phytochemical compounds
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian ◽  
Wenli Sun ◽  
Qi Cheng

Abstract: Nutrition therapy on the basis of traditional medicinal plants and herbs is common in many Asian countries, especially Iran and China. Rheum species, especially rhubarbs, belong to plant medicines recognized in 2500 BC. An online search of the literature was carried out at Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Google scholar, covering all years until April 2021. The following key terms were used, usually in combinations: Rheum species, rhubarb, natural products, pharmaceutical benefits, anthraquinones and anthranone. After performing the literature search, the bibliographies of all articles were checked for cross-references that were not found in the search databases. Articles were selected if they reported any biological effects, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical compounds and botanical description of Rheum species. The most important components of rhubarb are anthraquinones, anthranone, stilbenes, tannins and butyrophenones. Anthraquinones consist of rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin and chrysophanl, and anthranone includes sennosides and rheinosides. The most important health benefits of rhubarb are antioxidant and anticancer activities, antimicrobial activity, wound healing action, hepatoprotective and anti-diabetic effects, and nephroprotective effect, as well as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities. Integration of both traditional pharmaceutical science and modern medicines may promote sustainability, lead to organic life and promote the cultivation of medicinal plants.

Harini R ◽  
Chandramohan A

The escalating problem of obesity has become a cause of great concern in the world today as it leads to adverse effects on human health, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. The major causes of obesity may be attributed to sedentary lifestyle and bad food habits. Conventional modalities to tackle obesity are not free from side-effects. Urgency of a novel, nontoxic means needs to be developed to control obesity. In this study we aim to screen the phytochemical compounds of Camellia Sinensis and evaluate its antiobesity and antioxidant effects. The methanolic extract of Camellia Sinensis was analyzed for its phytochemical screening and assayed for its in-vitro activity against pancreatic lipase, its antioxidant potential and quantitative estimation of flavonoids and phenolics were done. The methanolic extract of Camellia Sinensis strongly inhibited pancreatic lipase by 63% and it also possesses a strong antioxidant effect and there was a significant positive correlation between phenolics, flavonoids and with alkaloid contents. From these results, it could be concluded that methanolic extracts of Camellia Sinensis possesses antipancreatic lipase compounds. It also possesses antioxidant effect. It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from there plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Obesity, Camellia Sinensis, Pancreatic lipase, Antioxidant, Phenolic

2022 ◽  
pp. e978
Fatima Zohra Houari ◽  
Ramazan Erenler ◽  
Sena Bakir ◽  
Esra Capanoglu ◽  
Ahmed Hariri

The present study investigated the chemical profile, toxicity, and anti-anaemic activity of Rubia tinctorum root aqueous extract against phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anaemia. Phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS; acute toxicity test was evaluated by administering a single dose of 2,000 of the extract; anaemia was induced by administration of 40 mg phenylhydrazine by intraperitoneal injection for 2 days. Moreover, the anti-anaemic activity was evaluated by measuring the haematological parameters of rats treated with iron and aqueous extract for 15 days. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis results revealed the presence of 31 phytochemical compounds, among them, citric acid was found as the most abundant. No signs of toxicity or death were recorded, indicating that the LD50 of R. tinctorum root extract is higher than 2,000 Furthermore, the aqueous extract increased red blood cell levels by 69.82 and 71.67 % in the groups treated with 200 and 400 of the extract, respectively. Besides, a significant increase in hemoglobin from 12.05 ± 0.15 to 12.9 ± 0.52 g.dL-1 was noted in rats treated with 400 of extract. Thus, the data indicate that the root extract could be considered a natural source for the treatment of anaemia.

2022 ◽  
Laurent Voufack Lefack Bongmo ◽  
Gervais Mouthé Happi ◽  
George Bellier Tabekoueng ◽  
Mehreen Lateef ◽  
Alain François Kamdem Waffo ◽  

