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BMC Genomics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomas L. Koch ◽  
Frank Hauser ◽  
Cornelis J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen

Abstract Background The animal phylum Cnidaria consists of six classes or subphyla: Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Anthozoa, and Endocnidozoa. Cnidarians have an early evolutionary origin, diverging before the emergence of the Bilateria. Extant members from this phylum, therefore, are important resources for understanding the evolution of the nervous system. Cnidarian nervous systems are strongly peptidergic. Using genomics, we have recently shown that three neuropeptide families (the X1PRX2amides, GRFamides, and GLWamides) are wide-spread in four (Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Anthozoa) out of six cnidarian classes or subphyla, suggesting that these three neuropeptide families emerged in the common cnidarian ancestor. In the current paper, we analyze the remaining cnidarian class, Hydrozoa, and the subphylum Endocnidozoa, to make firm conclusions about the evolution of neuropeptide genes in Cnidaria. Results We analyzed sixteen hydrozoan species with a sequenced genome or transcriptome, using a recently developed software program for discovering neuropeptide genes. These species belonged to various hydrozoan subclasses and orders, among them the laboratory models Hydra, Hydractinia, and Clytia. We found that each species contained three to five neuropeptide families. A common feature for all hydrozoans was that they contained genes coding for (i) X1PRX2amide peptides, (ii) GRFamide peptides, and (iii) GLWamide peptides. These results support our previous conclusions that these three neuropeptide families evolved early in evolution. In addition to these three neuropeptide families, hydrozoans expressed up to two other neuropeptide gene families, which, however, were only occurring in certain animal groups. Endocnidozoa (Myxozoa) are microscopically small endoparasites, which are strongly reduced. For long, it was unknown to which phylum these parasites belonged, but recently they have been associated with cnidarians. We analyzed nine endocnidozoan species and found that two of them (Polypodium hydriforme and Buddenbrockia plumatellae) expressed neuropeptide genes. These genes coded for neuropeptides belonging to the GRFamide and GLWamide families with structures closely resembling them from hydrozoans. Conclusions We found X1PRX2amide, GRFamide, and GLWamide peptides in all species belonging to the Hydrozoa, confirming that these peptides originated in the common cnidarian ancestor. In addition, we discovered GRFamide and GLWamide peptide genes in some members of the Endocnidozoa, thereby linking these parasites to Hydrozoa.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stefanie L. Sprong ◽  
Jan Skopek

Education is key to the structural integration of immigrants and their children. While research indicates that migrant educational underachievement is a serious issue, relatively little is known about when, how and why migrant gaps develop. Hitherto, longitudinal research on skill gaps is scarce. The current paper adds to the literature by investigating how much of the migration-related disparities found during primary school can be attributed to inequalities that already existed before school life. To do so, it uses structural equation modelling and draws on a national longitudinal study of children in Ireland. Results indicate that migration-related disparities largely find their roots in the period before formal schooling, after which they remain relatively stable or even decrease. This implies that researchers and policymakers may want to focus their efforts on the period proceeding primary school.


Multilingua ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jessica Birnie-Smith

Abstract Variationist researchers are increasingly adopting intersectionality approaches to analyse identity-linked practice. However, the field of sociolinguistic variation is yet to embrace the full ramifications of intersectionality as an analytical framework. The current paper offers a new method for integrating intersectional approaches into variationist studies by operationalising Blommaert, Jan & Anna De Fina. 2017. Chronotopic identities: On the timespace organization of who we are. In Anna De Fina & Jeremy Wegner (eds.), Diversity and super-diversity, 1–14. Washington: Georgetown University Press chronotopic frame theory. This method is used to examine how the intersectionality of ethnic, national, and peer-group identities is structured and reproduced in different ways through Chinese Indonesian youths’ selection of multilingual variants of an agreement marker in their peer-to-peer interactions at educational institutions in Pontianak city, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The results illustrate how chronotopic frame approaches to studying identity-linked variation heed calls for integrations of intersectionality to move beyond accounting for intracategorical complexity and instead examine the dynamic mutual constitution of social categories that better represents marginalised people’s lived experiences.


Author(s):  
Rajaa Radwan Hilles Rajaa Radwan Hilles

This paper deals with the narrative order of time in Charles Dickens’s novel Great Expectations. Time is crucial in narratological structure as it establishes a logical relation for events in the narrative. Besides, a narrative develops its point of view through the voices in the narrative. This point of view is called focalization. This paper assumes that the sequence of events in Dickens’s Great Expectations does not follow a linear order and consequently, the point of focalization changes throughout the narrative. Accordingly, the current paper intends to investigate the order of narration in the novel. It intends to explore the ultimate thematic concern of the novel as well. The discussion will be in the light of Gerard Genette’s narratological structure and will be applied on Dickens’s Great Expectations. It is the 13th novel in his independent literary works. It has been published unillustrated in 36 weekly instalments in All the Year Round from 1860 through 1861. Then, it has been published in three volumes by Chapman & Hall in1861. The narrative voice has a great impact on the story’s timeline and on the readers because it is narrated in the first-person voice by the protagonist, Philip Pirrip. (Davis, 2007: P 126) The analysis is based on Genette’s theorization of time order in telling a story and communicating a broader point of view that the author intends to make throughout the whole narrative structure.


