to different language situations are envisaged, including enlightenment campaigns, language nests, and language documentation. Three necessary conditions for language revitalization include engaging local activists, administrative and financial support, and the scientific validity of the methodology. The Programs 12-year roadmap is split into three stages. There are a number of favorable factors making the Program feasible, as well as a number of potential obstacles. We have a historic opportunity to preserve languages spoken in Russia, and this is an opportunity that must be used.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Justine Keathley ◽  
Véronique Garneau ◽  
Daniela Zavala-Mora ◽  
Robyn R. Heister ◽  
Ellie Gauthier ◽  
...  

Background: There is a significant lack of consistency used to determine the scientific validity of nutrigenetic research. The aims of this study were to examine existing frameworks used for determining scientific validity in nutrition and/or genetics and to determine which framework would be most appropriate to evaluate scientific validity in nutrigenetics in the future.Methods: A systematic review (PROSPERO registration: CRD42021261948) was conducted up until July 2021 using Medline, Embase, and Web of Science, with articles screened in duplicate. Gray literature searches were also conducted (June-July 2021), and reference lists of two relevant review articles were screened. Included articles provided the complete methods for a framework that has been used to evaluate scientific validity in nutrition and/or genetics. Articles were excluded if they provided a framework for evaluating health services/systems more broadly. Citing articles of the included articles were then screened in Google Scholar to determine if the framework had been used in nutrition or genetics, or both; frameworks that had not were excluded. Summary tables were piloted in duplicate and revised accordingly prior to synthesizing all included articles. Frameworks were critically appraised for their applicability to nutrigenetic scientific validity assessment using a predetermined categorization matrix, which included key factors deemed important by an expert panel for assessing scientific validity in nutrigenetics.Results: Upon screening 3,931 articles, a total of 49 articles representing 41 total frameworks, were included in the final analysis (19 used in genetics, 9 used in nutrition, and 13 used in both). Factors deemed important for evaluating nutrigenetic evidence related to study design and quality, generalizability, directness, consistency, precision, confounding, effect size, biological plausibility, publication/funding bias, allele and nutrient dose-response, and summary levels of evidence. Frameworks varied in the components of their scientific validity assessment, with most assessing study quality. Consideration of biological plausibility was more common in frameworks used in genetics. Dose-response effects were rarely considered. Two included frameworks incorporated all but one predetermined key factor important for nutrigenetic scientific validity assessment.Discussion/Conclusions: A single existing framework was highlighted as optimal for the rigorous evaluation of scientific validity in nutritional genomics, and minor modifications are proposed to strengthen it further.Systematic Review Registration:https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=261948, PROSPERO [CRD42021261948].


2021 ◽  
pp. 27-37
Author(s):  
Елена Борисовна Андреева

Государственная политика в сфере образования определяет значимость дополнительного образования детей как элемента общей системы выявления и развития талантов и способностей у детей и молодежи. Дополнительное образование, являясь подсистемой общего образования, в региональном контексте рассматривается как открытая вариативная педагогическая система, работающая на достижение общенациональной цели по развитию талантов и самореализации подрастающего поколения. Отвечая вызовам современности, постепенно формируются новые региональные практики управления сферой дополнительного образования, включающие активные горизонтальные и межуровневые связи, интеграцию внеинституциональных поставщиков образовательных услуг в общий содержательный контур, децентрализацию управленческих механизмов. Рассматриваемое как основа «образования в течение жизни» понятие «дополнительное образование детей» приобретает новые смысловые характеристики, включающие требования к содержанию образовательных результатов, преемственность образовательных программ, ориентацию на различные категории обучающихся. Для разрешения противоречия между складывающейся региональной практикой и недостаточной научной обоснованностью используемых подходов требуется переосмысление традиционно применяемых исследователями методологических подходов к управлению сферой дополнительного образования на региональном уровне. Предпринята попытка применения экосистемного подхода к описанию сферы дополнительного образования в условиях конвергентной образовательной среды. The state policy in the field of education actualizes the importance of additional education of children as an element of the overall system for identifying and developing talents and abilities in children and young people. Additional education, being a subsystem of general education, is considered in the regional context as an open variable pedagogical system that works to achieve the national goal of developing talents and self-realization of the younger generation. Responding to the challenges of our time, new regional practices of managing the field of additional education are gradually being formed, including active horizontal and inter-level relations, integration of non-institutional educational service providers into the general content circuit, and decentralization of management mechanisms. Considered as the basis of “long life education”, the concept of “additional education of children” acquires new semantic characteristics, including requirements for the content of educational results, continuity of educational programs, orientation to different categories of students. To resolve the contradiction between the emerging regional practice and the lack of scientific validity of the approaches used, it is necessary to rethink the methodological approaches traditionally used by researchers to manage the field of additional education at the regional level. The article attempts to apply an ecosystem approach to the description of the field of additional education in a convergent educational environment.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Kathryn Magaña

