Milk Fermentation
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Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 215
Author(s):  
Jessica Lizbeth Sebastián-Nicolas ◽  
Elizabeth Contreras-López ◽  
Juan Ramírez-Godínez ◽  
Alma Elizabeth Cruz-Guerrero ◽  
Gabriela Mariana Rodríguez-Serrano ◽  
...  

Health benefits of probiotics and production of inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) released during milk fermentation are well known. That is why in this investigation the proteolytic profile and ACE inhibitory capacity of peptide fractions from protein hydrolysis of milk during fermentation processes was analyzed. Milk fermentation was carried out inoculating 106 CFU of L. rhamnosus GG, S. thermophilus SY-102 and with both bacteria. The proteolytic profile was determined using: TNBS, SDS-PAGE and SEC-HPLC techniques. In vitro ACE inhibition capacity was measured. The pH of 4.5 was reached at 56 h when the milk was fermented with L. rhamnosus, at 12 h with S. thermophillus and at 41 h in the co-culture. Production of free amino groups corresponded with the profile of low molecular weight peptides observed by SDS-PAGE and SEC-HPLC. Co-culture fermentation showed both the highest concentration of low molecular weight peptides and the ACE inhibitory activity (>80%). Results indicated that the combination of lactic cultures could be useful in manufacture of fermented milk with an added value that goes beyond basic nutrition, such as the production of ACE-inhibitory peptides.


Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 210
Author(s):  
María Isabel Chávez de la Vega ◽  
Sergio Alatorre-Santamaría ◽  
Lorena Gómez-Ruiz ◽  
Mariano García-Garibay ◽  
Francisco Guzmán-Rodríguez ◽  
...  

β-glucans come from cereals that have been located within compounds with prebiotic activity. They have presented several bioactivities that have determined their high functional value. The aim of this study was to identify the influence of oat β-glucan on the survival and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in a milk fermentation through an experimental design to optimize the process. For β-glucan extraction after dry milling of oats, two methods were applied: with and without enzymatic inactivation of the semolina. The highest extraction yield (45.25 g/L) was obtained with enzymatic inactivation. For the optimization of survival and proteolytic activity, a central design composed of axial points with two factors on three levels was used. Control factors were β-glucan and inoculum concentrations. According to response surface, the best survival growth rate of probiotic was observed with 4.38% of inoculum and 22.46 g/L of β-glucan, and the highest production of free amino groups was observed with 4.18% of inoculum and 22.71 g/L of β-glucan. Thus, β-glucan promotes the proteolytic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in milk fermentation.


Author(s):  
Tchamba Mbiada Mervie Noël ◽  
Bouba Adji Mohammadou ◽  
Nodem Shanang Francky Steve ◽  
Léopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu ◽  
Mbarga Manga Joseph Arsene ◽  
...  

Background and Aim: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became a field of interest by scientists in recent years due to their technological and probiotic properties. The aim of this work was to study the technological and probiotic properties of LAB isolated from the bottle gourds (calabashes)of milk fermentation, in Mbéré, Cameroun. Methods: Five different bottle gourds from milk fermentation were collected and used for LAB isolation. These LABs were characterized using conventional cultural method, the technological (such as proteolytic, lipolytic activities) and probiotic properties (including acid and bile salt tolerance, cholesterol assimilation and antioxidant activities) were assessed. Results: From these samples, 30 LABs were isolated and among them, 21 exhibited great lipolytic and proteolytic activities with the maximum values of 18 and 29 mm respectively. In addition, 10 LAB isolates showed interesting antimicrobial activity against pathogens germs tested and good tolerance ability under acid and bile salt stress after 24h of incubation. Cholesterol assimilation and antioxidant tests revealed that isolated BC4 and BC3 have the greatest activity (35 and 39 mm respectively) while, BC4 and BL4 have the greatest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0,15 and 0,13 respectively). Conclusion: LAB isolated from the bottle gourds (calabashes) of milk fermentation, in Mbéré, Cameroon can be used to develop dairy industry and manage the cardiovascular diseases.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1809
Author(s):  
Jožef Ritonja ◽  
Andreja Goršek ◽  
Darja Pečar ◽  
Tatjana Petek ◽  
Boštjan Polajžer