Author(s):  
Taixiang Duan ◽  
Zhonggen Sun ◽  
Guoqing Shi

Many scholars have considered the relationship between the government response to COVID-19, an important social intervention strategy, and the COVID-19 infection rate. However, few have examined the sustained impact of an early government response on the COVID-19 infection rate. The current paper fills this gap by investigating a national survey performed in February 2020 and infection data from Chinese cities surveyed 1.5 years after the outbreak of COVID-19. The results suggest that the Chinese government’s early response to COVID-19 significantly and sustainedly reduced China’s COVID-19 infection rate, and that this impact worked through risk perception, the adoption of protective action recommendations (PARs), and the chain-mediating effects of risk perception and the adoption of PARs, respectively. These findings have important practical value. In demonstrating how government response and infection rate at the macro level are connected to the behaviour of individuals at the micro level, they suggest feasible directions for curbing the spread of diseases such as COVID-19. When facing such public health emergencies, the focus should be on increasing the public’s risk perception and adoption of PARs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 24-30
Author(s):  
J. Hinc ◽  
J. Mampe ◽  
A. Jarosz

The current paper elaborates on the effects of introducing elements of personalized education in the academic tutoring programme realized at the University of Gdańsk (in short UG, Poland). It begins with an outline of the key objectives of the project called Ideal Quality in Good Quantity, which was introduced at the University of Gdansk in the years 2014–2016. The programme originally aimed at equipping academic teachers with tools suitable for implementing elements of individualized didactics. Moreover, the project assumed a practical application of the aforementioned tools in scholarly work of the tutors who realized their own tutoring sessions with students representing various fields of study (philological, pedagogical and culture studies, to mention some of them). The project’s initial conception, i.e. Ideal quality in good quantity, is continued forward in the so-called Centrum Tutorów UG as well as in the form of faculties’ internal initiatives. In the paper the reader will find a description of fragments of individualized didactic work implemented in teaching French and German as foreign languages and psychology.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Natalie Marie Saragosa-Harris ◽  
Natasha Chaku ◽  
Niamh MacSweeney ◽  
Victoria Guazzelli Williamson ◽  
Maximilian Scheuplein ◽  
...  

As the largest longitudinal study of adolescent brain development and behavior to date, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® has provided immense opportunities for researchers across disciplines since its first data release in 2018. The size and scope of the study also present a number of hurdles, which range from becoming familiar with the study design and data structure to employing rigorous and reproducible analyses. The current paper is intended as a guide for researchers and reviewers working with ABCD data, highlighting the features of the data (and the strengths and limitations therein) as well as relevant analytical and methodological considerations. Additionally, we explore justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion efforts as they pertain to the ABCD Study and other large-scale datasets. In doing so, we hope to increase both accessibility of the ABCD Study and transparency within the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 63-75
Author(s):  
Irina Stoyanova-Georgieva ◽  

The current paper is an attempt to analyse the situation on the market for specialised translation services, and more precisely for Machine Translation in Bulgaria. It provides an overview of some of the generic MT systems and analyses the results coming from the translation of two types of text. The aim of the paper is to raise awareness about the results of Neural Machine Translation and to reveal the need for MT post-editing courses.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bryant M. Stone

Fit indices provide helpful information for researchers to assess the fit of their structural equation models to their data. However, like many statistics and methods, researchers can misuse fit indices, which suggest the potential for questionable research practices that might arise during the analytic and interpretative processes. In the current paper, the author highlights two critical ethical dilemmas regarding the use of fit indices, which are (1) the selective reporting of fit indices and (2) using fit indices to justify poorly-fitting models. The author highlights the dilemmas and provides potential solutions for researchers and journals to follow to reduce these questionable research practices.


Author(s):  
A. B. Alexeyev

The current paper sums up the results of the dissertation research conducted by the author at the Moscow Region State University which was supervised by Professor Ye. A. Sorokina, Doctor of Philology. The relevance of the chosen research topic is determined by anthropocentrism of modern linguistics which manifests itself in progressive development of personology, including linguistic personology and political linguistic personology as one of the emerging scientific disciplines that is not yet fully separated from political linguistics. This article looks at some new issues of political linguistics, one of which is the notion of linguopersoneme, and suggests several types of linguistic personemes: the mythmaker, the actor, the alarmist, the gentleman (the lady), the aggressor, and the marginal. Most of these notions and terms were used in our previous articles and yet it is only now that we present a more or less holistic vision of the complex and versatile phenomenon of the language personality of a politician. In our opinion, the language personality of a politician is a variety of a creative professional language personality, to some extent comparable to the people working in such professional spheres as show business, sport, art, etc. The language personality of a politician is formed in political discourse, as follows from the sociological theories by P. Bourdieu and M. Foucault. It was found that the main characteristics of political discourse manifest themselves in the politician’s language personality in a specific way, thus forming its structure, which up to this moment was predominately described in terms of Yu. N. Karaulov’s influential theory. These are verbal-semantic, cognitive and pragmatic levels of the language personality.


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