Light Treatment
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2022 ◽  
Shuxun Yu ◽  
XIAO li ◽  
Yuanlong Wu ◽  
Zhenping Liu ◽  
Zhonghua Li ◽  

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a special category of tissue with pluripotency that forms new organs and individuals, especially floral individuals. However, little is known about the fate of cotton SAMs as a tunica corpus structure. Here, we demonstrate that cotton SAM fate decisions depend on light signals and circadian rhythms, and the genes GhFKF1, GhGI, GhCRY1 and GhCO were responsible for SAM fate decisions and highlighted via RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of different cotton cultivars, as confirmed by genetic analysis via the CRISPR-Cas9 system. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that the GhCO gene, induced by a relatively high blue light proportion, was highly upregulated during the initiation of floral meristems (FMs). Further blue light treatment analysis showed that the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth of SAM was promoted by a high proportion of blue light, coupled with high expression of the blue light-responsive genes GhCO and GhCRY1. Taken together, our study suggests that blue light signalling plays a key role in the fate decision of cotton SAM. These results provide a strategy to regulate the SAM differentiation of cotton by using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to change the ratio of red and blue light absorption to breed early-maturity cotton.

2022 ◽  
Xiao Xiao ◽  
Linxuan He ◽  
Xiaomei Zhang ◽  
Yu Jin ◽  
Jinsong Chen

Abstract Transgenerational plasticity allows offsprings to be more adaptive in the environmental conditions experienced by their parents. It is suggested that differential effects of transgenerational plasticity on growth performance of offspring ramets may help to understand successful invasion of invasive plant with clonal growth comparing with its congeneric native one. A pot experiment using invasive herb Wedelia trilobata and its congeneric native species Wedelia chinensis was conducted to investigate differential effects of high/low light treatment experienced by mother ramets on morphological and photosynthetic properties of offspring ramets subjected to stressful low light treatment. For W. chinensis, stolon length and maximum carboxylation rate (Vmax) in offspring ramets from mother ramets subjected to low light treatment were significantly greater than those in offspring ramets from mother ramets subjected to high light treatment. For W. trilobata, leaf area and potential maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax) in offspring ramets from mother ramets subjected to low light treatment were significantly greater than those in offspring ramets from mother ramets subjected to high light treatment. We tentatively concluded that effects of transgenerational plasticity on morphological and photosynthetic properties among clonal plants could be species-specific. In addition, more favorable effect of transgenerational plasticity on growth performance was observed in the invasive plant than in its congeneric native species. It is suggested that transgenerational plasticity may be very important for successful invasion of invasive plant with clonal growth, especially in maternal environmental conditions. So, our experiment provides new insight into invasive mechanism of invasive plants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Tianyu Ji ◽  
Xiao Liu ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Kulihong Sairebieli ◽  

Seedlings in regenerating layer are frequently attacked by herbivorous insects, while the combined effects of defoliation and shading are not fully understood. In the present study, two Leguminosae species (Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa) were selected to study their responses to combined light and defoliation treatments. In a greenhouse experiment, light treatments (L+, 88% vs L−, 8% full sunlight) and defoliation treatments (CK, without defoliation vs DE, defoliation 50% of the upper crown) were applied at the same time. The seedlings’ physiological and growth traits were determined at 1, 10, 30, and 70 days after the combined treatment. Our results showed that the effects of defoliation on growth and carbon allocation under high light treatments in both species were mainly concentrated in the early stage (days 1–10). R. pseudoacacia can achieve growth recovery within 10 days after defoliation, while A. fruticosa needs 30 days. Seedlings increased SLA and total chlorophyll concentration to improve light capture efficiency under low light treatments in both species, at the expense of reduced leaf thickness and leaf lignin concentration. The negative effects of defoliation treatment on plant growth and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) concentration in low light treatment were significantly higher than that in high light treatment after recovery for 70 days in R. pseudoacacia, suggesting sufficient production of carbohydrate would be crucial for seedling growth after defoliation. Plant growth was more sensitive to defoliation and low light stress than photosynthesis, resulting in NSCs accumulating during the early period of treatment. These results illustrated that although seedlings could adjust their resource allocation strategy and carbon dynamics in response to combined defoliation and light treatments, individuals grown in low light conditions will be more suppressed by defoliation. Our results indicate that we should pay more attention to understory seedlings’ regeneration under the pressure of herbivorous insects.

