main study
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2022 ◽  

The four problems that become the main study in this study. First, how to plan early child’s character development through habituation and exemplary in the Kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. Second, how to organize the development of early child’s character through habituation and exemplary in the kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. Third, how the implementation of early child’s character development through habituation and exemplary in the kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. Fourth, how to evaluate the character development of the early child through habituation and examplary in the kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. It is a qualitative descriptive study where the data collected through field observation, interviews, and documentation. The results showed that developing an early child’s character should be well managed. Instilling good habituation for the children and becoming an excellent example of the teachers proved successful in early child’s character development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
Asri Silvana Naiu ◽  
Nikmawatisusanti Yusuf ◽  
Yusnina Hudongi

This study aimed to analyze changes in the number of molds and the level of panelist acceptance of K. alvarezii jelly candy packaged using gelatin-CMC edible film during storage. The method used in this study is a laboratory experimental method which consists of two stages, namely preliminary research which aims to determine the best edible film formula to be used as jelly candy packaging and the main research to analyze changes in the number of molds and the level of acceptance of appearance, taste, aroma and texture of jelly candy that has been packaged using a gelatin-CMC edible film during storage. Storage for 60 days was converted to 15 days in a climatic chamber with a temperature of 40 ℃ and a humidity of 75%. Sampling was carried out every 3 days. The research design used linear regression to see the relationship between storage time and test parameters. The results of the preliminary study showed the best formula for edible film, namely 1% gelatin, 0.3% bees wax, 0.75% CMC, and 0.3% glycerol which resulted in a water vapor transmission rate of 18.60 g/m2/24 hours. The results of the main study showed that storage time had a moderate effect on mold. Mold was detected on the last day of observation, storage time had a very strong effect on the level of acceptance which decreased with storage time. The organoleptic value of jelly candy packaged using gelatin-CMC edible film was still acceptable to the panelists until the 36th day of storage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 50-70
Rida Irfan ◽  
Ayesha Aziz

The current qualitative study aimed to explore the Mystical Experiences among religious preachers. A Purposive sampling technique was employed to select a sample of (n=10) religious preachers who had encountered at least one mystical experience. The transcendental phenomenological approach was used to capture the essence of the mystical experiences, through in-depth semi structured interview guide which was developed based on five domains namely exploration of mystic features, beliefs, impact on life, sharing of mystical experiences as well as the religious and cultural oriented explanations. Initially, a pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the semi-structured in-depth interview guide and also to finalize the road map for the main study. The main study was conducted after incorporating changes in the pilot study. The modification of Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen’s model by Maustakas (1994) was employed for data analysis followed through a series of steps such as bracketing, horizonalization of data, grouping of significant statements to constitute themes (triggers, perceptual experience, symbolism and derived meanings, significant figures, reaction, and the cultural explanation of mystical experiences), textural description (‘what’ happened during a mystical experience) and a structural description (‘how’ this experienced occurred) with verbatim examples was developed. Both these descriptions were combined to write a composite description that reflected the ‘essence’ of the mystical experiences and highlighted the causes, characteristics, perceptual experiences, beliefs, and its impact. The findings highlighted the subjective nature of the mystical experiences and the need to develop an indigenous formal criterion for the identification of such experiences.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Bisma Zahid ◽  
Saima Ehsan ◽  
Mehreen Ashraf ◽  
Nimra Shoukat ◽  
Aaisha Rafi ◽  