<p>Nineteenth-century literary criticism has mainly focused on lasting scientific advancements, at the expense of a more comprehensive history, when examining the legacy of science in fiction. Yet there were many sciences that were considered plausible during the nineteenth century which have since been disproven and the ideas relegated to the realms of pseudo-science. This thesis examines novels by Bram Stoker, Marie Corelli, Florence Marryat, and Arthur Machen with attention to the scientific supernatural. Throughout this thesis, the term “scientific supernatural” will be used to reference mid- to late nineteenth-century scientific investigations conducted by various types of scientists into the supernatural and the set of phenomena that were the subject of these investigations, regardless of the twenty-first century status of the topics under investigation. Phenomena such as mesmerism, clairvoyance, and Spiritualism, which seem to be supernatural in their interactions with material aspects of the world or the supernatural realm, were studied by scientists with the understanding that they were engaged in scientific pursuits. “Scientific supernatural” is, therefore, intended to represent the scientific inquiries into the supernatural and only the areas of study that were, for a time at least, accepted as scientific by some scientists and often by society at large, evident in scientific periodicals, books, and personal documents, into the fin de siècle. Many supernatural elements in literature at the end of the nineteenth century are representations of phenomena that were being investigated by contemporary scientists and, as such, are represented within fiction as having a claim to scientific validity. This term represents the status of the various phenomena in the historical moment where the supernatural realm seemed to be the next place for science to explore.  This thesis is separated into an introduction and three chapters that discuss different depictions of the scientific supernatural. The Introduction surveys criticism of the scientific supernatural and of science in connection with late nineteenth-century literature to lay a foundation of the historical context for this science and establish a gap in current criticism of science and the fin de siècle novel. Chapter 1 explores two different representations of Spiritualism and the way the authors use science to support the worldviews taught through their fiction. The novels discussed in Chapter 2 deal with observed effects of the supernatural in the material world and the problem of explaining these occurrences when science had no certain explanation for them. Chapter 3 examines fictional depictions of scientific experimentation that represent the author’s hope that scientific evidence of the supernatural will be uncovered. In each case, the authors suggest there is something yet to be discovered which will allow science to explain the supernatural as definitely real and capable of interacting with the material world.  Fictional representations of the scientific supernatural such as those discussed throughout this thesis reveal a wider understanding of science at the fin de siècle than has previously been addressed in literary criticism. As such, this thesis suggests the need for a broader critical understanding of science, and scientific potential, that mirrors that of fin de siècle English conception of science to more fully inform the scientific legacy left in fiction of the time.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Kathryn Magaña

<p>Nineteenth-century literary criticism has mainly focused on lasting scientific advancements, at the expense of a more comprehensive history, when examining the legacy of science in fiction. Yet there were many sciences that were considered plausible during the nineteenth century which have since been disproven and the ideas relegated to the realms of pseudo-science. This thesis examines novels by Bram Stoker, Marie Corelli, Florence Marryat, and Arthur Machen with attention to the scientific supernatural. Throughout this thesis, the term “scientific supernatural” will be used to reference mid- to late nineteenth-century scientific investigations conducted by various types of scientists into the supernatural and the set of phenomena that were the subject of these investigations, regardless of the twenty-first century status of the topics under investigation. Phenomena such as mesmerism, clairvoyance, and Spiritualism, which seem to be supernatural in their interactions with material aspects of the world or the supernatural realm, were studied by scientists with the understanding that they were engaged in scientific pursuits. “Scientific supernatural” is, therefore, intended to represent the scientific inquiries into the supernatural and only the areas of study that were, for a time at least, accepted as scientific by some scientists and often by society at large, evident in scientific periodicals, books, and personal documents, into the fin de siècle. Many supernatural elements in literature at the end of the nineteenth century are representations of phenomena that were being investigated by contemporary scientists and, as such, are represented within fiction as having a claim to scientific validity. This term represents the status of the various phenomena in the historical moment where the supernatural realm seemed to be the next place for science to explore.  This thesis is separated into an introduction and three chapters that discuss different depictions of the scientific supernatural. The Introduction surveys criticism of the scientific supernatural and of science in connection with late nineteenth-century literature to lay a foundation of the historical context for this science and establish a gap in current criticism of science and the fin de siècle novel. Chapter 1 explores two different representations of Spiritualism and the way the authors use science to support the worldviews taught through their fiction. The novels discussed in Chapter 2 deal with observed effects of the supernatural in the material world and the problem of explaining these occurrences when science had no certain explanation for them. Chapter 3 examines fictional depictions of scientific experimentation that represent the author’s hope that scientific evidence of the supernatural will be uncovered. In each case, the authors suggest there is something yet to be discovered which will allow science to explain the supernatural as definitely real and capable of interacting with the material world.  Fictional representations of the scientific supernatural such as those discussed throughout this thesis reveal a wider understanding of science at the fin de siècle than has previously been addressed in literary criticism. As such, this thesis suggests the need for a broader critical understanding of science, and scientific potential, that mirrors that of fin de siècle English conception of science to more fully inform the scientific legacy left in fiction of the time.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 1035-1035
Author(s):  
Ashley Nakagawa ◽  
Shannon Freeman ◽  
Alanna Koopmans ◽  
Chris Ross ◽  
Richard McAloney