Knowledge of the mathematical models of the fermentation processes is indispensable for their simulation and optimization and for the design and synthesis of the applicable control systems. The paper focuses on determining a dynamic mathematical model of the milk fermentation process taking place in a batch bioreactor. Models in the literature describe milk fermentation in batch bioreactors as an autonomous system. They do not enable the analysis of the effect of temperature changes on the metabolism during fermentation. In the presented extensive multidisciplinary study, we have developed a new mathematical model that considers the impact of temperature changes on the dynamics of the CO2 produced during fermentation in the batch bioreactor. Based on laboratory tests and theoretical analysis, the appropriate structure of the temperature-considered dynamic model was first determined. Next, the model parameters of the fermentation process in the laboratory bioreactor were identified by means of particle swarm optimization. Finally, the experiments with the laboratory batch bioreactor were compared with the simulations to verify the derived mathematical model. The developed model proved to be very suitable for simulations, and, above all, it enables the design and synthesis of a control system for batch bioreactors.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 1582
Author(s):  
Mohsen Ramezani ◽  
Giovanna Ferrentino ◽  
Ksenia Morozova ◽  
Matteo Scampicchio

The present paper investigates the use of multiple light scattering for the monitoring of milk fermentation. The experiments were performed on milk fermented with different starter concentrations (0.05% to 4.5% (w/w) at temperatures from 36 to 44 °C and in the presence of antibiotics at concentrations up to 100 µg/kg. The fermentation was monitored continuously by using a multiple light scattering technique and simultaneously by a pH meter, a rheometer and a texture analyzer. The backscattering signal recorded by multiple light scattering measurements was correlated with the changes in pH, rheological parameters and firmness of the samples along the fermentation. A gelation time of 120 min was obtained when the highest concentration of starter (4.5%, w/w) and incubation temperature of 44 °C were used. These results were confirmed by the pH, rheological and texture monitoring. The analysis of backscattering spectra allowed the detection of the effect of antibiotic on the gel formation even at low concentrations (1.3 µg/kg). Overall, the results highlighted the advantages of using a multiple light scattering technique as quality control tool for online monitoring of milk fermentation.


2021 ◽  
pp. 105137
Author(s):  
Joanna Teichert ◽  
Dorota Cais-Sokolińska ◽  
Paulina Bielska ◽  
Romualda Danków ◽  
Sylwia Chudy ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Muzi Tangyu ◽  
Michel Fritz ◽  
Rosa Aragao-Börner ◽  
Lijuan Ye ◽  
Biljana Bogicevic ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Plant-based milk alternatives are more popular than ever, and chickpea-based milks are among the most commercially relevant products. Unfortunately, limited nutritional value because of low levels of the essential amino acid l-lysine, low digestibility and unpleasant taste are challenges that must be addressed to improve product quality and meet consumer expectations. Results Using in-silico screening and food safety classifications, 31 strains were selected as potential l-lysine producers from approximately 2,500 potential candidates. Beneficially, 30% of the isolates significantly accumulated amino acids (up to 1.4 mM) during chickpea milk fermentation, increasing the natural level by up to 43%. The best-performing strains, B. amyloliquefaciens NCC 156 and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NCC 2511, were tested further. De novo lysine biosynthesis was demonstrated in both strains by 13C metabolic pathway analysis. Spiking small amounts of citrate into the fermentation significantly activated l-lysine biosynthesis in NCC 156 and stimulated growth. Both microbes revealed additional benefits in eliminating indigestible sugars such as stachyose and raffinose and converting off-flavour aldehydes into the corresponding alcohols and acids with fruity and sweet notes. Conclusions B. amyloliquefaciens NCC 156 and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NCC 2511 emerged as multi-benefit microbes for chickpea milk fermentation with strong potential for industrial processing of the plant material. Given the high number of l-lysine-producing isolates identified in silico, this concept appears promising to support strain selection for food fermentation.


2021 ◽  
pp. 130042
Author(s):  
Shaofeng Yuan ◽  
Fangwei Yang ◽  
Hang Yu ◽  
Yunfei Xie ◽  
Yahui Guo ◽  
...  

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 65
Author(s):  
Armin Tarrah ◽  
Shadi Pakroo ◽  
Viviana Corich ◽  
Alessio Giacomini

The existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food products, particularly those carrying acquired resistance genes, has increased concerns about the transmission of these genes from beneficial microbes to human pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibiotic resistance-susceptibility patterns of 16 antibiotics in eight S. thermophilus strains, whose genome sequence is available, using phenotypic and genomic approaches. The minimal inhibitory concentration values collected revealed intermediate resistance to aminoglycosides, whereas susceptibility was detected for different classes of β-lactams, quinolones, glycopeptide, macrolides, and sulfonamides in all strains. A high tetracycline resistance level has been detected in strain M17PTZA496, whose genome analysis indicated the presence of the tet(S) gene and the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family efflux pump. Moreover, an in-depth genomic analysis revealed genomic islands and an integrative and mobilizable element (IME) in the proximity of the gene tet(S). However, despite the presence of a prophage, genomic islands, and IME, no horizontal gene transfer was detected to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM 20355 and Lactobacillusrhamnosus GG during 24 h of skim milk fermentation, 2 weeks of refrigerated storage, and 4 h of simulated gastrointestinal transit.


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