Thirteen compounds (<b>1</b>‒<b>13</b>) were isolated and identified during phytochemical analysis of the leaves and stem bark of <i>Guibourtia ehie</i> (A. Chev) J. Leonard. Spectroscopic and spectrometric methods and the comparison of their results with those given in the literature were used to ascertain their structures. Furthermore, the acetylation of 3,3′-di-<i>O</i>-methylellagic acid 4′-<i>O</i>-β-D-xylopyranoside (<b>2</b>) afforded a new derivative 3,3′-di-<i>O</i>-methylellagic acid 4′-<i>O</i>-β-D-(4,2′′,4′′-triacetyl)-xylopyranoside (<b>2a</b>). Extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were assessed for their antioxidant, urease, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Compound <b>1</b> demonstrated potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 36.4 ± 0.2 µM, while rhaponticin (<b>3</b>), 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (<b>4</b>), and taraxerol (<b>6</b>) exhibited a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC<sub>50</sub> values of 35.5 ± 0.1, 25.5 ± 0.2 and 43.4 ± 0.3 µM, respectively. The present study enriches the chemistry of <i>Guiboutia ehie</i> and provides further evidence on its bioactive constituents, which might help in the development of hypoglycaemic drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 1934578X2110730
Ho-Sung Lee ◽  
In-Hee Lee ◽  
Kyungrae Kang ◽  
Sang-In Park ◽  
Minho Jung ◽  

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common and deadly malignant tumors worldwide. While the application of herbal drugs for GC treatment is increasing, the multicompound–multitarget pharmacological mechanisms involved are yet to be elucidated. By adopting a network pharmacology strategy, we investigated the properties of the anticancer herbal drug FDY003 against GC. We found that FDY003 reduced the viability of human GC cells and enhanced their chemosensitivity. We also identified 8 active phytochemical compounds in FDY003 that target 70 GC-associated genes and proteins. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested that the targets of FDY003 are involved in various cellular processes, such as cellular proliferation, survival, and death. We further identified various major FDY003 target GC-associated pathways, including PIK3-Akt, MAPK, Ras, HIF-1, ErbB, and p53 pathways. Taken together, the overall analysis presents insight at the systems level into the pharmacological activity of FDY003 against GC.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Saad Ali Alshehri ◽  
Shadma Wahab ◽  
Shahabe Saquib Abullais ◽  
Gotam Das ◽  
Umme Hani ◽  

Tamarix aphylla is a well-known species of the genus Tamarix. T. aphylla (Tamaricaceae) is a perennial tree in Asia, the Middle East, and Central Africa. It is used as a carminative diuretic in tuberculosis, leprosy, and hepatitis. Various pharmacological properties have been shown by T. aphylla, such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anticholinesterase, and wound-healing activity. However, T. aphylla has not received much attention for its secondary metabolites and bioactive constituents. Research has shown that this plant has hidden potential that needs to be explored. This review aims to cover botanical classification, geographical distribution, taxonomy, ethnobotanical uses, and the phytochemical compounds found in T. aphylla. The toxicology and pharmacological effects of T. aphylla are also discussed. We examined various scholarly resources to gather information on T. aphylla, including Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, Springer Link, PubMed, and Web of Science. The finding of this work validates a connection between T. aphylla in conventional medicine and its antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antifungal, anticholinesterase, and other biological effects. T. aphylla’s entire plant (such as bark, leaves, fruits) and root extracts have been used to treat hypertension, stomach discomfort, hair loss, cough and asthma, abscesses, wounds, rheumatism, jaundice, fever, tuberculosis, and gum and tooth infection. The phytochemical screening revealed that noticeably all extracts were devoid of alkaloids, followed by the presence of tannins. In addition, different parts have revealed the existence of steroids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, and byproducts of gallic acid and ellagic acid. T. aphylla has shown many valuable activities against different diseases and supports its traditional uses. Therefore, high-quality preclinical research and well-designated clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of this plant in humans.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
I Nyoman Wirata ◽  
A.A. Gede Agung ◽  
Ni Wayan Arini ◽  
Ni Ketut Nuratni

Various herbs are used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, expectorant, anti-plaque and odorant. Sentul is an edible fruit and is also used in traditional medicinal herbs which can treat diarrhea, relieve fever, and as an anthelmintic. Sentul bark methanol extract can inhibit the growth of fungus Candida albican by 39.65%. In addition, the ethyl acetate extract of the sentul leaves also has anti-bacterial activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of fractionation with different types of solvents on the phytochemical compounds of Sentul fruit peel in Bali province. This research is an experimental study in a laboratory with qualitative and quantitative analysis models of chemical compounds. This research was carried out from March to August 2021. The research location was carried out in the laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology, Udayana University. Sample criteria was old Sentul peel, about 30 kilograms. Data was collected based on the results of examinations from the Laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology, Udayana University which subsequently analyzed qualitatively and descriptively. From several phytochemical compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins are aromatic hydroxyl groups that act as antibacterial. Therefore, seen from the highest levels of flavonoids, saponins and tannins, aqua fraction of Sentul ethanol extract is the best treatment with flavanoid levels of 11476.16 mg/100g QE, tannins 88.605 mg/g and saponins 6.862 mg/g.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 137-144
Putu Era Sandhi Kusuma Yuda ◽  
Ni Putu Dewanty Suwirtawati ◽  
Ni Luh Kade Arman Anita Dewi