Henock Woldemichael Woldemariam ◽  
Hanna Harmeling ◽  
Shimelis Admassu Emire ◽  
Paulos Getachew Teshome ◽  
Stefan Toepfl ◽  

2021 ◽  
Jin-Zheng Wang ◽  
Wilhelmina van de Ven ◽  
Yanmei Xiao ◽  
Xiang He ◽  
Haiyan Ke ◽  

Reconfiguration of the plastidial proteome in response to environmental inputs is central to readjustment of its metabolic and structural states. This is necessary for the functionality of this metabolic hub, and the maintenance of organismal integrity. This report establishes the role of the plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite, MEcPP, in increasing the abundance of the putative plastidial metalloprotease (VIR3), and the ensuing decline of VIR3 target enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and glyceraldehyde 3-phophate dehydrogenase B. The decreased abundance of these enzymes is linked to increased levels of their substrates: H2O2, an elicitor of salicylic acid production and stromule formation; and G3P the substrate for MEcPP synthesis. High-light treatment of wild type plants recapitulated the VIR3-associated reconfiguration of the plastidial metabolic and structural states. These results identify a previously unrecognized link between the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite and a putative zinc-binding metalloprotease. Moreover, the data reveal that the reciprocity between these two components, results in the reconfiguration of the metabolic and structural states of the plastid, deemed necessary to maintain cellular integrity and to shape adaptive responses.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260968
Hannah J. Nonarath ◽  
Alexandria E. Hall ◽  
Gopika SenthilKumar ◽  
Betsy Abroe ◽  
Janis T. Eells ◽  

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is associated with oxidative stress, nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activation, and excess production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Muller glial cells, spanning the entirety of the retina, are involved in DR inflammation. Mitigation of DR pathology currently occurs via invasive, frequently ineffective therapies which can cause adverse effects. The application of far-red to near-infrared (NIR) light (630-1000nm) reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we hypothesize that 670nm light treatment will diminish oxidative stress preventing downstream inflammatory mechanisms associated with DR initiated by Muller cells. In this study, we used an in vitro model system of rat Müller glial cells grown under normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions and treated with a 670 nm light emitting diode array (LED) (4.5 J/cm2) or no light (sham) daily. We report that a single 670 nm light treatment diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and preserved mitochondrial integrity in this in vitro model of early DR. Furthermore, treatment for 3 days in culture reduced NFκB activity to levels observed in normal glucose and prevented the subsequent increase in ICAM-1. The ability of 670nm light treatment to prevent early molecular changes in this in vitro high glucose model system suggests light treatment could mitigate early deleterious effects modulating inflammatory signaling and diminishing oxidative stress.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2591
Mohammad K. Okla ◽  
Mohamed Abdel-Mawgoud ◽  
Saud A. Alamri ◽  
Zahid Khorshid Abbas ◽  
Wahidah H. Al-Qahtani ◽  

Compared to seeds and mature tissues, sprouts are well known for their higher nutritive and biological values. Fruits of Pimpinella anisum (anise) are extensively consumed as food additives; however, the sprouting-induced changes in their nutritious metabolites are hardly studied. Herein, we investigated the bioactive metabolites, phytochemicals, and antioxidant properties of fruits, sprouts (9-day-old), and mature tissue (5-week-old) of anise under laser irradiation treatment (He-Ne laser, 632 nm). Laser treatment increased biomass accumulation of both anise sprouts and mature plants. Bioactive primary (e.g., proteins and sugars) and secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolic compounds), as well as mineral levels, were significantly enhanced by sprouting and/or laser light treatment. Meanwhile, laser light has improved the levels of essential oils and their related precursors (e.g., phenylalanine), as well as enzyme activities [e.g., O–methyltransferase and 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS)] in mature tissues. Moreover, laser light induced higher levels of antioxidant and anti-lipidemic activities in sprouts as compared to fruits and mature tissues. Particularly at the sprouting stage, anise was more responsive to laser light treatment than mature plants.

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