antituberculosis drugs
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 4
Takumi Hoshimaru ◽  
Ryokichi Yagi ◽  
Shinji Kawabata ◽  
Masahiko Wanibuchi

Background: Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Although tuberculous central complications account for 1% of all tuberculosis patients, there are many cases of medical resistance; and early surgical treatment is required for brain abscess. Reports on tuberculous brain abscesses with dural infiltration are rare, and there are no reports on surgical treatment methods. Case Description: An 81-year-old man was presented with the right arm paresis. His recent medical history included a 6-month course of immunosuppressants, and steroids prescribed for ulcerative colitis, and four antituberculosis drugs had been started 2 months before for relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis at an early age. Head T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with administration of gadolinium showed two ring-enhanced lesions in the left precentral gyrus and continuous with the dura mater. Surgery was performed and he was pathologically diagnosed with a tuberculous brain abscess. Since the pathological diagnosis revealed dura mater invasion, we removed the dura mater and reconstructed by periosteum. After the surgery, the symptoms gradually improved, and the abscess and edema improved when viewed on the image. Despite the administration of steroids for ulcerative colitis without antituberculosis drugs, no recurrence was observed for 1 year. Recurrence of tuberculous brain abscess is a major problem in immunosuppressed patients, but it is considered that the relapse could be prevented by removing the dural infiltration. Conclusion: In cases of tuberculous brain abscess with dural infiltration, it is considered that the recurrence can be prevented even in an immunosuppressed state by removing the dura.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Yuqing Wu ◽  
Guangming Xiao ◽  
Peilan Zong ◽  
Guoqiang Jiang ◽  
Yongmei Liao ◽  

Objective. To explore the clinical value of the specific plasma cell detection and specific T lymphocyte detection test in diagnosing hypersensitivity caused by antituberculosis drugs. Methods. A total of 266 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who developed hypersensitivity during the treatment of primary pulmonary tuberculosis in our hospital and 266 patients without hypersensitivity during the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in our hospital were selected as the control group. The admission time is from January 2013 to June 2020. The specific plasma cell test and specific T lymphocyte test were used as the criteria to determine which drugs induced hypersensitivity, and the diagnostic value of these two methods in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity induced by four first-line antituberculosis drugs (isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), rifampicin (RFP), and pyrazinamide (PZA)) was analyzed. Results. The sensitivity of the specific plasma cell test in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity induced by INH, EMB, RFP, and PZA was 63.42%, 51.20%, 47.81%, and 56.37%, respectively, and the specificity was 95.33%, 99.87%, 96.52%, and 99.99%, respectively. The sensitivity of the specific T lymphocyte test in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity induced by INH, EMB, RFP, and PZA was 66.47%, 52.88%, 49.91%, and 58.54%, respectively, and the specificity was 97.28%, 99.99%, 98.38%, and 100.00%, respectively. Conclusion. The specific plasma cell test and specific T lymphocyte test have high specificity in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity caused by antituberculosis drugs, and the specific T lymphocyte test is better than the specific plasma cell test. It is of great significance to guide the clinical application of antituberculosis drugs.

Hui Xia ◽  
Yang Zheng ◽  
Dongxin Liu ◽  
Shengfen Wang ◽  
WenCong He ◽  

China is one of the high-burden countries for multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB). Moxifloxacin is one of the critical antituberculosis drugs for MDR/RR-TB treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (12) ◽  
Bridgette M. Cumming ◽  
Zainab Baig ◽  
Kelvin W. Addicott ◽  
Dongquan Chen ◽  
Adrie J. C. Steyn

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 304-307
Niyati Patel ◽  
Riya Gandhi ◽  
Padmja Dave ◽  
Mahek Mistry

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-36
Yuhui Xu ◽  
Bowen Liang ◽  
Chengcheng Kong ◽  
Zhaogang Sun