Purpose The active and intentional involvement of a person in changing and developing as a person is a crucial and worth considering phenomenon that comes under the umbrella of positive psychology. There has been a previous study done on personal growth initiative (PGI) but that study did not explain whether this phenomenon exceeds in men or in women. Plus, previous studies were confined to college students only. This study aims to assess how gender influences PGI, to validate the psychometric properties of the PGI scale and to evaluate the relationship of PGI with mental well-being, career orientation and to examine whether this factor dominates in men or women and to critically validate at what age an individual starts initiating personal growth. The other main objective of the study is to work on the limitations and gaps left in previous studies on PGI by establishing a psychometrically reliable and valid scale/instrument. Design/methodology/approach To develop a scale, first, focus group discussions were conducted with six groups. Through random sampling, a sample of 50 men and 50 women were taken for the pilot study and N = 449 (156 men and 293 women) for the main study with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years were taken (M = 42.30, SD = 12.61). The study consisted of focus group discussions followed by thematic analysis and item pool generation which further followed the main study analysis. For the development of the scale, a theoretical basis along with focus group discussion was conducted to establish an item pool of 123 items. Afterward, 7 experts in the surroundings examined those 123 items to perform subject expert matter to establish content validity. Mixed method was used as a research method in which exploratory sequential design was used. Focus groups were used as a data collection technique. Random sampling is used to collect participants for study/methodology/approach – the study consisted of focus group discussions followed by thematic analysis and item pool generation which further followed the main study analysis. A 19 item five-point Likert-type scale is constructed for public administration on a sample of N = 449 (men = 156 and women = 293). Alpha reliability of the scale (0.83), Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) (0.88) and Bartlett’s, psychometric properties of study variables skewness (0.47), kurtosis (−0.17). Inter item correlation matrix, item-total correlation, Scree plotting, t-test (t = −1.90) and (p = 0.05) and linear regression analysis are analyzed on the data and items. This scale is kept parsimonious so that it could be understood by the general population as well. Findings A 19 item five-point Likert-type scale is constructed for public administration on a sample of N = 449 (men = 156 and women = 293). High Alpha reliability of the scale (a = 0.83), KMO (0.88) and Bartlett’s, psychometric properties of study variables skewness (0.47), kurtosis (−0.17). Inter item correlation matrix, Scree plotting, t-test (t = −1.90) and (p = 0.05) and linear regression analysis are analyzed on the data and items. Three factors i.e. effectiveness, shaping and aptitude were formed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). KMO value of 0.88 suggests that the sample is sufficient to perform EFA. Regression analysis suggests that gender is positively predicting PGI as results are statistically. Research limitations/implications Some of the limitations of this scale on which the future researchers can work are that the sample included participants above age 18 only, so for future researchers they could include participants below this age and find out the PGI factor in them. The sample also included mostly unmarried individuals so for future applications they can find out the extent to which being married can affect the PGI factor, as compared to being unmarried. Another thing that should be mentioned is that the main objective was to find out whether PGI differs among men and women and as the results show that it does differ on the basis of gender but for future studies, the researchers could work on if there is also a difference in men and women in the three subscales (formed during EFA). Practical implications This scale is developed using a significant element of human personality called personal growth which is applicable to various categories and settings of the society to measure the aptitude and inclination toward PGI. This scale can be eligibly administered for research purposes for measuring the growth attitude as a reliable predictor in suitable combination with other expected variables like career development. Originality/value The findings suggest the instrument to be psychometrically valid and reliable and can be helpful in many domains such as industrial organizations, career counseling areas and clinical and research settings. Also, the instrument can be beneficial for future studies in identifying other possible relationships with multiple variables. The current study is an original work to assess the level of PGI in men and women as the previous studies did not include participants below 25 and also they did not assess the inclination of PGI comparably in men and women.

2021 ◽  
Steriani Elavsky ◽  
Jana Blahošová ◽  
Michaela Lebedíková ◽  
Michal Tkaczyk ◽  
Martin Tancoš ◽  

BACKGROUND Smartphone ownership has increased among teens within the last decade, with up to 89% of adolescents owning a smartphone and through it engaging daily with the online world. Although the results of recent meta-analyses suggest that engaging digital technology plays only a small role in adolescent wellbeing, parents, professionals, and policy makers remain concerned about the impact that the instant connectivity of smartphones has on adolescent wellbeing. OBJECTIVE Herein, we introduce the protocol of a research study investigating the associations between adolescent smartphone use and different facets of well-being (social, physical, psychological) that aims to apply innovative methods to address limitations of existing empirical studies. METHODS This 12-month prospective study of adolescents uses a repeated measurement-burst design with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methodology. Adolescents (N=203; age range 13-17) complete baseline assessments through online questionnaires, four 14-day intensive data collection bursts, and an online questionnaire at the end of the study. As part of the four measurement bursts, adolescent smartphone behavior is assessed objectively by passive data collection of smartphone data logs and through self-reports in short questionnaires administered via a custom-built Android app. RESULTS The protocol describes the study objectives, research tools (including the development of the Android app and specialized software) and process (including pilot studies the main study, and targets for machine learning approaches). The design of the study will allow for the assessment of both within- and between-person variability in smartphone behavior, as well as short-term variation and long-term change in smartphone behavior and how it impacts indicators of social, physical, and psychological wellbeing. Preliminary analyses of the data from the first data collection burst of the main study indicate acceptable level of compliance (72.25%) with the daily questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS The innovative methods applied in this study (objective smartphone logs, EMA, machine learning) will allow for a more nuanced assessment of the links between smartphone use and wellbeing, informing strategies to help adolescents navigate the online world more constructively in terms of the development of their physical, social and psychological wellbeing.