Background: Chronic inflammation of the joints that occur in the condition of gout or osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis often causes repeated inflammation which requires patients to take a long-term pain medication, leading to serious side effects. Alternative treatment especially from herbal ingredients in a topical form is needed. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves extract of Drymoglossum piloselloides (L) Presl. in mice to prove their potential as an anti-inflammatory agent. Methods: Mice were divided into four groups (n=7), namely positive control (sodium diclofenac emulgel), negative control (placebo), P1 (emulgel extract 2.5%), and P2 (emulgel extract 5%). The anti-inflammatory activity test was carried out on mice with carrageenan-induced paw edema by measuring the relative changes in the volume of inflammation at 0 and 3 hours after treatment. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with a confidence level of 95%. Results: The emulgel contained flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, tannins, and quinones. The anti-inflammatory test showed a significant inhibition of inflammation (p <0.05) at concentrations of 2.5% and 5%. This anti-inflammatory activity could be influenced by the phytochemical compounds contained in the emulgel. Conclusion:Drymoglossum piloselloides (L) Presl. emulgel at concentrations of 2.5% and 5% had an anti-inflammatory activity on mice with carrageenan-induced paw edema. Keywords: inflammation, Drymoglossum piloselloides (L) Presl., emulgel

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Marina Cano-Lamadrid ◽  
Francisco Artés-Hernández

The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about non-thermal technologies applied in fruit and vegetables (F&V) by-products to enhance their phytochemicals and to obtain pectin. Moreover, the potential use of such compounds for food supplementation will also be of particular interest as a relevant and sustainable strategy to increase functional properties. The thermal instability of bioactive compounds, which induces a reduction of the content, has led to research and development during recent decades of non-thermal innovative technologies to preserve such nutraceuticals. Therefore, ultrasounds, light stresses, enzyme assisted treatment, fermentation, electro-technologies and high pressure, among others, have been developed and improved. Scientific evidence of F&V by-products application in food, pharmacologic and cosmetic products, and packaging materials were also found. Among food applications, it could be mentioned as enriched minimally processed fruits, beverages and purees fortification, healthier and “clean label” bakery and confectionary products, intelligent food packaging, and edible coatings. Future investigations should be focused on the optimization of ‘green’ non-thermal and sustainable-technologies on the F&V by-products’ key compounds for the full-utilization of raw material in the food industry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12104
Adela Cristina Martinez Urango ◽  
Monique Martins Strieder ◽  
Eric Keven Silva ◽  
Maria Angela A. Meireles

This study aimed to examine the impact of the combination of acoustic energy at the nominal powers of 100, 200, 300, and 400 W with moderate heat processing at 40, 50, and 60 °C on the extraction of phytochemical compounds from Foeniculum vulgare. Thermosonication processing, based on high-intensity ultrasound combined with an external heat source, can potentialize the extraction of soluble solids from plant material. However, the excessive temperature increase generated by the two energy sources during thermosonication treatment may degrade the thermolabile bioactive compounds. Regardless of the temperature condition, fennel extracts obtained at 400 W presented lower total phenolic content (TPC) than those obtained at 300 W. The cavitation heat and mechanical stress provided at 400 W may have degraded the phenolic compounds. Thereby, the best extraction condition was 300 W and 60 °C. The fennel extract presented the highest content of TPC (3670 ± 67 µg GAE/g) and antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS methods (1195 ± 16 µg TE/g and 2543.12 ± 0.00 µg TE/g, respectively) using this treatment. Thermosonication can be an innovative technique for extracting phytochemicals because it provides good results in shorter processing times, with 73% and 88% less energy consumption than Percolation and Soxhlet techniques, respectively.

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