Medicinal plants are the chief components in the different oriental formulations in different traditional medical systems worldwide. As a thriving source of medicine, the medicinal plants with antituberculosis (TB) properties inspire the pharmacists to develop new drugs based on their active components or semimetabolites. In the present review, the anti-TB medicinal plants were screened from the scientific literatures, based on the botanical classification and the anti-TB activity. The obtained anti-TB medicinal plants were categorized into three different categories, viz., 159 plants critically examined with a total 335 isolated compounds, 131 plants with their crude extracts showing anti-TB activity, and 27 plants in literature with the prescribed formula by the traditional healers. Our systemic analysis on the medicinal plants can assist the discovery of novel and more efficacious anti-TB drugs.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1005
Valeria V. Kleandrova ◽  
Marcus T. Scotti ◽  
Alejandro Speck-Planche

Tuberculosis remains the most afflicting infectious disease known by humankind, with one quarter of the population estimated to have it in the latent state. Discovering antituberculosis drugs is a challenging, complex, expensive, and time-consuming task. To overcome the substantial costs and accelerate drug discovery and development, drug repurposing has emerged as an attractive alternative to find new applications for “old” drugs and where computational approaches play an essential role by filtering the chemical space. This work reports the first multi-condition model based on quantitative structure–activity relationships and an ensemble of neural networks (mtc-QSAR-EL) for the virtual screening of potential antituberculosis agents able to act as multi-strain inhibitors. The mtc-QSAR-EL model exhibited an accuracy higher than 85%. A physicochemical and fragment-based structural interpretation of this model was provided, and a large dataset of agency-regulated chemicals was virtually screened, with the mtc-QSAR-EL model identifying already proven antituberculosis drugs while proposing chemicals with great potential to be experimentally repurposed as antituberculosis (multi-strain inhibitors) agents. Some of the most promising molecules identified by the mtc-QSAR-EL model as antituberculosis agents were also confirmed by another computational approach, supporting the capabilities of the mtc-QSAR-EL model as an efficient tool for computational drug repurposing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (8) ◽  
pp. e244665
Sahrai Saeed ◽  
Rune Haaverstad ◽  
Bjørn Blomberg ◽  
Øyvind Bleie ◽  
Torbjørn Lunde

A middle-aged man presented to the Department of Medicine of our hospital due to exertional dyspnoea, ascites and peripheral oedema. He was later transferred to the Department of Heart Disease as his echocardiography indicated constrictive pericarditis, confirmed by cardiac MRI and cardiac catheterisation. After a thorough investigation, his constrictive pericarditis was assumed to be caused by tuberculosis. He was treated with antituberculosis therapy followed by successful surgical subtotal pericardiectomy, leading to immediate improvement of haemodynamics, regression of symptoms and recovery of cardiac function. The patient remained stable at 5-year echocardiographic follow-up with no evidence of diastolic dysfunction.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 908
Mohd Khairul Nizam Mazlan ◽  
Mohammad Hafizie Dianel Mohd Tazizi ◽  
Rosliza Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Amirul Asyraf Noh ◽  
Athirah Bakhtiar ◽  

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the microorganism that causes tuberculosis. This infectious disease has been around for centuries, with the earliest record of Mtb around three million years ago. The discovery of the antituberculosis agents in the 20th century has managed to improve the recovery rate and reduce the death rate tremendously. However, the conventional antituberculosis therapy is complicated by the development of resistant strains and adverse drug reactions experienced by the patients. Research has been conducted continuously to discover new, safe, and effective antituberculosis drugs. In the last 50 years, only two molecules were approved despite laborious work and costly research. The repurposing of drugs is also being done with few drugs; antibiotics, particularly, were found to have antituberculosis activity. Besides the discovery work, enhancing the delivery of currently available antituberculosis drugs is also being researched. Targeted drug delivery may be a potentially useful approach to be developed into clinically accepted treatment modalities. Active targeting utilizes a specifically designed targeting agent to deliver a chemically conjugated drug(s) towards Mtb. Passive targeting is very widely explored, with the development of multiple types of nanoparticles from organic and inorganic materials. The nanoparticles will be engulfed by macrophages and this will eliminate the Mtb that is present in the macrophages, or the encapsulated drug may be released at the sites of infections that may be in the form of intra- and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. This article provided an overview on the history of tuberculosis and the currently available treatment options, followed by discussions on the discovery of new antituberculosis drugs and active and passive targeting approaches against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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