Elena Leonidovna Arshinskaya ◽  
Galina Stepanovna Korytova ◽  
Alena Igorevna Korytova

The paper presents the results of an empirical study on study overload in adolescent students. The theoretical and methodological grounding of the study is given. The objective relevance of the problem of study overload for the modern system of general education is shown. The nature and manifestations of study overload in the educational process were studied through cause-effect relations. Psychodiagnostic data was subjected to mathematical and statistical processing (correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis), classified, summarized, and interpreted. The results obtained in the empirical study allowed us to understand the prognosis and risks of study overload formation on psychological well-being in adolescence. The conclusion is given that study overload is caused not at the expense of the students’ main study load but as a result of attending additional types of educational classes. The results obtained concluded that one in five adolescent students have a significant, often maximum, pronounced excess of study load. Moreover, one in four students experience the presence of moderate study overload. To prevent study overload, we state that one should focus not only on the normative regulation of certain types of educational activities but also on the students’ subjective state. Recommendations of possible directions of preventive work with students on psychological prevention of study overload are outlined.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261496
Nadine Schlueter ◽  
Sarah Fiedler ◽  
Maxi Mueller ◽  
Clemens Walter ◽  
Julia C. Difloe-Geisert ◽  

Clinical studies on the efficacy of sonic toothbrushes show inconsistent results, most studies have been conducted without sufficient supervision of appropriate toothbrush usage. Aims of the explorative clinical trial were therefore to investigate whether the usage of an activated sonic toothbrush reduces plaque more effectively than an inactivated one used as a manual toothbrush, and to which extent the correct use of such toothbrush plays a role in its efficacy. The clinical trial was designed as a video-controlled interventional study. Thirty participants (mean (±SD) age 22.9 (±2.5) years) were included, areas of interest were the buccal surfaces of the upper premolars and the first molar (partial mouth recording). Toothbrushing was performed without toothpaste in a single brushing exercise under four different conditions: switched off, habitually used as manual toothbrush, no instruction; switched on, habitually used as powered toothbrush, no instruction; switched off, used as manual toothbrush, instruction in the Modified Bass Technique; switched on, used as powered toothbrush, instruction in a specific technique for sonic toothbrushes. Brushing performance was controlled by videotaping, plaque was assessed at baseline (after 4 days without toothbrushing) using the Rustogi modified Navy-Plaque-Index and planimetry. Main study results were that plaque decreased distinctly after habitual brushing regardless of using the sonic brush in ON or OFF mode (p for all comparisons < 0.001). After instruction, participants were able to use the sonic brush in ON mode as intended, with only minor impact on efficacy. Using the toothbrush in OFF mode with the Modified Bass Technique was significantly less effective than all other conditions (p for all comparisons < 0.001). Under the conditions used, the sonic toothbrush was not more effective when switched on than when switched off, and there was no evidence that the correct use of the toothbrush was more effective than the habitual use.