Abstract There are two core concepts that make living labs distinguishable: involvement of users as co-creators and evaluation in a real-world setting. Living labs increase the potential for product acceptance and adoption due to testing and tailoring with target users. Currently, there is a lack of a universally accepted guideline for best practices. The objective of this review is to identify the best practices of living labs that can be recognized by the scientific community and followed in future labs. A 5-stage scoping review, following Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) framework, was used to map out the coverage of different aspects of living lab methodology. A systematic search for articles involving living lab framework and older adults published between 2016-2021, was conducted in seven databases. Nine articles were included after review, the majority of which were published in health journals and were from Italy and the United States. An overview of consistent user involvement in the innovation process, real-world testing vs. laboratory testing, and participant scope findings will be shared. Multiple rounds of user feedback, real-world testing, and a small but diverse participant group were the most successful in increasing positive sentiments about the products tested in a living lab environment. The lack of published articles on living lab frameworks studying older adults indicate a gap in the literature. Creating a universally accepted definition for living labs and guidelines for best practices will allow for scientific validity and comparisons of studies and may increase the use and popularity of living labs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Emily Zhang ◽  
Jacqueline Katz

The purpose of this study is to determine whether commonly used visualization techniques, whose results have been solely anecdotal, produce tangible, scientific results in muscular activation and improvement to ballet balances.  Ballet training methods include imagery techniques however, much of this practice is solely based on the experience of the instructor and its results are anecdotal so that there are many gaps between research on imagery and dance instruction. Few published studies focus on the effect of the imagery training for dance students on either motor and nonmotor outcomes (Abraham, 2019). A survey will be administered to ballet instructors to determine the most used visualization cues for stability. Three adolescent female ballet students studying under said instructors will be asked to perform three balances. Surface electromyography data will be taken on the gluteus maximus, hip adductors, and abdominal oblique. The length of balance will also be taken. The dancers will then be exposed to a short visualization session or stimulus of anatomical images with arrows showing bodily adjustments and targeted muscles accompanied by verbal cues developed based on the instructor techniques from the survey. The same balances and data will be taken following the session. Results will be compared to the control data taken prior to the session to reveal whether the visualization training had significant results by determining statistically significant changes in balance times and changes in neuron spikes following spike analysis.  Dancers will also be asked for qualitative feedback.  Subject 2 yielded a significant increase in length of balance in all three types and the most consistent increase in neuron spikes in all of their muscles. This suggests a positive correlation between an increase in the degree of neuron activation or recruitment of those stability muscles and the ability for an individual to balance. This was also supported by increased confidence they felt in their balances after the visualization session. Subject 1 yielded no significant change in balance time before and after the visualization stimulus and the number of neuron spikes decreased after the session. This suggests that decreased activity in the tested muscles for stability resulted in lower balance times. This lack of muscular activation could be attributed to fatigue as reported by the dancer. The rest of the balances yielded significant increases in lengths of balance which were accompanied by increases in neuron spikes in the gluteus maximus and hip adductors for Degage a la Seconde and in the gluteus maximus for Releve en Retire. Subject 3 yielded insignificant changes in balance times for the first two types of balances but produced increases in the number of neuron spikes in most of the tested muscles in all of the balances. Reports from the dancer of being “less wobbly” the unexpected data to be attributed to an allocation to quality of the balance. The results on length of balances, number of neuron spikes, and confidence/reflection feedback obtained by this study supports the scientific validity of commonly-used visualization techniques in ballet by showcasing a higher degree of activation in the targeted stability muscles and longer average balance lengths should ensue following visualization training. Results also suggest that visualization techniques and stimuli for stability are the most effective when applied to learning unfamiliar movements.  Further research could apply such visualization techniques to other movements, and even outside of dance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 699-705
Author(s):  
Andrew Garland ◽  
Kevin Weinfurt ◽  
Jeremy Sugarman

Pragmatic clinical trials are increasingly used to generate knowledge about real-world clinical interventions. However, they involve some distinctive ethical and regulatory challenges. In this article, we examine a set of issues related to incentives and other payments to patients in pragmatic clinical trials. Although many of the ethical concerns related to incentives and payments in explanatory trials pertain to pragmatic clinical trials, the pragmatic features may introduce additional challenges. These include those related to the risk of incentives and payments undermining the scientific validity and social value of pragmatic clinical trials, the sources of data used in pragmatic clinical trials, and when the pragmatic clinical trials are conducted under waivers of consent. Based on our examination of these matters, we offer some preliminary recommendations regarding incentives and payments in pragmatic clinical trials, recognizing that additional data and experiences are needed to refine them.


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