2021 ◽  
pp. 073428292110563
Riin Seema ◽  
Mati Heidmets ◽  
Kenn Konstabel ◽  
Ene Varik-Maasik

We present the development and validation of the Digital Addiction Scale for Teenagers (DAST), describing the pilot study ( N = 40 students) and main study ( N = 4493) with Estonian students aged 11–19, in spring 2020. Our aim was to create a scale suitable for psychoeducational assessment of teenagers’ behaviour and feelings towards digital devices. We used the mixed research framework . Half of the study sample was collected before the coronavirus crisis (Sample I: 1972 students) and the rest during a distance-learning period (Sample II: 2521 students). We found that factor structure in both subsamples were similar. The DAST shows a negative relationship with emotional school engagement and life satisfaction and positive correlations with school burnout, learning difficulties and screen time. We discuss potential uses of the scale for assessing health-related digital competences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 179-191
I Iswanto ◽  
Viktor J. Arnold ◽  
Jefri Kabnani ◽  
Triati Salau

Antropolinguistik menempatkan bahasa sebagai kajian utama dan keberadaannya dalam berbagai aspek kebahasaan. Jika dalil tersebut digunakan, lirik sebagai aspek kebahasaan bergayut dengan musikalitas nyanyian “Ille Le” ‗nyanyian tidur‘ masyarakat Melolo. Secara lebih spesifik ditetapkan masalah dalam penelitian ini yaitu bagaimana kajian antropolinguistik bentuk lingual umbu nyanyian tidur “Ille Le” pada masyarakat Melolo, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Berdasarkan kajian pustaka diperoleh research gap yaitu penelitian spesifik antropolinguitik kajian nyanyian budaya. Teori yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini ialah semiotik kognitif berdasarkan prinsip semiotik de Saussure. Metode penelitian menggunakan ancangan kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi.. Hasil penelitian 1) lirik patriarkat terlihat dalam struktur syair “Ille Le” pada kata umbu ‗anak laki-laki‘; 2) lirik ini dinyanyikan berulang dalam ambitus nada pentatonik. Nyanyian “Ille Le” menceritakan kehidupan masyarakat Melolo pada seorang bayi laki-laki „umbu‟.. Kebaruan dalam penelitian ini yaitu kajian antropolinguistik yang berkaitan dengan lirik nyanyian budaya. Bentuk lingual yang khas tidak dapat dipisahkan dari bentuk musikalnya.  Anthropolinguistics places language as the main study and its existence in various aspects of language. Anthropolinguistics in this study relates to the lyrics and musicality of the song “Ille Le” „sleep song‟ of the people of Melolo, East Nusa Tenggara. The problem in this research is how the anthropolinguistic study of patriarchal lyrics in „“Ille Le”‟ sleep songs in the Melolo community, East Sumba Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. Based on the literature review, it was obtained research gap are specific anthropolinguistic research on cultural singing studies. The song „“Ille Le”‟ can be grouped into oral literature, the linguistic aspect is influenced by a unique ethnic music style. The theory used in this research is cognitive semiotics based on de Saussure semiotics. The research method used a qualitative design with a fenomenology approach. The results of the study 1) patriarchal lyrics can be seen in the poetry structure “Ille Le” in the word umbu 'boys'; 2) these lyrics are sung over and over in ambitus pentatonic tones. The song “Ille Le” seeks the life of the Melolo community in a baby boy 'umbu'. The distinctive lingual form cannot be separated from the musical form.

2021 ◽  
pp. 096228022110605
Xinyuan Chen ◽  
Joseph Chang ◽  
Donna Spiegelman ◽  
Fan Li

The partial potential impact fraction describes the proportion of disease cases that can be prevented if the distribution of modifiable continuous exposures is shifted in a population, while other risk factors are not modified. It is a useful quantity for evaluating the burden of disease in epidemiologic and public health studies. When exposures are measured with error, the partial potential impact fraction estimates may be biased, which necessitates methods to correct for the exposure measurement error. Motivated by the health professionals follow-up study, we develop a Bayesian approach to adjust for exposure measurement error when estimating the partial potential impact fraction under the main study/internal validation study design. We adopt the reclassification approach that leverages the strength of the main study/internal validation study design and clarifies transportability assumptions for valid inference. We assess the finite-sample performance of both the point and credible interval estimators via extensive simulations and apply the proposed approach in the health professionals follow-up study to estimate the partial potential impact fraction for colorectal cancer incidence under interventions exploring shifting the distributions of red meat, alcohol, and/or folate intake.

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